The term “multimedia presentation” refers to presentations that use both words and graphics together.
Research on cognitive theory, which is a set of ideas on how people process information that is presented to them through their senses, states that people learn better when both words and graphics are used together in a presentation.
Guideline #2 Different graphics should be used for different learning situations.
Decorative Graphics These are graphics that are used for decorative or humoristic reasons. In the scheme of multimedia, they are relatively unimportant.
Representational Graphics These are graphics that illustrate the appearance of an object. In this case, a screen capture is being used to help explain a procedure in a computer application.
Organizational Graphics These are visuals that show relationships among the content of a subject. This is a diagram that illustrates the social structure of a bee colony.
Relational Graphics These are graphics and visuals that summarize quantitative relationships. Good examples of this would be a pie chart or a bar graph.
Transformational Graphics Graphics of this nature, show changes of something over a period of time or space.
Interpretive Visuals Visuals are graphics that make something that is intangible, visual and more solidified. As you can see, this computer network is understood much more easily with a picture that shows how the network is connected.
Guideline #3 Use different types of graphics and visuals to teach different types of content.
Facts Use Representational or Organizational visuals if you are talking about specific information or facts Diagram Screen Capture
Concepts You should use Interpretive, Representational or Organizational graphics if you are trying to discuss groups of objects or symbols that are represented by a single name. Screen Capture Diagram Transformational
Process If you are trying to explain how something works, then you could use Relational, Interpretive or Transformational types of visuals Relational Interpretive Transformational
Procedure In this case, you can use a Transformational graphic. Transformational
Principle If you are trying show cause and effect or guidelines in the completion of a task, then you can use Interpretive and Transformational graphics. Transformational Interpretive
The term “Contiguity” refers to the relationship between graphics and text on a page. In other words, how graphics and text are integrated together, so that it is conducive to more efficient learning.
Research in this area indicates that graphics should be placed closer to the graphics that they describe.
Guideline #1 - Place text near corresponding graphics.
When you are designing courseware by way of e-learning, the words or text should be as close to the graphics that they represent.
Notice how the text is separated from the graphics. This is an example of poor contiguity.
Text & Graphics together! Here is a good example of placing text and graphics together. This allows the mind of the average learner to hold the information and image in the mind more efficiently. The Result: Better understanding and memory recall!
Guideline #2 – Synchronize audio spoken words with corresponding graphics. In this case, you do not want to have the graphics or animation on one page and the audio on another.
Sounds should be integrated as close to the graphics as possible, preferably on the same page. By placing the sounds on the same page as the visual, the learners are able to retain the information more in their working memory.