Biology
<ul><li>ECOLOGY </li></ul>
Levels of Organization Ecosystem Community Population Individual Biome Biosphere
<ul><ul><li>A  species  is a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><ul><li>An  ecosystem  is all the organisms that live in a particular place, plus the nonliving environment. </li></ul...
3–2 Energy Flow
<ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function. </li></ul></ul...
<ul><ul><li>In a few ecosystems, some organisms obtain energy from a source other than sunlight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to...
<ul><li>Autotrophs use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple inorganic compounds into complex organic...
<ul><ul><li>Because they make their own food,  autotrophs are  producers . </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Energy From the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best-known autotrophs harness solar energy through a pr...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is responsible for adding oxygen to—and removing carbon dioxide from—Earth's atmosphere. </...
<ul><li>Plants are the main autotrophs on land. </li></ul><ul><li>Algae are the main autotrophs in water. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>Life Without Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some autotrophs can produce food in the absence of light.   ...
 
<ul><li>Chemosynthesis is performed by several types of bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>These bacteria represent a large propo...
<ul><li>Some chemosynthetic bacteria live in very remote places on Earth, such as volcanic vents on the deep-ocean floor a...
<ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many organisms cannot harness energy directly from the physical environment.  ...
<ul><li>There are many different types of heterotrophs.   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores  eat plants.  </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Feeding Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The relationships between producers and consumers connect organism...
<ul><ul><li>Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (produce...
<ul><ul><ul><li>A  food chain  is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.   </li><...
<ul><li>In some marine food chains, the producers are microscopic algae and the top carnivore is four steps removed from t...
<ul><ul><ul><li>A network of complex feeding relationships is called a  food web . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A f...
<ul><li>This food web shows some of the feeding relationships in a salt-marsh community. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each step in a food chain or food web is called a  trophic level...
<ul><li>Ecological Pyramids </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of energy or matter in an ecosystem can be represented by...
<ul><ul><li>Ecologists recognize three different types of ecological pyramids: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy pyram...
0.1% Third-level  consumers 1% Second-level consumers 10% First-level consumers 100% Producers <ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid:...
<ul><ul><li>The more levels that exist between a producer and a top-level consumer in an ecosystem, the less energy that r...
<ul><ul><li>Biomass Pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level ...
Ecological Pyramids 50 grams of human tissue 500 grams of chicken 5000 grams of grass Biomass Pyramid:  Represents the amo...
<ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A pyramid of numbers shows the relative number of individual...
Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Numbers: Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
<ul><ul><li>For some ecosystems, the shape of the pyramid of numbers is the same as that of the energy and biomass pyramid...
3–3 Cycles of Matter
<ul><li>Recycling in the Biosphere  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently.  ...
<ul><li>Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part ...
<ul><li>The Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All living things require water to survive. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.  </li></ul></ul></ul>Active art
<ul><li>Water molecules enter the atmosphere as water vapor, a gas, when they evaporate from the ocean or other bodies of ...
<ul><li>Water will also evaporate from the leaves of plants in the process of  transpiration . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Water vapor condenses into tiny droplets that form clouds. </li></ul><ul><li>The water returns to Earth’s surface ...
<ul><li>Nutrient Cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its  ...
<ul><li>Primary producers, such as plants, usually obtain nutrients in simple inorganic forms from their environment. </li...
<ul><ul><li>The Carbon Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. </li></ul></ul></...
<ul><li>Biogeochemical processes, such as the burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressu...
Nutrient Cycles CO 2  in Atmosphere Photosynthesis feeding feeding Respiration Deposition Carbonate Rocks Deposition Decom...
<ul><ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites.  </li></ul><ul><li>Once these products are ...
Nutrient Cycles Bacterial  nitrogen fixation N 2  in Atmosphere NH 3 Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer Uptake by producers...
<ul><li>When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia.   </li></ul><ul><li>The ammonia may be tak...
<ul><li>Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called  denitrification.   </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><ul><li>The Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps form...
<ul><li>Phosphate, eventually enters the ocean, where it is used by marine organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Some phosphate sta...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Nutrient Limitation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organi...
<ul><li>If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth.   </li></ul><ul><li>When an ecosystem is lim...
<ul><li>When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fie...
5-1 How Populations Grow
<ul><ul><li>Three important characteristics of a population are its: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geographic distributio...
<ul><li>Geographic distribution, or range, describes the area inhabited by a population. </li></ul><ul><li>Population dens...
