Biotechnology Chapter One Lecture- Intro to Biotech

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Biotechnology Chapter One Lecture- Intro to Biotech

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Biotechnology Chapter One Lecture- Intro to Biotech

  1. 1. What is Biotechnology? Chapter 1
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes  Describe the science of biotechnology and identify its product domains
  4. 4. Learning Outcomes  Describe the science of biotechnology and identify its product domains  Give examples of careers and job responsibilities associated with biotechnology
  5. 5. Learning Outcomes  Describe the science of biotechnology and identify its product domains  Give examples of careers and job responsibilities associated with biotechnology  Outline the steps in producing and delivering a product made through recombinant DNA technology
  6. 6. Learning Outcomes  Describe the science of biotechnology and identify its product domains  Give examples of careers and job responsibilities associated with biotechnology  Outline the steps in producing and delivering a product made through recombinant DNA technology  Describe how scientific methodologies are used to conduct experiments and develop products
  7. 7. Learning Outcomes  Describe the science of biotechnology and identify its product domains  Give examples of careers and job responsibilities associated with biotechnology  Outline the steps in producing and delivering a product made through recombinant DNA technology  Describe how scientific methodologies are used to conduct experiments and develop products  Apply the strategy for values clarification to bioethical issues
  8. 8. 1.1 Defining Biotechnology Biotechnology is defined as the study and manipulation of living things or their component molecules, cells, tissues, or organs.
  9. 9. Biotechnology Workers and the Biotechnology Workplace
  10. 10. Biotechnology Workers and the Biotechnology Workplace • Biotechnology Companies - goal is to produce and sell commercial “for-profit” products
  11. 11. Biotechnology Workers and the Biotechnology Workplace • Biotechnology Companies - goal is to produce and sell commercial “for-profit” products • Universities and Government Labs - conduct “pure science” research, nonprofit
  12. 12. Biotechnology Workers and the Biotechnology Workplace • Biotechnology Companies - goal is to produce and sell commercial “for-profit” products • Universities and Government Labs - conduct “pure science” research, nonprofit • Growth in the Biotechnology Industry
  13. 13. 5
  14. 14. 1.2 The Increasing Variety of Biotechnology Products Bioengineered Products As the methods of manipulating living things have become more sophisticated, the number and variety of biological products have increased at an incredible rate.
  15. 15. Genetically modified organisms – organisms that contain DNA from another organism and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA Gene Engineered Plant. The organism that gets the new genes will then have the potential to express the new traits coded in the newly acquired genes.
  16. 16. Producing Genetically Engineered t-PA. Humans make only a small amount of human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) naturally. By genetically modifying Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, scientists can make large amounts of t-PA for therapeutic purposes, such as to clear blood vessels in the event of a heart attack or stroke.
  17. 17. Vocabulary
  18. 18. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins
  19. 19. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules
  20. 20. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – a technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time
  21. 21. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – a technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time • Cloning – method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms
  22. 22. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – a technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time • Cloning – method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms • Fermentation – a process by which, in an oxygen-deprived environment, a cell converts sugar into lactic acid or ethanol to create energy
  23. 23. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – a technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time • Cloning – method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms • Fermentation – a process by which, in an oxygen-deprived environment, a cell converts sugar into lactic acid or ethanol to create energy • Proteases – proteins whose function is to break down other proteins
  24. 24. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – a technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time • Cloning – method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms • Fermentation – a process by which, in an oxygen-deprived environment, a cell converts sugar into lactic acid or ethanol to create energy • Proteases – proteins whose function is to break down other proteins • Antibodies – proteins developed by the immune system that recognize specific molecules (antigens)
  25. 25. Vocabulary • DNA – abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology – cutting and recombining DNA molecules • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – a technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time • Cloning – method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms • Fermentation – a process by which, in an oxygen-deprived environment, a cell converts sugar into lactic acid or ethanol to create energy • Proteases – proteins whose function is to break down other proteins • Antibodies – proteins developed by the immune system that recognize specific molecules (antigens) • Pharmaceutical – relating to drugs developed for medical use
  26. 26. Vocabulary Vocabulary
  27. 27. Vocabulary • Antibiotics – molecular agents derived from fungi and/ or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some Vocabulary other microorganisms (bacteria killers).
