Nutrition Health grade 7 2nd Quarter


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Nutrition Health grade 7 2nd Quarter

  1. 1. Do you eat meals regularly?
  2. 2. Did you eat the right food you need for good health?
  3. 3. Are you getting the nutrients you needs from the food you eat?
  4. 4. Were you be able to follow most of the nutritional guidelines?
  5. 5. Maybe most of you can answer YES… but how about them?
  6. 6. What can you say about them?
  7. 7. According to the World Food Program, the Democratic Republic of Congo in Central Africa is the country with more people malnourished than any other country - by far. Its numbers indicate that 72% of all Congolese are malnourished but India has the most malnourished people, because there are simply very many Indians (1.2 billion). In India, an estimated 221 million people are malnourished. India has a relatively low rate of malnutrition (only 22% of all Indians are malnourished, as compared to 72% of all Congolese); but it has high absolute numbers of people being malnourished.
  8. 8. Malnutrition is a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet or imbalance diet. Malnutrition is technically a category of diseases that includes undernutrition, obesity and overweight, and micronutrient deficiency among others.However, it is frequently used to mean undernutrition from either inadequate calories or inadequate specific dietary
  9. 9. Diet is a pattern of eating that includes what a person eats, how much a person eats, and when a person eats.
  10. 10. Poor Nutrition • Under-nutrition Not enough calories for energy Inadequate nutrients • Over-nutrition Too many calories – obesity Wrong kinds of food - malnutrition
  11. 11. Nutrition also called nourishment or aliment or the supply of foods required by an organisms and cells to stay alive.
  12. 12. Nutrient- chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or substances used in organism’s metabolism which must be taken from its environment. They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes and are converted to and used as energy.
  13. 13. Types of Nutrients
  14. 14. Macronutrients- those that are needed in larger quantities a. chemical elementscarbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulphur. b. chemical compoundscarbohydrates, proteins and fats
  15. 15. Micronutrients -those that are needed in very small amounts. Usually minerals and vitamins
  16. 16. Essential nutrients – unable to synthesized internally and so must be consumed by an organism from its environment.
  17. 17. Non-essential nutrientsthose nutrients that can be made by the body, they may often also be absorbed from consumed food.
  18. 18. Substances that provide energy
  19. 19. Carbohydrates- are compounds made up of types of sugars. a. monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) b. disaccharides (sucrose and lactose) c. oligosaccharides d. polysaccharides ( starch, glycogen, cellulose)
  20. 20. Proteins – organic compounds that consist of amino acids. It is one of the basis components fo food and makes all life possible. Enzymes and many hormones of the body are proteins. They provide the transport of nutrients , oxygen and waste throughout the body. They provide the structure and contracting capability of muscles.It is required for the growth and repair of body tissues such as muscles, blood, skin and hair.
  21. 21. Fats- consist of a glycerine molecule with three fatty acids. Three Fatty Acids a.Saturated Fatty acids- found in dairy products( cream, cheese) and in butter, palm oil, coconut oil and in meat. b. Unsaturated Fatty Acids- c. Essential Fatty Acids- does not manufacture certainly by the body the diet must supply these.
  22. 22. Fiber essential part of everyone's diet that falls under the category of carbohydrates, in comparison, it does not provide the same number of calories, nor is it processed the way that other sources of carbohydrates are.
  23. 23. •Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like substance. Sources of soluble fiber are oats, legumes (beans, peas, and soybeans), apples, bananas, berries, barely, some vegetables, and psylluim. •Insoluble fiber increases the movement of material through your digestive tract and increases your stool bulk. Sources of insoluble fiber are whole wheat foods, bran, nuts, seeds, and the skin of some fruits and vegetables.
  24. 24. Substances that support metabolism
  25. 25. 1.Dietary Minerals chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, an d oxygen
  26. 26. Six recommended dietary allowances minerals a. Calcium b. phosphorousc. iodined. iron e. zinc f. magnesium
  27. 27. A.Major minerals in the body
  28. 28. Phosphorous- occurs in protoplasm and nucleus of every cell. Necessary to metabolize fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Used with calcium in the building of bones and teeth. Like calcium the largest amount of phosphorous is found in the bones. Sources: green vegetable leaves, avocados, apples, carrots, coconut
  29. 29. Calcium-– the most abundant mineral in the body. Needed for bone and teeth growth. Sources: milk products, green vegetables, fruits seeds , nuts, oranges, strawberries, pa
  30. 30. Potassium- factor in tissue elasticity, healing injuries in the body, liver functioning and normal bowel activity. Used in regulation of nerve and muscle action and need for intercellular fluid balance. Sources: bananas, tomatoes, carrots, green vegetable leaves avocados, papayas, melons, cabbage.
