Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Sections 11.1 - 11.3 Homework Read pages 443-454  Pg 476 #1, 2, 3, 9...
States of Matter <ul><li>The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles. </li></ul>
 
States of Matter <ul><li>Because in the solid and liquid states particles are closer together, we refer to them as  conden...
The States of Matter <ul><li>The state a substance is in at a particular temperature and pressure depends on two antagonis...
Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>The attractions between molecules are not nearly as strong as the intramolecular attractions...
Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>They are, however, strong enough to control physical properties such as boiling and melting ...
Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>These intermolecular forces as a group are referred to as  van der Waals forces . </li></ul>
van der Waals Forces <ul><li>Dipole-dipole interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonding </li></ul><ul><li>London disper...
Ion-Dipole Interactions <ul><li>A fourth type of force, ion-dipole interactions are an important force in solutions of ion...
Dipole-Dipole Interactions <ul><li>Molecules that have permanent dipoles are attracted to each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Dipole-Dipole Interactions <ul><li>The more polar the molecule, the higher is its boiling point. </li></ul>
London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>While the electrons in the 1 s  orbital of helium would repel each other (and, therefore,...
London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>At that instant, then, the helium atom is polar, with an excess of electrons on the left ...
London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>Another helium nearby, then, would have a dipole induced in it, as the electrons on the l...
London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>London dispersion forces, or dispersion forces, are attractions between an instantaneous ...
London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>These forces are present in  all  molecules, whether they are polar or nonpolar. </li></u...
Factors Affecting London Forces <ul><li>The shape of the molecule affects the strength of dispersion forces: long, skinny ...
Factors Affecting London Forces <ul><li>The strength of dispersion forces tends to increase with increased molecular weigh...
PRACTICE EXERCISE Of Br 2 , Ne, HCl, HBr, and N 2 , which is likely to have  (a)  the largest intermolecular dispersion fo...
Which Have a Greater Effect: Dipole-Dipole Interactions or Dispersion Forces? <ul><li>If two molecules are of comparable s...
How Do We Explain This? <ul><li>The nonpolar series (SnH 4  to CH 4 ) follow the expected trend. </li></ul><ul><li>The pol...
Hydrogen Bonding <ul><li>The dipole-dipole interactions experienced when H is bonded to N, O, or F are unusually strong. <...
Hydrogen Bonding <ul><li>Hydrogen bonding arises in part from the high electronegativity of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine...
 
PRACTICE EXERCISE In which of the following substances is significant hydrogen bonding possible: methylene chloride (CH 2 ...
Summarizing Intermolecular Forces
PRACTICE EXERCISE (a)  Identify the intermolecular forces present in the following substances, and  (b)  select the substa...
Intermolecular Forces Affect Many Physical Properties <ul><li>The strength of the attractions between particles can greatl...
Viscosity <ul><li>Resistance of a liquid to flow is called  viscosity . </li></ul><ul><li>It is related to the ease with w...
Surface Tension <ul><li>Surface tension results from the net inward force experienced by the molecules on the surface of a...
Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Sections 11.4 - 11.6 Homework Read pages 455-464    Pg 477 #4, 5, 6,...
Bellwork-Intermolecular forces <ul><li>List the following compounds in order of increasing intermolecular forces. </li></u...
 
Phase Changes
Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State <ul><li>Heat of Fusion:   Energy required to change a solid at its melting...
Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State <ul><li>Heat of Vaporization:   Energy required to change a liquid at its ...
Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State <ul><li>The heat added to the system at the melting and boiling points goe...
PRACTICE EXERCISE What is the enthalpy change during the process in which 100.0 g of water at 50.0°C is cooled to ice at –...
Vapor Pressure <ul><li>At any temperature, some molecules in a liquid have enough energy to escape. </li></ul><ul><li>As t...
Vapor Pressure <ul><li>As more molecules escape the liquid, the pressure they exert increases. </li></ul>
Vapor Pressure <ul><li>The liquid and vapor reach a state of dynamic equilibrium:  liquid molecules evaporate and vapor mo...
Vapor Pressure <ul><li>The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pre...
 