  28. 28. Vocabulary • Antibiotics – molecular agents derived from fungi and/ or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some Vocabulary other microorganisms (bacteria killers). • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence
  29. 29. Vocabulary • Antibiotics – molecular agents derived from fungi and/ or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some Vocabulary other microorganisms (bacteria killers). • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence • DNA ligase – an enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule
  30. 30. Vocabulary • Antibiotics – molecular agents derived from fungi and/ or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some Vocabulary other microorganisms (bacteria killers). • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence • DNA ligase – an enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule • Recombinant DNA – DNA created by combining DNA from two or more sources
  31. 31. Vocabulary • Antibiotics – molecular agents derived from fungi and/ or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some Vocabulary other microorganisms (bacteria killers). • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence • DNA ligase – an enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule • Recombinant DNA – DNA created by combining DNA from two or more sources • Genetically modified organisms – organisms that contain DNA from another organism and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA
  32. 32. Vocabulary • Antibiotics – molecular agents derived from fungi and/ or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some Vocabulary other microorganisms (bacteria killers). • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence • DNA ligase – an enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule • Recombinant DNA – DNA created by combining DNA from two or more sources • Genetically modified organisms – organisms that contain DNA from another organism and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA • E. coli – a rod-shaped bacterium native to the intestines of mammals; commonly used in genetics and biotechnology
  33. 33. The Human Genome Project
  34. 34. The Human Genome Project • Determining the human DNA sequence
  35. 35. The Human Genome Project • Determining the human DNA sequence • Understanding the function of the human genetic code
  36. 36. The Human Genome Project • Determining the human DNA sequence • Understanding the function of the human genetic code • Identifying all of the genes
  37. 37. The Human Genome Project • Determining the human DNA sequence • Understanding the function of the human genetic code • Identifying all of the genes • Determining their functions
  38. 38. The Human Genome Project • Determining the human DNA sequence • Understanding the function of the human genetic code • Identifying all of the genes • Determining their functions • Understanding how and when genes are turned on and off throughout the lifetime of an individual
  39. 39. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture
  40. 40. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar products
  41. 41. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar products • Plant products
  42. 42. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar products • Plant products • Fermentation equipment
  43. 43. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar products • Plant products • Fermentation equipment • Viral therapies
  44. 44. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar products • Plant products • Fermentation equipment • Viral therapies • DNA sequencers for research
  45. 45. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar products • Plant products • Fermentation equipment • Viral therapies • DNA sequencers for research • Enzymes for food processing
  46. 46. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Developing Ideas for New Products
  47. 47. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Developing Ideas for New Products Ideas come from many sources:
  48. 48. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Developing Ideas for New Products Ideas come from many sources: • Discussions lead to new ideas
  49. 49. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Developing Ideas for New Products Ideas come from many sources: • Discussions lead to new ideas • Reading literature reviews can lead to new ideas
  50. 50. 1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture Developing Ideas for New Products Ideas come from many sources: • Discussions lead to new ideas • Reading literature reviews can lead to new ideas • Sometimes even daydreaming can lead to new ideas
  51. 51. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources.
  52. 52. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria:
  53. 53. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product?
  54. 54. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there?
  55. 55. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there? • Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what the company claims?
  56. 56. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there? • Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what the company claims? • Can patent protection be secured? Can the company prevent other companies from producing it?
  57. 57. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there? • Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what the company claims? • Can patent protection be secured? Can the company prevent other companies from producing it? • Can the company make a profit on the product? How much will it cost to make it? How much can it be sold for?
  58. 58. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there? • Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what the company claims? • Can patent protection be secured? Can the company prevent other companies from producing it? • Can the company make a profit on the product? How much will it cost to make it? How much can it be sold for? Situations That End Product Development
  59. 59. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there? • Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what the company claims? • Can patent protection be secured? Can the company prevent other companies from producing it? • Can the company make a profit on the product? How much will it cost to make it? How much can it be sold for? Situations That End Product Development • Product development is stopped if testing shows the product is not effective.
