According to the World Food Program, the Democratic
Republic of Congo in Central Africa is the country with more
people malnourished than any other country - by far. Its
numbers indicate that 72% of all Congolese are
malnourished but India has the most malnourished
people, because there are simply very many Indians (1.2
billion). In India, an estimated 221 million people are
India has a relatively low rate of malnutrition (only 22% of all
Indians are malnourished, as compared to 72% of all
Congolese); but it has high absolute numbers of people
Malnutrition is a medical condition
caused by an improper or insufficient diet or
imbalance diet. Malnutrition is technically a
category of diseases that includes
undernutrition, obesity and overweight, and
micronutrient deficiency among
others.However, it is frequently used to
mean undernutrition from either inadequate
calories or inadequate specific dietary
Diet is a pattern of eating
that includes what a
person eats, how much a
person eats, and when a
• Under-nutrition Not enough
calories for energy
• Over-nutrition Too many
calories – obesity Wrong
kinds of food - malnutrition
Nutrition also called
nourishment or aliment or
the supply of foods required
by an organisms and cells
to stay alive.
Nutrient- chemical that an
organism needs to live and grow
or substances used in
organism’s metabolism which
must be taken from its
environment. They are used to
build and repair tissues, regulate
body processes and are
converted to and used as energy.
Carbohydrates- are compounds made
up of types of sugars.
a. monosaccharides (glucose and fructose)
b. disaccharides (sucrose and lactose)
d. polysaccharides ( starch, glycogen,
Proteins – organic compounds that consist of
amino acids. It is one of the basis components
fo food and makes all life possible. Enzymes
and many hormones of the body are proteins.
They provide the transport of nutrients ,
oxygen and waste throughout the body. They
provide the structure and contracting
capability of muscles.It is required for the
growth and repair of body tissues such as
muscles, blood, skin and hair.
Fats- consist of a glycerine molecule
three fatty acids.
Three Fatty Acids
a.Saturated Fatty acids- found in dairy products(
cream, cheese) and in butter, palm oil, coconut
oil and in meat.
b. Unsaturated Fatty Acids-
c. Essential Fatty Acids- does not manufacture
certainly by the body the diet must supply these.
essential part of everyone's diet
that falls under the category of
carbohydrates, in comparison, it does
not provide the same number of
calories, nor is it processed the way
that other sources of carbohydrates
dissolves in water to form a gel-like substance.
Sources of soluble fiber are oats, legumes
(beans, peas, and
soybeans), apples, bananas, berries, barely, some
vegetables, and psylluim.
increases the movement of material through
your digestive tract and increases your stool bulk.
Sources of insoluble fiber are whole wheat
foods, bran, nuts, seeds, and the skin of some fruits
Phosphorous- occurs in protoplasm
and nucleus of every cell. Necessary to
metabolize fats, carbohydrates and
proteins. Used with calcium in the
building of bones and teeth. Like calcium
the largest amount of phosphorous is
found in the bones. Sources: green
leaves, avocados, apples, carrots, coconut
Calcium-– the most
abundant mineral in the body.
Needed for bone and teeth
growth. Sources: milk
vegetables, fruits seeds
, nuts, oranges, strawberries, pa
Potassium- factor in tissue
elasticity, healing injuries in the
body, liver functioning and normal
bowel activity. Used in regulation of
nerve and muscle action and need for
intercellular fluid balance. Sources:
bananas, tomatoes, carrots, green
avocados, papayas, melons, cabbage.
Sulfur- found in the hair, nails
cartilage and blood.Essential in
digestion and elimination, bile
secretion, and purification and toning
of the system.Sources:
pineapples, watermelon, strawberries,
oranges, avocados, tomtoes, carrots, a
Chlorine- Required for
digestion and elimination.
Needed for normal heart
coconuts, bananas, pineaples,
mangoes, strawberries, avocad
Sodium- utilized in the
formation of digestive
juices and elimination of
carbon dioxide. Sources:
Melons, Cabbage, carrots, s
Fluorine- Found in the
bones, teeth, blood, skin, nails
and hair. Essentials to the
body’s healing processes.
Magnesium- Found in blood
albumen, bones and teeth.
Necessary for strengthening the
nerves and muscles and in
conditioning the liver and glands.
Sources: Green vegetable leaves,
avocados, bananas, mangoes
Iron- found primarily in the
haemoglobin of the body. And
closely connected with the
quality of blood. Sources:
Green vegetable leaves,
Zinc- found in the brain, genital
organs, thyroid, liver, and kidneys.
Needed in the healing of
wounds, transfer of carbon dioxide to
the lungs. It is also required in the
manufacture of insulin and in the
regulation of blood sugar. Sources:
Green and yellow vegetables seeds and
B. Trace minerals- are a group of
minerals that the body needs in very
small amounts. The recommended
dietary allowance (RDA) for most
vitamins and minerals is 800 to 1,200
milligrams per day. For trace
minerals, the RDA averages between
0.2 milligrams and 15 milligrams per
day, depending on the mineral.
2. Vitamins- vital
minerals used by
the body in a
variety of ways.
Two types of Vitamins
a. Fat – soluble vitamins- type of vitamins
that are stored in the liver and fat tissue of
the body until they are needed. Include
vitamin A, D, E and K.
b. Water- soluble vitamins- not stored in
the body and must be replenished on a
daily basis. Include B vitamins and
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Promotes healthy cell growth; used in cell
division and specialisation throughout the
body; and helps regulate the immune
system. Poisonous if taken to excess.