PRACTICE EXERCISE Estimate the boiling point of diethyl ether under an external pressure of 0.80 atm. At what external pre...
Phase Diagrams <ul><li>Phase diagrams display the state of a substance at various pressures and temperatures and the place...
Phase Diagrams <ul><li>The  AB  line is the liquid-vapor interface. </li></ul><ul><li>It starts at the triple point ( A ),...
Phase Diagrams <ul><li>It ends at the critical point ( B ); above this  critical temperature and critical pressure the liq...
Phase Diagrams <ul><li>Each point along this line is the boiling point of the substance at that pressure. </li></ul>
Phase Diagrams <ul><li>The  AD  line is the interface between liquid and solid. </li></ul><ul><li>The melting point at eac...
Phase Diagrams <ul><li>Below  A  the substance cannot exist in the liquid state. </li></ul><ul><li>Along the  AC  line the...
Phase Diagram of Water <ul><li>Note the high critical temperature and critical pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are d...
Phase Diagram of Water <ul><li>The slope of the solid – liquid line is negative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that as ...
 
Describe any changes in the phases present when the system is  (a)  kept at 0°C while the pressure is increased from that ...
Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>Carbon dioxide cannot exist in the liquid state at pressures below 5.11 atm; CO 2 ...
Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>The low critical temperature and critical pressure for CO 2  make supercritical CO...
Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Sections 11.7 & 11.8 Homework Read pages 464- 476 Pg 477 #7, 57, 59,...
BELLWORK Describe what happens when the following changes are made in a CO 2  sample initially at 1 atm and –60ºC: (a)  Pr...
Solids <ul><li>We can think of solids as falling into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystalline — particles are in hig...
Solids <ul><ul><li>Amorphous — no particular order in the arrangement of particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be from...
 
<ul><li>Crystalline solids melt at a specific temperature  </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE their internal structure is regular. ...
<ul><li>Crystalline solids melt at a specific temperature  </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE their internal structure is regular. ...
Attractions in Ionic Crystals <ul><li>In ionic crystals, ions pack themselves so as to maximize the attractions and minimi...
Crystalline Solids <ul><li>Because of the order in a crystal, we can focus on the repeating pattern of arrangement called ...
Crystalline Solids <ul><li>There are several types of basic arrangements in crystals, such as the ones shown above. </li><...
Crystalline Solids <ul><li>We can determine the empirical formula of an ionic solid by determining how many ions of each e...
Ionic Solids <ul><li>What are the empirical formulas for these compounds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a)  Green:  chlorine;  Gr...
 
<ul><li>2  = one whole atom  </li></ul><ul><li>& eight 1/8 atoms </li></ul>
There are two ways to define the unit cell  NaCl unit cell representing appropriate ion sizes
 
The  coordination number  tells the number of particles surrounding a particular particle in a crystal. For ionic compound...
The  coordination number  tells the number of particles surrounding a particular particle in a crystal. For ionic compound...
The  coordination number  tells the number of particles surrounding a particular particle in a crystal. For ionic compound...
Types of Bonding in Crystalline Solids
Covalent-Network and Molecular Solids  <ul><li>Diamonds are an example of a covalent-network solid in which atoms are cova...
Covalent-Network and Molecular Solids  <ul><li>Graphite is an example of a molecular solid in which atoms are held togethe...
 
<ul><li>C 6 H 6   </li></ul>
Metallic Solids <ul><li>Metals are not covalently bonded, but the attractions between atoms are too strong to be van der W...
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Chapter 11 Lecture- Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, & Solids

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Chapter 11 lecture for AP Chemistry on Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids.

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  • Chapter 11 Lecture- Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, & Solids