  60. 60. A Product Development Plan Before going into research and development, company officials must determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources. Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria: • Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product? • Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are there? • Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what the company claims? • Can patent protection be secured? Can the company prevent other companies from producing it? • Can the company make a profit on the product? How much will it cost to make it? How much can it be sold for? Situations That End Product Development • Product development is stopped if testing shows the product is not effective. • When this happens, companies can lose millions of dollars and years of research and development time.
  61. 61.   New non-pharmaceutical products must meet EPA and USDA guidelines. Pharmaceutical products must pass clinical trials on human subjects (2-5 years) to receive FDA approval. Environmental Protection Agency US Department of Agriculture Food and Drug Administration 17
  62. 62. Regulations Governing Product Development New Biotech Drug Approvals. Even with all the government regulations, the number of new drugs approved for market increased nearly seven times in the 10 years between 1990 and 2000.
  63. 63. 19
  64. 64. Vocabulary
  65. 65. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production
  66. 66. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production • Pure science – scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base
  67. 67. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production • Pure science – scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base • Virus – a particle containing a protein coat and genetic materials (either DNA or RNA) that is not living and requires a host to replicate
  68. 68. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production • Pure science – scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base • Virus – a particle containing a protein coat and genetic materials (either DNA or RNA) that is not living and requires a host to replicate • Applied science – the practice of utilizing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, including the manufacture of a product
  69. 69. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production • Pure science – scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base • Virus – a particle containing a protein coat and genetic materials (either DNA or RNA) that is not living and requires a host to replicate • Applied science – the practice of utilizing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, including the manufacture of a product • NIH – abbreviation for National Institutes of Health; the federal agency that funds and conducts biomedical research
  70. 70. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production • Pure science – scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base • Virus – a particle containing a protein coat and genetic materials (either DNA or RNA) that is not living and requires a host to replicate • Applied science – the practice of utilizing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, including the manufacture of a product • NIH – abbreviation for National Institutes of Health; the federal agency that funds and conducts biomedical research • CDC – abbreviation for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; national research center for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities to improve public health
  71. 71. Vocabulary • Research and development (R&D) – refers to the early stages in product development that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small-scale production • Pure science – scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base • Virus – a particle containing a protein coat and genetic materials (either DNA or RNA) that is not living and requires a host to replicate • Applied science – the practice of utilizing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, including the manufacture of a product • NIH – abbreviation for National Institutes of Health; the federal agency that funds and conducts biomedical research • CDC – abbreviation for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; national research center for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities to improve public health • DNA fingerprinting – an experimental technique that is commonly used to identify individuals by distinguishing their unique DNA code
  72. 72. Vocabulary
  73. 73. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment
  74. 74. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment • Efficacy – the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do
  75. 75. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment • Efficacy – the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do • Clinical trials – a strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment in humans
  76. 76. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment • Efficacy – the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do • Clinical trials – a strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment in humans • FDA – abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices
  77. 77. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment • Efficacy – the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do • Clinical trials – a strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment in humans • FDA – abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices • Therapeutic – an agent that is used to treat diseases or disorders
  78. 78. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment • Efficacy – the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do • Clinical trials – a strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment in humans • FDA – abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices • Therapeutic – an agent that is used to treat diseases or disorders • EPA – abbreviation for the Environmental Protection Agency; the federal agency that enforces environmental laws including the use and production of microorganisms, herbicides, pesticides, and genetically modified microorganisms
  79. 79. Vocabulary • Reagent – chemical used in an experiment • Efficacy – the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do • Clinical trials – a strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment in humans • FDA – abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices • Therapeutic – an agent that is used to treat diseases or disorders • EPA – abbreviation for the Environmental Protection Agency; the federal agency that enforces environmental laws including the use and production of microorganisms, herbicides, pesticides, and genetically modified microorganisms • USDA – abbreviation for United States Department of Agriculture; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of plants, plant products, plant tests, veterinary supplies and medications, and genetically modified plants and animals
  80. 80. 1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific Methodology in a Research Facility Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies
  81. 81. 1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific Methodology in a Research Facility Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies 1. State a testable scientific question or problem based on some information or observation.
  82. 82. 1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific Methodology in a Research Facility Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies 1. State a testable scientific question or problem based on some information or observation. 2. Develop a testable hypothesis.
