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White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
White paper openmtc
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White paper openmtc

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  • 1. OpenMTC Platform A Generic M2M Communication Platform November 2012
  • 2. 1. Introduction Machine-2-Machine (M2M) connectivity technologies aim to enable remotely sensing, monitoring, and controlling devices by allowing diverse (real and virtual) objects to communicate with each other without the need of human intervention. In addition to routing data between objects, M2M gives the possibility to organize, trace exchanges, manage communicating objects and minimize related communication costs. M2M, Machine Type Communication (MTC), or Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the basic pillars of the Future Internet, beside the Internet of Content (IoC), and Internet of Services (IoS), enabling seamless Smart City communications and applications. Although the concept behind the M2M communications is not completely new, Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been utilized in control and manufacturing industries since the 1970s. However, it is predicted that in the next decade the M2M market will witness accelerated growth. The forecasts regarding revenue or number of future M2M-connections may vary, but it is expected that there will be more machines Table of Content 1. Introduction 1 2. M2M Platform Technical Requirement 3 2.1. Standardization 4 3. The OpenMTC Platform 5 3.1. Client/Server RESTful Architecture 5 3.2. Standard End-to-End M2M Solution 6 3.3. Associated Software Development Kit (SDK) 7 3.4. Interworking with telecommunication Cores 7 4. Reference Use Cases 8 5. Summary 10 1
  • 3. connected to the Internet than human beings. Machina Research estimates that by 2020 there will be 12 billion M2M connections globally, up from 2 billion in 2011, and 1.6 billion devices will be connected to fixed broadband in 2020 [1]. Due to Machina Research Utilities, Automotive and Healthcare will be the most significant ‘industry’ verticals, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The motivation of this new trend in operator networking is two-fold: technical and economic. On one hand the advancement of semiconductor industry shrinking lithography continues to reduce chipset cost and power consumption, and embeds more sensors into devices used in different aspects in our daily life. On the other hand the technology evolution in Internet and advanced wireless networks make it possible to provide broadband data service at a significantly lower cost per bit transferred Figure 1. M2M connections by sectors, 2020 [Source: Machina Research 2011] than in the past. In addition recently the mobile market becomes saturated and highly competitive, which raises the need to introduce new potential services to fill the revenue gap. For mobile operators alone, ABI Research, a technology market research firm, estimates annual revenue in 2016 of US$35bn (€26bn), with automotive accounting for the biggest single sector [2]. 2
  • 4. 2. M2M Platform Technical Requirement A new platform is needed to suffice the requirement of the new communication paradigm that will be coming from largescale M2M communication scenarios. Previous network architectures (e.g., IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)) were built to be connection-oriented, suitable to support Human-to-Human (H2H) and Human-toMachine (H2M) communications. However, M2M presumes the independent communication between a large number of devices, sensors and actuators – and service platforms, which in turn presumes the transmission of large amount of data of heterogeneous types and sizes over the network. For instance some M2M devices will have restricted processing, memory and transceiver resources. And they will be placed in less accessible or critical locations. collection while having a sensor-level granularity and actuation of specific sensors in specific network locations. Therefore it is important to optimize the usage of the M2M platform interfaces in order to address interoperability and scalability issues and facilitating the harmonization of services into interoperable services, eventually forming the Internet of Services (IoS). b) Data Processing The general requirements in the design and implementation of M2M systems, which are tailored to machines rather than human, can by summarize in the following: M2M platforms share many of the key challenges similar to large scale data initiatives, in terms of handling the data streams aggregated from billions of devices, and make them usable by various applications. As huge amounts of data and information are provided to the system, methods need to be involved in understanding, combination, and processing the content aggregated from different sources and in different formats in order to address the Internet of Content (IoC) challenges. a) Optimal Network Design c) Security and Privacy The main goal of M2M platforms is to connect efficiently a great number of devices and associate them to a set of services. One main factor influencing the connectivity of the devices to services is related to the operational costs. It is assumed that M2M data traffic is different from the one of human-based communication due to the specialized functions involved e.g., large data Most M2M applications are influenced to the robustness and security of the communications such as eHealth or SmartGrid. Therefore, an M2M platform has to be secured directly from the design. The communication of the devices and the network core should be secured against a large variety of security threats. A major role in securing the communication between 3