  31. 31. Sulfur- found in the hair, nails cartilage and blood.Essential in digestion and elimination, bile secretion, and purification and toning of the system.Sources: pineapples, watermelon, strawberries, oranges, avocados, tomtoes, carrots, a
  32. 32. Chlorine- Required for digestion and elimination. Needed for normal heart activity.Sources: coconuts, bananas, pineaples, mangoes, strawberries, avocad os, tomatoes.
  33. 33. Sodium- utilized in the formation of digestive juices and elimination of carbon dioxide. Sources: Melons, Cabbage, carrots, s trawberries
  34. 34. Fluorine- Found in the bones, teeth, blood, skin, nails and hair. Essentials to the body’s healing processes. Sources: Green vegetables, carrots
  35. 35. Magnesium- Found in blood albumen, bones and teeth. Necessary for strengthening the nerves and muscles and in conditioning the liver and glands. Sources: Green vegetable leaves, avocados, bananas, mangoes
  36. 36. Iron- found primarily in the haemoglobin of the body. And closely connected with the quality of blood. Sources: Green vegetable leaves, lettuce
  37. 37. Zinc- found in the brain, genital organs, thyroid, liver, and kidneys. Needed in the healing of wounds, transfer of carbon dioxide to the lungs. It is also required in the manufacture of insulin and in the regulation of blood sugar. Sources: Green and yellow vegetables seeds and
  38. 38. B. Trace minerals- are a group of minerals that the body needs in very small amounts. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for most vitamins and minerals is 800 to 1,200 milligrams per day. For trace minerals, the RDA averages between 0.2 milligrams and 15 milligrams per day, depending on the mineral.
  39. 39. Trace minerals include: •iron •zinc •manganese •copper •fluoride •Molybdenum • iodine •chromium •selenium
  40. 40. 2. Vitamins- vital minerals used by the body in a variety of ways.
  41. 41. Two types of Vitamins a. Fat – soluble vitamins- type of vitamins that are stored in the liver and fat tissue of the body until they are needed. Include vitamin A, D, E and K. b. Water- soluble vitamins- not stored in the body and must be replenished on a daily basis. Include B vitamins and Vitamin C
  42. 42. Fat – soluble vitamins-
  43. 43. Vitamin A (Retinol) Promotes healthy cell growth; used in cell division and specialisation throughout the body; and helps regulate the immune system. Poisonous if taken to excess.
  44. 44. Vitamin D. Deficiency may cause rickets, osteomalacia - made in the body by exposure to UV rays (sunlight). Uses: promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorous that are vital in forming and maintaining strong bones. It may also be involved in regulating cell growth and maintaining a healthy immune system.
  45. 45. Vitamin E (Tocopherols) Uses: as a powerful source of antioxidants; is involved in immune system function; DNA repair; the protection of blood cells, the nervous system, muscles and the retinas.
  46. 46. Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones) Responsible for regulating the ability of the blood to clot Good sources - leafy green vegetables, avocado, kiwi fruit. Parsley contain a lot of vitamin K.
  47. 47. Water- soluble vitamins-
  48. 48. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Deficiency may cause beriberi, WernickeKorsakoffsyndrome Uses: helps supports the normal function of the nervous system, muscles and heart. Good sources - yeast, pork, cereal grains, sunflower seeds, brown rice, whole grain rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oran ges, liver, and eggs.
  49. 49. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Uses: red blood cell and antibody production; respiration; and regulating human growth and reproduction. Deficiency may cause ariboflavinosis Good sources asparagus, bananas, persimmons, okra, ch ard, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, fish, and green beans.