  83. 83. 1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific Methodology in a Research Facility Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies 1. State a testable scientific question or problem based on some information or observation. 2. Develop a testable hypothesis. 3. Plan a valid experiment.
  84. 84. 1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific Methodology in a Research Facility Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies 1. State a testable scientific question or problem based on some information or observation. 2. Develop a testable hypothesis. 3. Plan a valid experiment. 4. Conduct the outlined experiment and collect and organize the data into tables, charts, graphs, or graphics.
  85. 85. 1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific Methodology in a Research Facility Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies 1. State a testable scientific question or problem based on some information or observation. 2. Develop a testable hypothesis. 3. Plan a valid experiment. 4. Conduct the outlined experiment and collect and organize the data into tables, charts, graphs, or graphics. 5. Formulate a conclusion based on experimental data and error analysis.
  86. 86. Develop a testable hypothesis
  87. 87. Data Table and Graph. Observations and measurements are reported in a data table. Individual trials (replications) as well as averages are shown. Numerical data are shown in picture form using graphs.
  88. 88. Sharing Experimental Results with the Scientific Community Once an experiment is complete, the work is reported to others through: • Publications • Presentations • Annual conferences
  89. 89. Vocabulary
  90. 90. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation
  91. 91. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable
  92. 92. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable • Variable – anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables
  93. 93. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable • Variable – anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables • Control – experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run properly; see positive control and negative control
  94. 94. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable • Variable – anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables • Control – experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run properly; see positive control and negative control • Positive control – a group of data that will give predictable positive results
  95. 95. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable • Variable – anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables • Control – experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run properly; see positive control and negative control • Positive control – a group of data that will give predictable positive results • Negative control – a group of data that will give predictable negative results
  96. 96. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable • Variable – anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables • Control – experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run properly; see positive control and negative control • Positive control – a group of data that will give predictable positive results • Negative control – a group of data that will give predictable negative results • Concentration – the amount of a substance as a proportion of another substance; usually how much mass in some amount of volume
  97. 97. Vocabulary • Data – information gathered from experimentation • Hypothesis – an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable • Variable – anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables • Control – experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run properly; see positive control and negative control • Positive control – a group of data that will give predictable positive results • Negative control – a group of data that will give predictable negative results • Concentration – the amount of a substance as a proportion of another substance; usually how much mass in some amount of volume • Journals – scientific periodicals or magazines in which scientists publish their experimental work, findings, or conclusions
  98. 98. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry
  99. 99. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries
  100. 100. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in:
  101. 101. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience
  102. 102. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical
  103. 103. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical • Agricultural
  104. 104. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical • Agricultural • Environmental
  105. 105. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical • Agricultural • Environmental • Applied chemistry
  106. 106. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical • Agricultural • Environmental • Applied chemistry • Physics
  107. 107. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical • Agricultural • Environmental • Applied chemistry • Physics • Computer science
  108. 108. 1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry • One of the fastest growing commercial industries • Career opportunities in: • Bioscience • Medical • Agricultural • Environmental • Applied chemistry • Physics • Computer science • Industry will be studying DNA sequence for most of the 21st century
  109. 109. Educational Requirements
  110. 110. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree
  111. 111. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry
  112. 112. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology
  113. 113. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics
  114. 114. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree
  115. 115. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization
  116. 116. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees
  117. 117. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science
  118. 118. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts
  119. 119. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy
  120. 120. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience
  121. 121. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions
  122. 122. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology.