  • 5. machines/devises is held by the network providers which are able to notify the M2M platforms on the availability of the device in the network, on its reachability parameters as well as on the security credentials for secure data exchanging.   d) Governance M2M applications involve many different stakeholders, such as distinct application providers, devices vendors, radio and core network providers. In order to be able to manage consistently the overall system, flexible horizontal solutions are needed for sharing skills, network infrastructures and devices between stakeholders. Through this horizontal middleware proper governance can be realized avoiding the mishandling of sensitive data and unsuitable access grants. 2.1. Standardization   functional architecture for Machine Type Communications (MTC). The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) [5] specifies the Lightweight M2M Protocol for limited capability devices. ZigBee Alliance [6], a suite of high level communication protocols using small and low-power digital radios. Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) [7] established the TR-50.1 Smart Device Communications Engineering Committee, aiming to develop an M2M Communications framework that can operate over different underlying transport networks. oneM2M, a consortium of several standards development bodies to reduce the standardisation overlap by providing ongoing standards support, and increase the ability of M2M solutions and produces to interoperate [8]. Recognizing the need for reliable network infrastructures and the associated challenges, various standards developing organizations (SDO) have recently promoted several standardization activities in the M2M communication domain, just to mention a few:   European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) TC M2M [3] mainly focusing on the service middleware layer. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) [4] address requirements and 4
  • 6. 3. The OpenMTC Platform The OpenMTC platform is a prototype implementation of an M2M middleware aiming to provide a standard compliant platform for Smart City and M2M services. It has been designed to act as a horizontal convergence layer supporting multiple vertical application domains, such as transport and logistics, utilities, automotive, eHealth, etc., which may be deployed independently or as part of a common platform. OpenMTC features are aligned with ETSI M2M Rel. 1 specifications. OpenMTC mainly consist of two service capability layers, a gateway service capability layer (GSCL) and a network service capability layer (NSCL). Those have been defined and specified by the ETSI Technical Committee M2M in [9] and [10]. Following ETSI capabilities are supported in OpenMTC:         Generic Communication (xGC) Application Enablement (xAE) Reachability, Addressing and Repository (xRAR) Remote Entity Management (xREM) Interworking Proxy (xIP) Security Capability (SEC) Network Communication Selection (NCS) Network Telco Operator Exposure (NTOE) Figure 3 depicts the OpenMTC architecture, showing supported capabilities in GSCL and NSCL and possible interworking with other telecommunication cores. OpenMTC is a cooperative development of Fraunhofer FOKUS and Technische Universität Berlin (TUB). 3.1. Client/Server Architecture RESTful OpenMTC supports a client/server based RESTful architecture with a hierarchical resource tree defined by ETSI. This style governs how M2M Applications (xA) and gateway and network capability layers (xSCL) are exchanging information and data with each other. Each entity in the M2M system (application, gateway, or device) is presented by uniquely addressable resource in the hierarchical tree, which can be accessed and manipulated by CRUD verbs (i.e. Create, Retrieve, Update and Delete) over different stateless transport protocols (e.g., HTTP). Adopting the RESTful style facilitates the development of M2M applications, due to its simplicity in comparison with most serviceoriented architecture (SOA) technologies. 5
  • 7. 3.2. Standard End-to-End M2M Solution ETSI specifications define three interfaces: mIa, dIa and mId, as depicted in Fig. 2, which offer generic and extendable mechanism for interactions with the xSCL. The mIa interface mediates the interactions between applications in the application domain (NA) and the Network SCL (NSCL), the dIa interface mediate the interactions between applications in the M2M network area - Figure 2. OpenMTC Architecture 6
  • 8. being Gateway applications (GA) or Device Applications (DA) – and the gateway SCL, and the mId interface mediate interactions between xSCL. Communication over all interfaces is independent of the transport protocol. HTTP is commonly used as transport protocol with RESTful-based services, CRUD operations are mapped to HTTP methods POST, GET, PUT and DELETE. However, M2M devices are generally resource-constrained devices, i.e. they are limited in memory, energy and computation power. Therefore HTTP is most likely difficult to implement in them, and many protocols have been standardized to incorporate such devices into the Internet. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is emerging to support essential features required for constrained M2M devices, such as low header overhead. Currently only HTTP is supported as a transport protocol in OpenMTC platform. 