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# Chapter 13 Lecture

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### Chapter 13 Lecture

1. 1. Bellwork -State ChangesWater exists on Earth as a liquid, a solid, and a vapor.As water cycles through the atmosphere, the oceans,and Earth’s crust, it undergoes repeated changes ofstate. You will learn what conditions can control thestate of a substance.BELLWORK-name thefollowing phase changes:a)Solid to liquid b) liquid to solidc)Liquid to gas d) gas to liquide) Solid to gas
2. 2. Melting - solid to liquidFreezing- liquid to solidVaporization- liquid to gasVapor- a gas that is usually a liquid at room tempCondensation- changing from a gas to a liquid
3. 3. Chapter 13- States of Matter Intro to GasesThe skunk releases its spray! Within seconds you smell that all-too-familiar foul odor.You will discover some general characteristics of gases that help explainhow odors travel throughthe air, even on awindless day.
4. 4. 13.1The Kinetic Molecular Theory explains the behavior of gases.
5. 5. The word kinetic refers to motion.
6. 6. The word kinetic refers to motion.•The energy an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy.
7. 7. The word kinetic refers to motion.•The energy an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy.• According to the kinetic theory, all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.
8. 8. Kinetic Molecular Theory: GASES
9. 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory: GASES• The particles in a gas are small, hard spheres with an insignificant volume.
10. 10. Kinetic Molecular Theory: GASES• The particles in a gas are small, hard spheres with an insignificant volume.• The motion of gas particles is rapid, constant, and random.
11. 11. Kinetic Molecular Theory: GASES• The particles in a gas are small, hard spheres with an insignificant volume.• The motion of gas particles is rapid, constant, and random.• All collisions between gas particles are perfectly elastic (no energy lost).
12. 12. 13.1Gas particles are in rapid, constant motion.
13. 13. 13.1Gas particles travel in straight-line paths.Gas particles move randomly.
14. 14. 13.1A gas fills its container.
15. 15. 13.1Kinetic theory explains gas pressure.
16. 16. 13.1 Pressure = Force/Area A force is a push or a pull. Same force more less area area more pressure!
17. 17. Which would you prefer? Why?
18. 18. 13.1Kinetic theory explains gas pressure.
19. 19. 13.1Kinetic theory explains gas pressure.Gas pressureis the forceexerted by gasparticleshitting thesurface of anobject.
20. 20. 13.1 Kinetic theory explains gas pressure.Gas pressure can KILL!
21. 21. An empty space with no particlesand no pressure is called a vacuum.
22. 22. Atmospheric pressure is the pressurecreated by the earth’s gravitationalpull on the gases in our atmosphere.
23. 23. Gas pressure is exerted in alldirections.
24. 24. A barometer is a device that is usedto measure atmospheric pressure.
25. 25. Pressure PoemAn empty water bottle, closed tightly at high elevation,will be crushed by the atmosphere at sea level.
26. 26. 13.1 Units of Pressure• The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa).• One standard atmosphere (atm) is the atmospheric pressure at sea level.
27. 27. 13.1
28. 28. 13.1450 kPa x
29. 29. 13.1450 kPa x kPa
30. 30. 13.1 atm450 kPa x kPa
31. 31. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x 101.3 kPa
32. 32. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x = 4.4 atm 101.3 kPa
33. 33. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x = 4.4 atm 101.3 kPa450 kPa x
34. 34. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x = 4.4 atm 101.3 kPa450 kPa x kPa
35. 35. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x = 4.4 atm 101.3 kPa mm Hg450 kPa x kPa
36. 36. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x = 4.4 atm 101.3 kPa 760 mm Hg450 kPa x 101.3 kPa
37. 37. 13.1 1 atm450 kPa x = 4.4 atm 101.3 kPa 760 mm Hg = 3400mm Hg450 kPa x 101.3 kPa
38. 38. for Sample Problem 13.1
39. 39. Particles at a given temperature have awide range of kinetic energies.Most of the particles have kineticenergies in the middle of this range.
40. 40. Particles at a given temperature have awide range of kinetic energies.Most of the particles have kineticenergies in the middle of this range.
41. 41. Particles at a given temperature have awide range of kinetic energies.Most of the particles have kineticenergies in the middle of this range. Temperature measures Average Kinetic Energy
42. 42. 13.1The Kelvin temperature of asubstance is directly proportionalto average kinetic energy.
43. 43. 13.1The Kelvin temperature of asubstance is directly proportionalto average kinetic energy.The higher the kinetic energy, the higherthe temperature.
44. 44. 13.1Two substances with the same averagekinetic energy are at the sametemperature.Two substances at the sametemperature have the sameaverage kinetic energy.
45. 45. 13.1Absolute zero (0 K, or –273.15°C)is the temperature at which themotion of particles theoreticallystops.
46. 46. 13.1Absolute zero (0 K, or –273.15°C)is the temperature at which themotion of particles theoreticallystops.•Particles would have no kinetic energy at absolute zero.
47. 47. 13.1Absolute zero (0 K, or –273.15°C)is the temperature at which themotion of particles theoreticallystops.•Particles would have no kinetic energy at absolute zero.• Absolute zero has never been produced in the laboratory (and not for lack of trying!).
48. 48. Bellwork- Kinetic Energy•What is kinetic energy?•How is average kinetic energyrelated to temperature?•Which has higher kinetic energy,an olympic size pool of water or acup of hot coffee?
49. 49. 13.2Substances that can flow are referred to asfluids. Both liquids and gases are fluids.