Deficiency may cause rickets, osteomalacia
- made in the body by exposure to UV rays
Uses: promotes the absorption of calcium
and phosphorous that are vital in forming
and maintaining strong bones. It may also
be involved in regulating cell growth and
maintaining a healthy immune system.
Vitamin E (Tocopherols)
Uses: as a powerful source of antioxidants; is
involved in immune system function; DNA
repair; the protection of blood cells, the
nervous system, muscles and the retinas.
Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
Responsible for regulating the ability of
the blood to clot
Good sources - leafy green
vegetables, avocado, kiwi fruit. Parsley
contain a lot of vitamin K.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Deficiency may cause beriberi, WernickeKorsakoffsyndrome
Uses: helps supports the normal function of the
nervous system, muscles and heart.
Good sources - yeast, pork, cereal
grains, sunflower seeds, brown rice, whole grain
rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oran
ges, liver, and eggs.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Uses: red blood cell and antibody
production; respiration; and regulating
human growth and reproduction.
Deficiency may cause ariboflavinosis
Good sources asparagus, bananas, persimmons, okra, ch
cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, fish, and
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Deficiency may cause pellagra
Uses: in the digestive and nervous systems;
promotes healthy skin. Helps balance good and
Good sources liver, heart, kidney, chicken, beef, fish
(tuna, salmon), milk, eggs, avocados, dates, to
vegetables, broccoli, carrots, sweet
potatoes, asparagus, nuts, whole
Vitamin B5 (Panthothenic Acid)
Deficiency may cause paresthesia
Uses: normal growth; metabolism of fat
and sugar to energy.
Good sources - meats, whole grains
(milling may remove it), broccoli,
avocados, royal jelly, fish ovaries.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Deficiency may cause anemia, peripheral
Uses: to balance the hormonal changes in
women; assists in the growth of new cells and
the functioning of the immune system; and in
controlling moods, behaviour and sex drive.
Good sources - meats, bananas, whole grains,
vegetables, and nuts. When milk is dried it loses
about half of its B6. Freezing and canning can
also reduce content.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia
Uses: The primary functions are to maintain a
healthy nervous system and to produce red
Good sources fish, shellfish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and dairy
products. Some fortified cereals and soy
products, as well as fortified nutritional yeast.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia and
It is used in forming collagen, cartilage, muscle
and blood vessels and in maintaining bones and
teeth, and in the absorption of iron.
Good sources - fruit and vegetables. The Kakadu
plum and the camu camu fruit have the highest
vitamin C contents of all foods. Liver also has
3. Water- essential
nutrient and solvent in
which all the chemical
reactions takes place.
FOOD PYRAMID CAN GUIDE
YOU ON WHAT TO EAT AND
HOW MUCH OF THESE FOOD
TO EAT IN A DAY.
NOTE: IT IS BETTER TO CONSULT TO
DIETICIAN OR NUTRITIONIST?
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE
Both dietitians and nutritionists are considered
health professions that advise patients or clients
on the principles of good nutrition and the
planning of diets and menus. Though both may
educate clients on healthful eating, wellness or
weight management, there are considerable
differences in the education, function and
salaries of dietitians and nutritionists.
Dietitians and nutritionists plan food and
nutrition programs, and supervise the
preparation and serving of meals. They
help prevent and treat illnesses by
promoting healthy eating habits and
suggesting diet modifications.
Dietitians run food service systems for
institutions such as hospitals and
schools, promote sound eating habits
through education, and conduct research.
Major areas of practice include
clinical, community, management, and
A registered dietitian (RD) has at
minimum a four-year college
degree, normally in dietetics, food
service management or nutrition
Anyone with an interest in
nutrition can call herself a
A dietitian has undertaken a course of study
that included substantial theory and
supervised and assessed professional
practice in clinical nutrition, medical nutrition
therapy and food service management.
All dietitians are considered to be nutritionists
however, nutritionists without a dietetics
qualification cannot take on the specialized
role of a dietitian.
Food- any substance
consumed to provide
nutrional support to the
body usually of plant or
animal origin and contains
Food Group -is a
collection of foods that
share similar nutritional
properties or biological
Grains- also called
cereals. Often largest
category in nutrition
guides. Ex. Wheat.
Rice, oats, bread and
categorized with fruits.
Typically a large category
second only to grains or
sometimes equal to grains. Ex.
Spinach, carrots, onions
vegetables. Typically a
medium sized category
in nutrition guides.
Meat- sometimes labeled
medium to smaller size
Pork, beef, fish.
Dairy- also called milk
categorized with milk
altrnatives. Typically a smaller
category in nutrition guides.
Ex. Milk. Yogurt, cheese
Fats and Oils- sometimes
categorized with sweets.
Typically a very small
category in nutrition guides
and sometimes listed apart
from other food group.Ex.
Cooking oil, butter, magarine
Sweets- also called
sugary foods.Typically a
very small category. Ex.
Candy, softdrinks, cake,
pie and ice cream
Water- treated in differen way by
different food guides. Some
exclude the category, others make
itseparately others make it the
center or foundation of the guide.
Ex. Fruit juice, tea, soup, Typically
recommended in plentiful