  50. 50. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Deficiency may cause pellagra Uses: in the digestive and nervous systems; promotes healthy skin. Helps balance good and bad cholesterols. Good sources liver, heart, kidney, chicken, beef, fish (tuna, salmon), milk, eggs, avocados, dates, to matoes, leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes, asparagus, nuts, whole
  51. 51. Vitamin B5 (Panthothenic Acid) Deficiency may cause paresthesia Uses: normal growth; metabolism of fat and sugar to energy. Good sources - meats, whole grains (milling may remove it), broccoli, avocados, royal jelly, fish ovaries.
  52. 52. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency may cause anemia, peripheral neuropathy Uses: to balance the hormonal changes in women; assists in the growth of new cells and the functioning of the immune system; and in controlling moods, behaviour and sex drive. Good sources - meats, bananas, whole grains, vegetables, and nuts. When milk is dried it loses about half of its B6. Freezing and canning can also reduce content.
  53. 53. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia Uses: The primary functions are to maintain a healthy nervous system and to produce red blood cells. Good sources fish, shellfish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and dairy products. Some fortified cereals and soy products, as well as fortified nutritional yeast.
  54. 54. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia and scurvy It is used in forming collagen, cartilage, muscle and blood vessels and in maintaining bones and teeth, and in the absorption of iron. Good sources - fruit and vegetables. The Kakadu plum and the camu camu fruit have the highest vitamin C contents of all foods. Liver also has vitamin C.
  55. 55. 3. Water- essential nutrient and solvent in which all the chemical reactions takes place.
  56. 56. Healthful Eating Guidelines
  57. 57. Eat a variety of foods everyday
  58. 58. Use iodized salt but avoid the intake of salty foods
  59. 59. Eat clean and safe food
  60. 60. Follow good eating habit
  61. 61. Drink enough water daily
  62. 62. Exercise regularly, do not smoke and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.
  63. 63. Always considered the food guide pyramid
  64. 64. FOOD PYRAMID is a pyramid shaped guide of healthy foods divided into sections to show the recommended intake for each food group. The first food pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974.
  68. 68. Both dietitians and nutritionists are considered health professions that advise patients or clients on the principles of good nutrition and the planning of diets and menus. Though both may educate clients on healthful eating, wellness or weight management, there are considerable differences in the education, function and salaries of dietitians and nutritionists.
  69. 69. Dietitians and nutritionists plan food and nutrition programs, and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. They help prevent and treat illnesses by promoting healthy eating habits and suggesting diet modifications.
  70. 70. Dietitians run food service systems for institutions such as hospitals and schools, promote sound eating habits through education, and conduct research. Major areas of practice include clinical, community, management, and consultant dietetics.
  71. 71.  A registered dietitian (RD) has at minimum a four-year college degree, normally in dietetics, food service management or nutrition  Anyone with an interest in nutrition can call herself a nutritionist.
  72. 72.  A dietitian has undertaken a course of study that included substantial theory and supervised and assessed professional practice in clinical nutrition, medical nutrition therapy and food service management.  All dietitians are considered to be nutritionists however, nutritionists without a dietetics qualification cannot take on the specialized role of a dietitian.
  73. 73. Food- any substance consumed to provide nutrional support to the body usually of plant or animal origin and contains essential nutrients.
  74. 74. Food Group -is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classifications.
  75. 75. Grains- also called cereals. Often largest category in nutrition guides. Ex. Wheat. Rice, oats, bread and pasta
  76. 76. Vegetables- sometimes categorized with fruits. Typically a large category second only to grains or sometimes equal to grains. Ex. Spinach, carrots, onions
  77. 77. Fruit- sometimes categorized with vegetables. Typically a medium sized category in nutrition guides.
  78. 78. Meat- sometimes labeled protein.Typically a medium to smaller size category.Ex. Chicken. Pork, beef, fish.
  79. 79. Dairy- also called milk products sometimes categorized with milk altrnatives. Typically a smaller category in nutrition guides. Ex. Milk. Yogurt, cheese
  80. 80. Fats and Oils- sometimes categorized with sweets. Typically a very small category in nutrition guides and sometimes listed apart from other food group.Ex. Cooking oil, butter, magarine
  81. 81. Sweets- also called sugary foods.Typically a very small category. Ex. Candy, softdrinks, cake, pie and ice cream
  82. 82. Water- treated in differen way by different food guides. Some exclude the category, others make itseparately others make it the center or foundation of the guide. Ex. Fruit juice, tea, soup, Typically recommended in plentiful amounts.