    1. 1. Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Sections 11.1 - 11.3 Homework Read pages 443-454 Pg 476 #1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 23, 25, 29, 31
    2. 2. States of Matter <ul><li>The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles. </li></ul>
    3. 4. States of Matter <ul><li>Because in the solid and liquid states particles are closer together, we refer to them as condensed phases . </li></ul>
    4. 5. The States of Matter <ul><li>The state a substance is in at a particular temperature and pressure depends on two antagonistic entities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kinetic energy of the particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strength of the attractions between the particles </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>The attractions between molecules are not nearly as strong as the intramolecular attractions that hold compounds together. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>They are, however, strong enough to control physical properties such as boiling and melting points, vapor pressures, and viscosities. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>These intermolecular forces as a group are referred to as van der Waals forces . </li></ul>
    8. 9. van der Waals Forces <ul><li>Dipole-dipole interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonding </li></ul><ul><li>London dispersion forces </li></ul>
    9. 10. Ion-Dipole Interactions <ul><li>A fourth type of force, ion-dipole interactions are an important force in solutions of ions. </li></ul><ul><li>The strength of these forces are what make it possible for ionic substances to dissolve in polar solvents. </li></ul>
    10. 11. Dipole-Dipole Interactions <ul><li>Molecules that have permanent dipoles are attracted to each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The positive end of one is attracted to the negative end of the other and vice-versa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These forces are only important when the molecules are close to each other. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Dipole-Dipole Interactions <ul><li>The more polar the molecule, the higher is its boiling point. </li></ul>
    12. 13. London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>While the electrons in the 1 s orbital of helium would repel each other (and, therefore, tend to stay far away from each other), it does happen that they occasionally wind up on the same side of the atom. </li></ul>
    13. 14. London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>At that instant, then, the helium atom is polar, with an excess of electrons on the left side and a shortage on the right side. </li></ul>
    14. 15. London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>Another helium nearby, then, would have a dipole induced in it, as the electrons on the left side of helium atom 2 repel the electrons in the cloud on helium atom 1. </li></ul>
    15. 16. London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>London dispersion forces, or dispersion forces, are attractions between an instantaneous dipole and an induced dipole. </li></ul>
    16. 17. London Dispersion Forces <ul><li>These forces are present in all molecules, whether they are polar or nonpolar. </li></ul><ul><li>The tendency of an electron cloud to distort in this way is called polarizability . </li></ul>
    17. 18. Factors Affecting London Forces <ul><li>The shape of the molecule affects the strength of dispersion forces: long, skinny molecules (like n -pentane tend to have stronger dispersion forces than short, fat ones (like neopentane). </li></ul><ul><li>This is due to the increased surface area in n -pentane. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Factors Affecting London Forces <ul><li>The strength of dispersion forces tends to increase with increased molecular weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger atoms have larger electron clouds, which are easier to polarize. </li></ul>
    19. 20. PRACTICE EXERCISE Of Br 2 , Ne, HCl, HBr, and N 2 , which is likely to have (a) the largest intermolecular dispersion forces, (b) the largest dipole-dipole attractive forces? Answers: (a) Br 2 (largest molecular weight), (b) HCl (largest polarity)
    20. 21. Which Have a Greater Effect: Dipole-Dipole Interactions or Dispersion Forces? <ul><li>If two molecules are of comparable size and shape, dipole-dipole interactions will likely be the dominating force. </li></ul><ul><li>If one molecule is much larger than another, dispersion forces will likely determine its physical properties. </li></ul>
    21. 22. How Do We Explain This? <ul><li>The nonpolar series (SnH 4 to CH 4 ) follow the expected trend. </li></ul><ul><li>The polar series follows the trend from H 2 Te through H 2 S, but water is quite an anomaly. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Hydrogen Bonding <ul><li>The dipole-dipole interactions experienced when H is bonded to N, O, or F are unusually strong. </li></ul><ul><li>We call these interactions hydrogen bonds . </li></ul>
    23. 24. Hydrogen Bonding <ul><li>Hydrogen bonding arises in part from the high electronegativity of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. </li></ul>Also, when hydrogen is bonded to one of those very electronegative elements, the hydrogen nucleus is exposed.
    24. 26. PRACTICE EXERCISE In which of the following substances is significant hydrogen bonding possible: methylene chloride (CH 2 Cl 2 ) phosphine (PH 3 ) hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), or acetone (CH 3 COCH 3 )? Answer:  HOOH