  123. 123. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • Sales
  124. 124. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • Sales • Marketing
  125. 125. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • Sales • Marketing • Regulatory
  126. 126. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • • • • Sales Marketing Regulatory Legal
  127. 127. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • • • • • Sales Marketing Regulatory Legal Financial
  128. 128. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • • • • • • Sales Marketing Regulatory Legal Financial Human resources
  129. 129. Educational Requirements • Bachelor of Science Degree • Biochemistry • Molecular biology • Genetics • 2-year college degree • High school specialization • More advanced degrees • Master of Science • Master of Arts • Doctor of Philosophy • Postdoctoral research experience Nonscientific Positions Employees in nonscientific positions must have an interest in and understanding of the science of biotechnology. • • • • • • • Sales Marketing Regulatory Legal Financial Human resources Administrative staff
  130. 130. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs
  131. 131. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions
  132. 132. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development
  133. 133. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production
  134. 134. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research
  135. 135. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research • Quality Control
  136. 136. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research • Quality Control • Nonscientific Positions
  137. 137. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research • Quality Control • Nonscientific Positions • Information Systems
  138. 138. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research • Quality Control • Nonscientific Positions • Information Systems • Marketing and Sales
  139. 139. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research • Quality Control • Nonscientific Positions • Information Systems • Marketing and Sales • Regulatory Affairs
  140. 140. Categories of Biotechnology Jobs • Scientific Positions • Research and Development • Manufacturing and Production • Clinical Research • Quality Control • Nonscientific Positions • Information Systems • Marketing and Sales • Regulatory Affairs • Administration/Legal Affairs
  141. 141. Vocabulary
  142. 142. Vocabulary • Genome – one entire set of an organism’s genetic material (from a single cell)
  143. 143. Vocabulary • Genome – one entire set of an organism’s genetic material (from a single cell) • Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions occurring in living things
  144. 144. Vocabulary • Genome – one entire set of an organism’s genetic material (from a single cell) • Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions occurring in living things • Molecular biology – the study of molecules that are found in cells
  145. 145. Vocabulary • Genome – one entire set of an organism’s genetic material (from a single cell) • Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions occurring in living things • Molecular biology – the study of molecules that are found in cells • Genetics – the study of genes and how they are inherited and expressed
  146. 146. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics
  147. 147. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior?
  148. 148. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior? • As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable?
  149. 149. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior? • As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable? • How do you decide what is fair and just?
  150. 150. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior? • As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable? • How do you decide what is fair and just? Moral Standards
  151. 151. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior? • As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable? • How do you decide what is fair and just? Moral Standards • Being able to distinguish between right and wrong and to make decisions based on that knowledge is considered “having good morals.”
  152. 152. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior? • As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable? • How do you decide what is fair and just? Moral Standards • Being able to distinguish between right and wrong and to make decisions based on that knowledge is considered “having good morals.” • The study of moral standards and how they affect conduct is called ethics.
  153. 153. 1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience Bioethics • How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior? • As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable? • How do you decide what is fair and just? Moral Standards • Being able to distinguish between right and wrong and to make decisions based on that knowledge is considered “having good morals.” • The study of moral standards and how they affect conduct is called ethics. • New technologies generate ethical questions that cannot be answered using scientific methods.
  154. 154.  Define ethics  Create a code of conduct  Brainstorm bioethical issues or dilemnas 32
  155. 155. Strategy for Values Clarification
  156. 156. Strategy for Values Clarification • Identify and understand the problem or issue. Learn as much as possible about the issue.
  157. 157. Strategy for Values Clarification • Identify and understand the problem or issue. Learn as much as possible about the issue. • List all possible solutions to the issue.
  158. 158. Strategy for Values Clarification • Identify and understand the problem or issue. Learn as much as possible about the issue. • List all possible solutions to the issue. • Identify the pros and cons of adopting each solution. Examine the consequences of adopting one solution (or position) as opposed to another. Consider legal, financial, medical, personal, social, and environmental aspects.
  159. 159. Strategy for Values Clarification • Identify and understand the problem or issue. Learn as much as possible about the issue. • List all possible solutions to the issue. • Identify the pros and cons of adopting each solution. Examine the consequences of adopting one solution (or position) as opposed to another. Consider legal, financial, medical, personal, social, and environmental aspects. • Based on the pros and cons for each solution, rank all solutions from best to worst.
  160. 160. Strategy for Values Clarification • Identify and understand the problem or issue. Learn as much as possible about the issue. • List all possible solutions to the issue. • Identify the pros and cons of adopting each solution. Examine the consequences of adopting one solution (or position) as opposed to another. Consider legal, financial, medical, personal, social, and environmental aspects. • Based on the pros and cons for each solution, rank all solutions from best to worst. • Decide if the problem is important enough to take a position. If it is, decide what your position is and be prepared to describe and defend it.
  161. 161. Questions and Comments?

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