<ul><ul><li>Factors that affect population size: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the number of births </li></ul></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Immigration  is the movement of individuals into an area , which can cause a population to grow. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Emigration  is the movement of individuals out of an area , which can cause a population to decrease in size.  </l...
<ul><ul><li>Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow  exponentially . </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Exponential growth  occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Logistic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In nature, exponential growth does not continue in a population for very...
<ul><ul><li>As resources become less available, the growth of a population slows or stops.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lo...
<ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The largest number of individuals of a population that a give...
5-2 Limits to Growth
<ul><li>Limiting Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The primary productivity of an ecosystem can be reduced when there is a...
<ul><li>A limiting nutrient is an example of a more general ecological concept: a limiting factor.  </li></ul><ul><li>In t...
<ul><ul><ul><li>A limiting factor that depends on population size is called a  density-dependent limiting factor .   </li>...
<ul><ul><li>Density-dependent limiting factors include:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Density-dependent factors operate only when the population density reaches a certain level.  </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When populations become crowded, organisms compete for food, water ...
<ul><li>Competition can also occur between members of different species. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of competition can le...
<ul><ul><ul><li>The regulation of a population by predation takes place within a predator-prey relationship,  one of the b...
Wolf and Moose Populations on Isle Royale Moose  Wolves
<ul><ul><li>Parasitism and Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites can limit the growth of a population. </li></u...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Density-independent limiting factors  affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population...
<ul><ul><li>Examples of density-independent limiting factors include:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unusual weather </l...
5-3 Human Population Growth
<ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the populations of many other living organisms, the size of the hum...
<ul><li>About 500 years ago, the human population began growing more rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Life was made easier and s...
<ul><li>With these advances, the human population experienced exponential growth. </li></ul>Human Population Growth
<ul><li>Patterns of Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific study of human populations is called demogr...
<ul><ul><li>Birthrates, death rates, and the age structure of a population help predict why some countries have high growt...
<ul><ul><li>The Demographic Transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over the past century, population growth in the Unit...
<ul><li>The demographic transition has three stages. </li></ul><ul><li>In stage 1, there are high death rates and high bir...
<ul><li>The demographic transition is complete when the birthrate falls to meet the death rate, and population growth stop...
<ul><ul><li>Age Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth depends, in part, on how many people of differe...
Patterns of Population Growth <ul><li>In the United States, there are nearly equal numbers of people in each age group.  <...
<ul><li>In Rwanda, there are many more young children than teenagers, and many more teenagers than adults.  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Future Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To predict human population growth, demographers must consider ...
Future Population Growth
<ul><li>Ecologists suggest that if growth does not slow down, there could be serious damage to the environment and global ...
3–2 <ul><ul><li>The main source of energy for life on Earth is  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organic chemical compounds....
3–2 <ul><ul><li>Organisms that feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter are  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
3–2 <ul><ul><li>How does a food web differ from a food chain? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A food web contains a single ...
3–2 <ul><ul><li>In a biomass pyramid, the base of the pyramid represents the mass of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hetero...
3–2 <ul><ul><li>The amount of energy represented in each trophic level of consumers in an energy pyramid is about </li></u...
3–3 <ul><ul><li>Transpiration is part of the  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
3–3 <ul><ul><li>Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates. </li></ul>...
3–3 <ul><ul><li>Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
3–3 <ul><ul><li>The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nit...
3–3 <ul><ul><li>When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is  </li></ul></ul><ul...
5-1 <ul><ul><li>Population density is the number of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that are born each year. </li><...
5-1 <ul><ul><li>When the birthrate of a population exceeds its death rate, the population  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
5-1 <ul><ul><li>An S-shaped curve on a graph of population growth is characteristic of  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exp...
5-1 <ul><ul><li>Exponential growth in a population slows down or stops as  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resources become...
5-1 <ul><ul><li>Exponential growth rate means that each new generation of a population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adds...
5-2 <ul><ul><li>A limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways regardless of their size might be  </li></u...
5-2 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following would be a limiting factor affecting the panda population of China? </li></ul></ul>...
5-2 <ul><ul><li>Density-dependent factors operate most strongly when a population is  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large...
5-2 <ul><ul><li>Within a limited area, if the population of a predator increases, the population of its prey is likely to ...