    25. 27. Summarizing Intermolecular Forces
    26. 28. PRACTICE EXERCISE (a) Identify the intermolecular forces present in the following substances, and (b) select the substance with the highest boiling point: CH 3 CH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH. Answers: (a) CH 3 CH 3 has only dispersion forces, whereas the other two substances have both dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds; (b) CH 3 CH 2 OH
    27. 29. Intermolecular Forces Affect Many Physical Properties <ul><li>The strength of the attractions between particles can greatly affect the properties of a substance or solution. </li></ul>
    28. 30. Viscosity <ul><li>Resistance of a liquid to flow is called viscosity . </li></ul><ul><li>It is related to the ease with which molecules can move past each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity increases with stronger intermolecular forces and decreases with higher temperature. </li></ul>
    29. 31. Surface Tension <ul><li>Surface tension results from the net inward force experienced by the molecules on the surface of a liquid. </li></ul>
    30. 32. Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Sections 11.4 - 11.6 Homework Read pages 455-464 Pg 477 #4, 5, 6, 35, 37, 39, 43, 45, 49, 51, 53, 55
    31. 33. Bellwork-Intermolecular forces <ul><li>List the following compounds in order of increasing intermolecular forces. </li></ul><ul><li>HCOOH CH 3 COOH CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 COOH CH 4 CH 3 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>formic acid acetic acid lauric acid methane ethane </li></ul><ul><li>Which compound should have the highest boiling point? </li></ul><ul><li>Which compound is most likely a gas at room temp? </li></ul><ul><li>Which compound should flow the slowest? </li></ul>
    32. 35. Phase Changes
    33. 36. Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State <ul><li>Heat of Fusion: Energy required to change a solid at its melting point to a liquid. </li></ul>
    34. 37. Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State <ul><li>Heat of Vaporization: Energy required to change a liquid at its boiling point to a gas. </li></ul>
    35. 38. Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State <ul><li>The heat added to the system at the melting and boiling points goes into pulling the molecules farther apart from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of the substance does not rise during the phase change. </li></ul>
    36. 39. PRACTICE EXERCISE What is the enthalpy change during the process in which 100.0 g of water at 50.0°C is cooled to ice at –30.0°C? The specific heats of ice, water, and steam are 2.09 J/g-K, 4.18 J/g-K and 1.84 J/g-K, respectively. For H 2 O,  H fus = 6.01 kJ/mol  H vap = 40.67 kJ/mol. Answer:  –20.9 kJ – 33.4 kJ – 6.27 kJ = –60.6 kJ
    37. 40. Vapor Pressure <ul><li>At any temperature, some molecules in a liquid have enough energy to escape. </li></ul><ul><li>As the temperature rises, the fraction of molecules that have enough energy to escape increases. </li></ul>
    38. 41. Vapor Pressure <ul><li>As more molecules escape the liquid, the pressure they exert increases. </li></ul>
    39. 42. Vapor Pressure <ul><li>The liquid and vapor reach a state of dynamic equilibrium: liquid molecules evaporate and vapor molecules condense at the same rate . </li></ul>
    40. 43. Vapor Pressure <ul><li>The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal boiling point is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is 760 torr. </li></ul>
    41. 45. PRACTICE EXERCISE Estimate the boiling point of diethyl ether under an external pressure of 0.80 atm. At what external pressure will ethanol have a boiling point of 60°C? Answer:  27  C, about 340 torr (0.45 atm)
    42. 46. Phase Diagrams <ul><li>Phase diagrams display the state of a substance at various pressures and temperatures and the places where equilibria exist between phases. </li></ul>
    43. 47. Phase Diagrams <ul><li>The AB line is the liquid-vapor interface. </li></ul><ul><li>It starts at the triple point ( A ), the point at which all three states are in equilibrium. </li></ul>
    44. 48. Phase Diagrams <ul><li>It ends at the critical point ( B ); above this critical temperature and critical pressure the liquid and vapor are indistinguishable from each other. </li></ul>
    45. 49. Phase Diagrams <ul><li>Each point along this line is the boiling point of the substance at that pressure. </li></ul>
    46. 50. Phase Diagrams <ul><li>The AD line is the interface between liquid and solid. </li></ul><ul><li>The melting point at each pressure can be found along this line. </li></ul>
    47. 51. Phase Diagrams <ul><li>Below A the substance cannot exist in the liquid state. </li></ul><ul><li>Along the AC line the solid and gas phases are in equilibrium; the sublimation point at each pressure is along this line. </li></ul>
    48. 52. Phase Diagram of Water <ul><li>Note the high critical temperature and critical pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are due to the strong van der Waals forces between water molecules. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 53. Phase Diagram of Water <ul><li>The slope of the solid – liquid line is negative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that as the pressure is increased at a temperature just below the melting point, water goes from a solid to a liquid. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 55. Describe any changes in the phases present when the system is (a) kept at 0°C while the pressure is increased from that at point 1 to that at point 5 (vertical line), (b) kept at 1.00 atm while the temperature is increased from that at point 6 to that at point 9. Figure 11.28  Phase diagram of H 2 O.
