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Multimedia & Contiguity by Mark Ellis

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This is a PowerPoint presentation on the principles of multimedia and contiguity.

This is a PowerPoint presentation on the principles of multimedia and contiguity.

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  • 1. Multimedia & Contiguity Principles By Mark T. Ellis EdTech 513 Boise State University
  • 2. Objectives
    • Part I Multimedia – In this section, learners will be able to:
    • Identify guidelines and principles for using text and visual elements in multimedia presentations.
    • Identify the different types of graphics used in multimedia.
    • Select the type of graphic used on different types of presentations.
    • Part II Contiguity – In this section, learners will be able to:
    • Identify the best methods in which to integrate audio and graphics together in a multimedia presentation and e-learning environment.
    • Pick the best layout for integration of words and graphics in a multimedia/e-learning presentation.
    There are two sets of objectives for this lesson:
  • 3. Part I - Multimedia
    • The term “multimedia presentation” refers to presentations that use both words and graphics together.
    • Research on cognitive theory, which is a set of ideas on how people process information that is presented to them through their senses, states that people learn better when both words and graphics are used together in a presentation.
  • 4.
    • Guideline #1 Graphics should support the text and be relevant to the subject.
    Notice how the graphic is directly related to the content. The map clearly supports the text.
  • 5.
    • Guideline #2 Different graphics should be used for different learning situations.
    Decorative Graphics These are graphics that are used for decorative or humoristic reasons. In the scheme of multimedia, they are relatively unimportant.
  • 6. Representational Graphics These are graphics that illustrate the appearance of an object. In this case, a screen capture is being used to help explain a procedure in a computer application.
  • 7. Organizational Graphics These are visuals that show relationships among the content of a subject. This is a diagram that illustrates the social structure of a bee colony.
  • 8. Relational Graphics These are graphics and visuals that summarize quantitative relationships. Good examples of this would be a pie chart or a bar graph.
  • 9. Transformational Graphics Graphics of this nature, show changes of something over a period of time or space.
  • 10. Interpretive Visuals Visuals are graphics that make something that is intangible, visual and more solidified. As you can see, this computer network is understood much more easily with a picture that shows how the network is connected.
  • 11.
    • Guideline #3 Use different types of graphics and visuals to teach different types of content.
    Facts Use Representational or Organizational visuals if you are talking about specific information or facts Diagram Screen Capture
  • 12. Concepts You should use Interpretive, Representational or Organizational graphics if you are trying to discuss groups of objects or symbols that are represented by a single name. Screen Capture Diagram Transformational
  • 13. Process If you are trying to explain how something works, then you could use Relational, Interpretive or Transformational types of visuals Relational Interpretive Transformational
  • 14. Procedure In this case, you can use a Transformational graphic. Transformational
  • 15. Principle If you are trying show cause and effect or guidelines in the completion of a task, then you can use Interpretive and Transformational graphics. Transformational Interpretive
  • 16. Assessment on Multimedia
    • In Presentations, graphics should….
    • A) Be used for decoration most of the time.
    • B) Contain humorous content.
    • C) Support the subject matter.
    • D) Have a logo readers will recognize.
  • 17. The Answer is…
    • 1. In Presentations, graphics should….
    • A) Be used for decoration most of the time.
    • B) Contain humorous content.
    • C) Support the subject matter .
    • D) Have a logo readers will recognize.
  • 18.
    • 2. A screen capture of a computer program is a good example of hat type of graphic?
    • A) Representational graphic
    • B) Decorative graphic
    • C) Interpretive graphic
    • D) Transitional graphic
  • 19. The Answer is…
    • 2. A screen capture of a computer program is a good example of what type of graphic?
    • A) Representational graphic
    • B) Decorative graphic
    • C) Interpretive graphic
    • D) Transitional graphic
    A Representational graphic illustrates the way an object looks.
  • 20.
    • 3. Please complete this phrase: In multimedia, different types of content require different types of…?
    • A) Skills
    • B) Graphics
    • C) Layout
    • D) Animation
  • 21.
    • 3. Please complete this phrase: In multimedia, different types of content require different types of…?
    • A) Skills
    • B) Graphics
    • C) Layout
    • D) Animation
    The Answer is…
  • 22.
    • 4. This type of Graphic is best used to accompany which type of content?
    A) A Process, procedure or principal B) A Concept C) Facts and Concepts D) None of the above
  • 23.
    • 4. This type of Graphic is best used to accompany which type of content?
    A) A Process, procedure or principal B) A Concept C) Facts and Concepts D) None of the above This is what is known as a Transformational graphic The Answer is…..
  • 24.
    • 4. You should use this type of graphic if you are trying to illustrate a
    A) Fact B) Concept C) Principles and Procedures D) Process
  • 25.
    • 4. You should use this type of graphic if you are trying to illustrate a
    A) Fact B) Concept C) Principles and Procedures D) Process The Answer is….. This is what is known as a Representational or Organizational graphic
  • 26. Part II Contiguity
    • The term “Contiguity” refers to the relationship between graphics and text on a page. In other words, how graphics and text are integrated together, so that it is conducive to more efficient learning.
    • Research in this area indicates that graphics should be placed closer to the graphics that they describe.
  • 27. Guideline #1 - Place text near corresponding graphics.
    • When you are designing courseware by way of e-learning, the words or text should be as close to the graphics that they represent.
    Notice how the text is separated from the graphics. This is an example of poor contiguity.
  • 28. Text & Graphics together! Here is a good example of placing text and graphics together. This allows the mind of the average learner to hold the information and image in the mind more efficiently. The Result: Better understanding and memory recall!
  • 29. Guideline #2 – Synchronize audio spoken words with corresponding graphics. In this case, you do not want to have the graphics or animation on one page and the audio on another.
  • 30. Sounds should be integrated as close to the graphics as possible, preferably on the same page. By placing the sounds on the same page as the visual, the learners are able to retain the information more in their working memory.
  • 31. Assessment on Contiguity
    • The term “Contiguity” refers to?
    • A) The way presentation slides flow from one slide to the next.
    • B) The type of graphics that you are using.
    • C) The integration of text or audio with graphics or animation in a presentation.
    • D) Poorly designed Web pages.
  • 32. The Answer is……
    • The term “Contiguity” refers to?
    • A) The way presentation slides flow from one slide to the next.
    • B) The type of graphics that you are using.
    • C) The integration of text or audio with graphics or animation in a presentation.
    • D) Poorly designed Web pages.
  • 33.
    • 2. Which Web page is better suited for learners ?
    A. B .
  • 34.
    • 2. Which Web page is better suited for learners ?
    A. B . This page, because the picture is closer to the text.
  • 35. Resources
    • Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008) Applying the Multimedia Principle, Applying the Contiguity Principle e-Learning and the Science of Instruction (pp.31-97). San Francisco: Pfeiffer Publishing
    • Ayres, P., & Sweller, J., (2005) The split-attention principle in multimedia learning. Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 135-146). New York: Cambridge University Press