5-2 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following is a density-independent factor affecting populations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
5-3 <ul><ul><li>The size of the human population began to increase exponentially after the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
5-3 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following is NOT a potential limiting factor of human population growth?  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
5-3 <ul><ul><li>After the demographic transition is complete, a population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grows rapidly. <...
5-3 <ul><ul><li>An age-structure diagram shows a breakdown of a population by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>location and ...
5-3 <ul><ul><li>Since the mid-1960s, the average annual growth rate of the human population has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
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Chapter 3 & 5 Lecture- Ecology & Population Growth

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Chapters 3 & 5 Lecture for Lab Biology on Ecology and Population Growth

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  • Photo Credit: ©Bruce Coleman, LTD/Natural Selection
  • Chapter 3 & 5 Lecture- Ecology & Population Growth

    1. 1. Biology
    2. 2. <ul><li>ECOLOGY </li></ul>
    3. 3. Levels of Organization Ecosystem Community Population Individual Biome Biosphere
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>A species is a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations are groups of the same species that live in the same area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities are populations that live together in a defined area. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>An ecosystem is all the organisms that live in a particular place, plus the nonliving environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A biome is a group of similar ecosystems (with the same climate and similar dominant communities). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The highest level of organization that ecologists study is the entire biosphere itself. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 3–2 Energy Flow
    7. 7. <ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>In a few ecosystems, some organisms obtain energy from a source other than sunlight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that can produce their own food are called autotrophs . </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Autotrophs use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>These organic molecules combine and recombine to produce living tissue. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Because they make their own food, autotrophs are producers . </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Energy From the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best-known autotrophs harness solar energy through a process known as photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During photosynthesis , autotrophs use light energy to convert CO 2 and H 2 O into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is responsible for adding oxygen to—and removing carbon dioxide from—Earth's atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul>Active art
    14. 14. <ul><li>Plants are the main autotrophs on land. </li></ul><ul><li>Algae are the main autotrophs in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic bacteria are important in certain wet ecosystems such as tidal flats and salt marshes. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Life Without Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some autotrophs can produce food in the absence of light.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates, the process is called chemosynthesis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Chemosynthesis is performed by several types of bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>These bacteria represent a large proportion of living autotrophs. </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Some chemosynthetic bacteria live in very remote places on Earth, such as volcanic vents on the deep-ocean floor and hot springs. </li></ul><ul><li>Others live in more common places, such as tidal marshes along the coast. </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many organisms cannot harness energy directly from the physical environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for their food supply are called heterotrophs . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs are also called consumers . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>There are many different types of heterotrophs. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores eat plants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores eat animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivores eat plants and animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detritivores feed on dead matter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers , like bacteria and fungi, break down organic matter. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Feeding Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The relationships between producers and consumers connect organisms into feeding networks based on who eats whom. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><ul><li>Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy source  autotrophs  heterotrophs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><ul><ul><li>A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>In some marine food chains, the producers are microscopic algae and the top carnivore is four steps removed from the producer. </li></ul>Algae Zooplankton Small Fish Squid Shark
    24. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>A network of complex feeding relationships is called a food web . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>This food web shows some of the feeding relationships in a salt-marsh community. </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each step in a food chain or food web is called a trophic level . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers make up the first trophic level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers make up the second, third, or higher trophic levels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>Ecological Pyramids </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of energy or matter in an ecosystem can be represented by an ecological pyramid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><ul><li>Ecologists recognize three different types of ecological pyramids: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy pyramids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>biomass pyramids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pyramids of numbers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 30. 0.1% Third-level consumers 1% Second-level consumers 10% First-level consumers 100% Producers <ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 10% of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><ul><li>The more levels that exist between a producer and a top-level consumer in an ecosystem, the less energy that remains from the original amount. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><ul><li>Biomass Pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called biomass . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass is usually expressed in terms of grams of organic matter per unit area. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Ecological Pyramids 50 grams of human tissue 500 grams of chicken 5000 grams of grass Biomass Pyramid: Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.