50. 50. 13.2The intermolecular attractions(IMFs) are counteracted bymotion of molecules.Together they determine the physicalproperties of liquids.High IMFs promote a solid stateHigh temps (motion) promote a gas state.
51. 51. 13.2 If the liquid is not boiling it is called evaporation.
52. 52. 13.2 When a liquid converts to a gas it is called vaporization. If the liquid is not boiling it is called evaporation.
53. 53. 13.2 When a liquid converts to a gas it is called vaporization. If the liquid is not boiling it is called evaporation.
54. 54. 13.2 When a liquid converts to a gas it is called vaporization. If the liquid is not boiling it is called evaporation.
55. 55. 13.2In a closed container, evaporatedmolecules collect as a vaporabove any liquid.Vapor pressure is the forceexerted by a gasabove a liquid.
56. 56. During evaporation, only moleculeswith a certain minimum kineticenergy can escape from the surfaceof the liquid.
57. 57. During evaporation, only moleculeswith a certain minimum kineticenergy can escape from the surfaceof the liquid.
58. 58. During evaporation, only moleculeswith a certain minimum kineticenergy can escape from the surfaceof the liquid.Evaporation isa coolingprocessbecause themolecules withthe highestkinetic energyescape.
59. 59. 13.2In an open container,molecules that evaporate canescape from the container.
60. 60. Some evaporated molecules willcondense back into a liquid.
61. 61. Some evaporated molecules willcondense back into a liquid.
62. 62. Some evaporated molecules willcondense back into a liquid.A dynamic equilibrium exists between thevapor and the liquid.The system is in equilibrium whenthe rate of evaporation equals therate of condensation.
63. 63. DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUM
64. 64. DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUMFor eachmolecule thatevaporates adifferentmoleculereturns to theliquid.
65. 65. DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUMFor eachmolecule thatevaporates adifferentmoleculereturns to theliquid.SAMERATES!!
66. 66. DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUM
67. 67. DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUMEquilibrium-The amountof liquid andvapor do notchange.
68. 68. DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUMEquilibrium-The amountof liquid andvapor do notchange.Dynamic-There is aconstantturnover ofparticles.
69. 69. 13.2Vapor pressure increases withTemperature.
70. 70. The particles have increased kinetic energy,so more particles will have the minimumenergy needed to escape the liquid.
71. 71. When a liquid is heated to a temperature atwhich particles throughout the liquid haveenough kinetic energy to vaporize, theliquid begins to boil.
72. 72. Liquids boil when their vaporpressure exceeds the pressurepushing down on the liquid (usuallyatmospheric pressure).
73. 73. 13.2
74. 74. Boiling Point and Pressure Changes
75. 75. Boiling Point and Pressure ChangesBecause a liquid boils when its vaporpressure is equal to the external pressure,liquids don’t always boil at the sametemperature.
76. 76. Boiling Point and Pressure ChangesBecause a liquid boils when its vaporpressure is equal to the external pressure,liquids don’t always boil at the sametemperature. • At high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is low, so water boils cooler and food needs longer to cook.
77. 77. Boiling Point and Pressure ChangesBecause a liquid boils when its vaporpressure is equal to the external pressure,liquids don’t always boil at the sametemperature. • At high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is low, so water boils cooler and food needs longer to cook. • A pressure cooker increases the boiling point so food cooks fast.
78. 78. Altitude and Boiling Point
79. 79. The normal boiling point is theboiling point of a liquid atatmospheric pressure(1 atm or 101.3 kPa)
80. 80. Section 13.3- Solids
81. 81. Solids keep their shape becausetheir particles are in fixed positions.
82. 82. In a crystalline solid, theparticles are in an orderly,repeating, three-dimensionalpattern called a crystal lattice.ionic compound elemental metal
83. 83. 13.3When an element can make morethan one structure, the differentforms are called allotropes.
84. 84. 13.3When an element can make morethan one structure, the differentforms are called allotropes.•Allotropes have different properties because their structures are different.
85. 85. 13.3When an element can make morethan one structure, the differentforms are called allotropes.•Allotropes have different properties because their structures are different.• Only a few elements have allotropes.
86. 86. 13.3Carbon’s allotropes are diamond and graphite
87. 87. Non-Crystalline Solids An amorphous solid lacks an ordered internal structure. • Rubber, plastic, asphalt, and glass are amorphous solids.
88. 88. Non-Crystalline Solids An amorphous solid lacks an ordered internal structure. • Rubber, plastic, asphalt, and glass are amorphous solids.
89. 89. Quartz is crystallized SiO2 Glass is amorphous SiO2
90. 90. Non-Crystalline SolidsQuartz is crystallized SiO2 Glass is amorphous SiO2
91. 91. Non-Crystalline Solids An amorphous solid lacks an ordered internal structure.Quartz is crystallized SiO2 Glass is amorphous SiO2
92. 92. Non-Crystalline Solids An amorphous solid lacks an ordered internal structure. •A glass has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing.Quartz is crystallized SiO2 Glass is amorphous SiO2
93. 93. 13.4
94. 94. 13.4The change of a substance from a solidto a vapor without passing through theliquid state is called sublimation. Sublimation occurs in solids with vapor pressures that exceed atmospheric pressure at or near room temperature.
95. 95. 13.4The change of a substance from a solidto a vapor without passing through theliquid state is called sublimation. Sublimation occurs in solids with vapor pressures that exceed atmospheric pressure at or near room temperature.