    51. 56. Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>Carbon dioxide cannot exist in the liquid state at pressures below 5.11 atm; CO 2 sublimes at normal pressures. </li></ul>
    52. 57. Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>The low critical temperature and critical pressure for CO 2 make supercritical CO 2 a good solvent for extracting nonpolar substances (such as caffeine). </li></ul>
    53. 58. Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Sections 11.7 & 11.8 Homework Read pages 464- 476 Pg 477 #7, 57, 59, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79
    54. 59. BELLWORK Describe what happens when the following changes are made in a CO 2 sample initially at 1 atm and –60ºC: (a) Pressure increases at constant temperature to 60 atm. (b) Temperature increases from –60ºC to – 20ºC at constant 60 atm pressure.
    55. 60. Solids <ul><li>We can think of solids as falling into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystalline — particles are in highly ordered arrangement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All ionic solids are crystals at room temp (& much higher temps too!) </li></ul></ul>
    56. 61. Solids <ul><ul><li>Amorphous — no particular order in the arrangement of particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be from- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of molecules that do not fit together well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large molecules with shapes that don’t stack well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules that were cooled to quickly to form a crystal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 63. <ul><li>Crystalline solids melt at a specific temperature </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE their internal structure is regular. </li></ul><ul><li>The intermolecular forces holding the solid particles in position are identical so they are overcome at the same temp. </li></ul>
    58. 64. <ul><li>Crystalline solids melt at a specific temperature </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE their internal structure is regular. </li></ul><ul><li>The intermolecular forces holding the solid particles in position are identical so they are overcome at the same temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous ones tend to melt over a temperature range BECAUSE their internal structure is varied. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermolecular attractions vary throughout the solid because particles are positioned differently throughout the solid. </li></ul>
    59. 65. Attractions in Ionic Crystals <ul><li>In ionic crystals, ions pack themselves so as to maximize the attractions and minimize repulsions between the ions. </li></ul>
    60. 66. Crystalline Solids <ul><li>Because of the order in a crystal, we can focus on the repeating pattern of arrangement called the unit cell . </li></ul>
    61. 67. Crystalline Solids <ul><li>There are several types of basic arrangements in crystals, such as the ones shown above. </li></ul>
    62. 68. Crystalline Solids <ul><li>We can determine the empirical formula of an ionic solid by determining how many ions of each element fall within the unit cell. </li></ul>
    63. 69. Ionic Solids <ul><li>What are the empirical formulas for these compounds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Green: chlorine; Gray: cesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Yellow: sulfur; Gray: zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) Green: calcium; Gray: fluorine </li></ul></ul>CsCl ZnS CaF 2 (a) (b) (c)
    64. 71. <ul><li>2 = one whole atom </li></ul><ul><li>& eight 1/8 atoms </li></ul>
    65. 72. There are two ways to define the unit cell NaCl unit cell representing appropriate ion sizes
    66. 74. The coordination number tells the number of particles surrounding a particular particle in a crystal. For ionic compounds & alloys there can be multiple coordination numbers.
    67. 75. The coordination number tells the number of particles surrounding a particular particle in a crystal. For ionic compounds & alloys there can be multiple coordination numbers.
    68. 76. The coordination number tells the number of particles surrounding a particular particle in a crystal. For ionic compounds & alloys there can be multiple coordination numbers.
    69. 77. Types of Bonding in Crystalline Solids
    70. 78. Covalent-Network and Molecular Solids <ul><li>Diamonds are an example of a covalent-network solid in which atoms are covalently bonded to each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They tend to be hard and have high melting points. </li></ul></ul>
    71. 79. Covalent-Network and Molecular Solids <ul><li>Graphite is an example of a molecular solid in which atoms are held together with van der Waals forces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They tend to be softer and have lower melting points. CONDUCTS electricity </li></ul></ul>
    72. 81. <ul><li>C 6 H 6 </li></ul>
    73. 82. Metallic Solids <ul><li>Metals are not covalently bonded, but the attractions between atoms are too strong to be van der Waals forces. </li></ul><ul><li>In metals, valence electrons are delocalized throughout the solid. </li></ul>
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