    33. 34. <ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A pyramid of numbers shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Numbers: Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
    35. 36. <ul><ul><li>For some ecosystems, the shape of the pyramid of numbers is the same as that of the energy and biomass pyramids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, in ecosystems where there are fewer producers than there are consumers, such as a forest ecosystem, the pyramid of numbers would not resemble a typical pyramid at all. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. 3–3 Cycles of Matter
    37. 38. <ul><li>Recycling in the Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems . </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through biogeochemical cycles . </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can cycle because biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is assembled into living tissue or passed out of the body as waste products. </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>The Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All living things require water to survive. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land. </li></ul></ul></ul>Active art
    41. 42. <ul><li>Water molecules enter the atmosphere as water vapor, a gas, when they evaporate from the ocean or other bodies of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which water changes from a liquid form to an atmospheric gas is called evaporation . </li></ul>The Water Cycle
    42. 43. <ul><li>Water will also evaporate from the leaves of plants in the process of transpiration . </li></ul>
    43. 44. <ul><li>Water vapor condenses into tiny droplets that form clouds. </li></ul><ul><li>The water returns to Earth’s surface in the form of precipitation . </li></ul><ul><li>Water enters streams or seeps into soil where it enters plants through their roots. </li></ul>
    44. 45. <ul><li>Nutrient Cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>Primary producers, such as plants, usually obtain nutrients in simple inorganic forms from their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers obtain nutrients by eating other organisms. </li></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><ul><li>The Carbon Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological processes take up and release carbon and oxygen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geochemical processes release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans. </li></ul></ul></ul>movie
    47. 48. <ul><li>Biogeochemical processes, such as the burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum (fossil fuels), store carbon underground. </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities, such as mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. </li></ul>
    48. 49. Nutrient Cycles CO 2 in Atmosphere Photosynthesis feeding feeding Respiration Deposition Carbonate Rocks Deposition Decomposition Fossil fuel Volcanic activity Uplift Erosion Respiration Human activity CO 2 in Ocean Photosynthesis
    49. 50. <ul><ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria that can use nitrogen gas live in the soil and in legume roots. They convert N 2 into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 51. <ul><li>Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites. </li></ul><ul><li>Once these products are available, producers can use them to make proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers then eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins. </li></ul>
    51. 52. Nutrient Cycles Bacterial nitrogen fixation N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition excretion Atmospheric nitrogen fixation Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition Decomposition excretion NO 3 and NO 2
    52. 53. <ul><li>When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia. </li></ul><ul><li>The ammonia may be taken up again by producers. </li></ul>
    53. 54. <ul><li>Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification. </li></ul><ul><li>This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again. </li></ul>
    54. 55. <ul><ul><li>The Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 56. <ul><li>Phosphate, eventually enters the ocean, where it is used by marine organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Some phosphate stays on land and cycles between organisms and the soil. Plants bind the phosphates into organic compounds . </li></ul>
    56. 57. <ul><ul><ul><li>Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediments </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. <ul><li>Nutrient Limitation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One factor that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 59. <ul><li>If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth. </li></ul><ul><li>When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called a limiting nutrient. </li></ul>
    59. 60. <ul><li>When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields—the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers. </li></ul><ul><li>This result is called an algal bloom . </li></ul><ul><li>Algal blooms can disrupt the equilibrium of an ecosystem. </li></ul>
    60. 61. 5-1 How Populations Grow
    61. 62. <ul><ul><li>Three important characteristics of a population are its: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geographic distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth rate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 63. <ul><li>Geographic distribution, or range, describes the area inhabited by a population. </li></ul><ul><li>Population density is the number of individuals per unit area. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate is the increase or decrease of the number of individuals in a population over time. </li></ul>
    63. 64. <ul><ul><li>Factors that affect population size: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the number of births </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the number of deaths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the number of individuals that enter or leave the population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A population can grow when its birthrate is greater than its death rate. </li></ul></ul>
    64. 65. <ul><li>Immigration is the movement of individuals into an area , which can cause a population to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Populations can increase by immigration as animals in search of mates or food arrive from outside. </li></ul>
    65. 66. <ul><li>Emigration is the movement of individuals out of an area , which can cause a population to decrease in size. </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration can occur when animals leave to find mates and establish new territories. </li></ul><ul><li>A shortage of food in one area may also lead to emigration. </li></ul>
    66. 67. <ul><ul><li>Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially . </li></ul></ul>
    67. 68. <ul><ul><li>Exponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The population becomes larger and larger until it approaches an infinitely large size. </li></ul></ul>Exponential Growth
    68. 69. <ul><li>Logistic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In nature, exponential growth does not continue in a population for very long. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    69. 70. <ul><ul><li>As resources become less available, the growth of a population slows or stops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistic growth occurs when a population's growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth. </li></ul></ul>
    70. 71. <ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support is called its carrying capacity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a population reaches the carrying capacity of its environment, its growth levels off. The average growth rate is zero. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 72. 5-2 Limits to Growth
    72. 73. <ul><li>Limiting Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The primary productivity of an ecosystem can be reduced when there is an insufficient supply of a particular nutrient. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecologists call such substances limiting nutrients. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 74. <ul><li>A limiting nutrient is an example of a more general ecological concept: a limiting factor. </li></ul><ul><li>In the context of populations, a limiting factor is a factor that causes population growth to decrease. </li></ul>
    74. 75. <ul><ul><ul><li>A limiting factor that depends on population size is called a density-dependent limiting factor . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    75. 76. <ul><ul><li>Density-dependent limiting factors include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parasitism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disease </li></ul></ul></ul>
    76. 77. <ul><ul><li>Density-dependent factors operate only when the population density reaches a certain level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These factors operate most strongly when a population is large and dense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not affect small, scattered populations as greatly. </li></ul></ul>
    77. 78. <ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When populations become crowded, organisms compete for food, water space, sunlight and other essentials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition among members of the same species is a density-dependent limiting factor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    78. 79. <ul><li>Competition can also occur between members of different species. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of competition can lead to evolutionary change. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the species may evolve to occupy different niches. </li></ul>
    79. 80. <ul><ul><ul><li>The regulation of a population by predation takes place within a predator-prey relationship, one of the best-known mechanisms of population control. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    80. 81. Wolf and Moose Populations on Isle Royale Moose Wolves
    81. 82. <ul><ul><li>Parasitism and Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites can limit the growth of a population. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A parasite lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    82. 83. <ul><ul><ul><li>Density-independent limiting factors affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    83. 84. <ul><ul><li>Examples of density-independent limiting factors include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unusual weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>natural disasters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seasonal cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>certain human activities—such as damming rivers and clear-cutting forests </li></ul></ul></ul>
    84. 85. 5-3 Human Population Growth
    85. 86. <ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the populations of many other living organisms, the size of the human population tends to increase with time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For most of human existence, the population grew slowly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting factors kept population sizes low. </li></ul></ul>
    86. 87. <ul><li>About 500 years ago, the human population began growing more rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Life was made easier and safer by advances in agriculture and industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Death rates were dramatically reduced due to improved sanitation, medicine, and healthcare, while birthrates remained high. </li></ul>
    87. 88. <ul><li>With these advances, the human population experienced exponential growth. </li></ul>Human Population Growth
    88. 89. <ul><li>Patterns of Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific study of human populations is called demography. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demography examines the characteristics of human populations and attempts to explain how those populations will change over time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    89. 90. <ul><ul><li>Birthrates, death rates, and the age structure of a population help predict why some countries have high growth rates while other countries grow more slowly. </li></ul></ul>
    90. 91. <ul><ul><li>The Demographic Transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over the past century, population growth in the United States, Japan, and much of Europe has slowed dramatically. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to demographers, these countries have completed the demographic transition, a dramatic change in birth and death rates. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    91. 92. <ul><li>The demographic transition has three stages. </li></ul><ul><li>In stage 1, there are high death rates and high birthrates. </li></ul><ul><li>In stage 2, the death rate drops, while the birthrate remains high. The population increases rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>In stage 3, the birthrate decreases, causing population growth to slow. </li></ul>
    92. 93. <ul><li>The demographic transition is complete when the birthrate falls to meet the death rate, and population growth stops. </li></ul>
    93. 94. <ul><ul><li>Age Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth depends, in part, on how many people of different ages make up a given population. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographers can predict future growth using models called age-structure diagrams. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age-structure diagrams show the population of a country broken down by gender and age group. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    94. 95. Patterns of Population Growth <ul><li>In the United States, there are nearly equal numbers of people in each age group. </li></ul><ul><li>This age structure diagram predicts a slow but steady growth rate for the near future. </li></ul>Males Females 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 Percentage of Population 80+ 60–64 20–24 0–4 40–44 Age (years) U.S. Population
    95. 96. <ul><li>In Rwanda, there are many more young children than teenagers, and many more teenagers than adults. </li></ul><ul><li>This age structure diagram predicts a population that will double in about 30 years. </li></ul>80+ 60–64 20–24 0–4 Age (years) Males Females Rwandan Population 40–44 Percentage of Population
    96. 97. <ul><li>Future Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To predict human population growth, demographers must consider the age structure of each country, as well as the prevalence of life-threatening diseases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If growing countries move toward the demographic transition, growth rate may level off or decrease. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    97. 98. Future Population Growth
    98. 99. <ul><li>Ecologists suggest that if growth does not slow down, there could be serious damage to the environment and global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Economists assert that science, technology, and changes in society may control the negative impact of population growth. </li></ul>
    99. 100. 3–2 <ul><ul><li>The main source of energy for life on Earth is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organic chemical compounds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inorganic chemical compounds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sunlight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>producers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    100. 101. 3–2 <ul><ul><li>Organisms that feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detritivores. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carnivores. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>herbivores. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>autotrophs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    101. 102. 3–2 <ul><ul><li>How does a food web differ from a food chain? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A food web contains a single series of energy transfers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A food web links many food chains together. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A food web has only one trophic level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A food web shows how energy passes from producer to consumer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    102. 103. 3–2 <ul><ul><li>In a biomass pyramid, the base of the pyramid represents the mass of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heterotrophs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>primary consumers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>producers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>top level carnivores. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    103. 104. 3–2 <ul><ul><li>The amount of energy represented in each trophic level of consumers in an energy pyramid is about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of the level below it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% of the level below it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% more than the level below it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% more than the level below it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    104. 105. 3–3 <ul><ul><li>Transpiration is part of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbon cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorus cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    105. 106. 3–3 <ul><ul><li>Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calcium carbonate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ammonia. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    106. 107. 3–3 <ul><ul><li>Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>start as simple organic forms that plants need. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide “building blocks” and energy that organisms need. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are needed by organisms to carry out life processes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    107. 108. 3–3 <ul><ul><li>The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detritivores. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>animals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    108. 109. 3–3 <ul><ul><li>When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>runoff. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>algal death. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>algal bloom. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less primary productivity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    109. 110. 5-1 <ul><ul><li>Population density is the number of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that are born each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>per unit area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that immigrate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that emigrate. </li></ul></ul>
    110. 111. 5-1 <ul><ul><li>When the birthrate of a population exceeds its death rate, the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stays the same. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases then decreases. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    111. 112. 5-1 <ul><ul><li>An S-shaped curve on a graph of population growth is characteristic of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exponential growth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>logistic growth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carrying capacity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>delayed growth. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    112. 113. 5-1 <ul><ul><li>Exponential growth in a population slows down or stops as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resources become limited. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rate of immigration increases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rate of emigration decreases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>birth rate increases. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    113. 114. 5-1 <ul><ul><li>Exponential growth rate means that each new generation of a population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adds the same number of new individuals as the previous generation did. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases at the same rate as the previous generation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is the same size as the generation before. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases by a varying amount. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    114. 115. 5-2 <ul><ul><li>A limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways regardless of their size might be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drought. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crowding. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    115. 116. 5-2 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following would be a limiting factor affecting the panda population of China? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>programs that educate people about endangered species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>capture of some pandas for placement in zoos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>laws protecting habitat destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a disease that kills bamboo plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
    116. 117. 5-2 <ul><ul><li>Density-dependent factors operate most strongly when a population is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large and dense. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large but sparse. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small and sparse. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small, but growing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    117. 118. 5-2 <ul><ul><li>Within a limited area, if the population of a predator increases, the population of its prey is likely to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decrease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remain about the same. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>become extinct. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    118. 119. 5-2 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following is a density-independent factor affecting populations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a destructive hurricane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parasites </li></ul></ul></ul>
    119. 120. 5-3 <ul><ul><li>The size of the human population began to increase exponentially after the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bubonic plague. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development of plowing and irrigation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development of the first cities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    120. 121. 5-3 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following is NOT a potential limiting factor of human population growth? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>famine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medicine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disease </li></ul></ul></ul>
    121. 122. 5-3 <ul><ul><li>After the demographic transition is complete, a population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grows rapidly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grows slowly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>begins a period of rapid decline. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stays about the same size as time passes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    122. 123. 5-3 <ul><ul><li>An age-structure diagram shows a breakdown of a population by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>location and age group. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>age group and gender. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>birthrate and death rate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>age group and emigration rate. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    123. 124. 5-3 <ul><ul><li>Since the mid-1960s, the average annual growth rate of the human population has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remained about the same. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>failed to show a consistent pattern. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreased. </li></ul></ul></ul>
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