3.3. Associated Software Development Kit (SDK) To support the development of innovative M2M applications easily and quickly, the OpenMTC toolkit provides a Software Development Kit (SDK) to make the core assets and service capabilities available to 3rd party developers. The OpenMTC SDK provides M2M applications with standard interfaces toward the OpenMTC that consists of different service capabilities meant to support interactions between machines, for example sending data gathered from sensors to web servers and executing actions according to specific criteria. The OpenMTC SDK consist a set of high-level abstraction Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) which hide internal system details, and allow the developer to concentrate in the implementing logic. The mIa Interface of the OpenMTC is exposed to the FOKUS Broker [11] allowing telecommunication and Internet services composition with M2M services, facilitating Smart Application development for Smart City. 3.4. Interworking telecommunication Cores with OpenMTC capabilities support interworking with other telecommunication cores, such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and Evolved Packet Core (EPC). Translating the information exchanged from sensors and devices into Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) messages enables the usage of IMS for various M2M applications. Through this means, the M2M communication can rely on the security and reliability of IMS. EPC provides advanced networking capabilities, such as policy and charging control, OpenMTC relay on the OpenEPC [12] for connectivity selection management and carrier grade Quality of Service (QoS). 7
  • 9. 4. Reference Use Cases The OpenMTC platform can be applied to any use case as an enabler to a Smart City system. Following references use cases are implemented to demonstrate the OpenMTC capabilities: a) Smart Home Making our environment smart is one of the popular M2M applications. With Smart Home applications the user gets the possibility to configure the system for various purposes, such as home automation, security, and control energy consumption. Fig. 3 shows screenshots of client applications used for the demo. In a control energy consumption scenario, the user will get notifications about still switched-on devices as soon as he exits a certain userdefined radius from home, and the user client application presents a list of supported actions, e.g. switch off one or more devices. Interested readers are referred to [13] for full description of this demonstration. Fig 3. SmartHome client screenshots: IMS client (left) and Android application (right) 8
  • 10. b) Location Rating Point-of-Sale (POS) marketing is kind of Location-aware services, used to attract retail shoppers at the point of a purchase. In addition to the user/device profile; which provides information for the service delivery, the location specific aspects (popularity, etc.) can be used to enhance the service/ application experience. In this user case, the OpenMTC platform will use the location of specific resources in order create a rating for a specific area. Gateways (GSCLs) equipped with technologies like Bluetooth or 802.11, collect and store the sensors data in containers, in addition to location infor- mation of themselves. The containers are published in the NSCL M2M resource tree (through announcements). Through the mIa interface network applications (NA) get access to this information and derive answers to questions similar to: How many people are in the area XYZ? How many people visit the area XYZ between 10:0014:00? Fig. 4 shows a screenshot of a demo application display the disruption of wifi vendors in a specific location. Figure 4. Location rating screenshot 9
  • 11. 5. Summary M2M technologies can be beneficially applied to a broad range of applications and services in Smart Cities, by creating a scalable IPbased environment where machines can communicate with each other without human intervention. Currently, service providers are building new eco-systems with partner vendors to offer new innovative services for M2M and Smart Cities. Standards like ETSI TC M2M can help in accelerating the development of globally accepted solutions for M2M. In this paper, we present the OpenMTC Platform, which aims to provide a standard-oriented middleware platform for M2M applications and services, enabling research and development of M2M systems. OpenMTC helps to be prepared for the upcoming all-IP NGN and M2M world using an open and vendor independent testbed infrastructure. 10
  • 12. Reference [1] Machina Research, “Connected Intelligence Database”, October2011. [2] ABI research, “Maximizing Mobile Operator Opportunities in M2M - The Benefits of an M2M-Optimized Network”, 2010 [3] ETSI –M2M [online] http://www.etsi.org/website/technologies/m2m.aspx [4] 3GPP, “System Improvements for Machine-Type Communications,” TR 23.888 V0.5.1., July 2010 [5] OMA - Open Mobile Alliance [online] http://www.openmobilealliance.org/ [6] Zigbee [online] http://www.zigbee.org/ [7] Telecommunications Industry Association [online] http://www.tiaonline.org/tags/m2m [8] OneM2M [online] http://www.onem2m.org/ [9] ETSI TS 102.690, “Machine-to-Machine communications (M2M); Functional architecture,” December 2011. [10] ETSI TS 102.921 V1.1.1, “Machine-to-Machine communications (M2M); mIa, dIa and mId interfaces“, February 2012 [11] FOKUS Broker - Policy-based Service Access, Orchestration and Composition [online] http://www.fokus.fraunhofer.de/en/fokus_testbeds/open_soa_telco_playground /software/fokus_broker/index.html [12] OpenEPC - Open Evolved Packet Core [online] http://www.openepc.net/ [13] Wahle, S.; Magedanz, T.; Schulze, F.; , "The OpenMTC framework — M2M solutions for smart cities and the internet of things," 2012 IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM) , pp.1-3, 25-28 June 2012, doi: 10.1109/WoWMoM.2012.6263737 11
  • 13. List of Acronyms Related to M2M 3GPP AE API CN CoAP EPC GC GIP HTTP IMS IoC IoS IoT JSON M2M MIME MTC NGN QoS RAR REM REST RTC SCL SDK SOA SOAP WoT XML Third Generation Partnership Project Application Enablement Application Programming Interface Core Network Constrained Application Protocol Evolved Packet Core Generic Communication Gateway Interworking Proxy HyperText Transfer Protocol IP Multimedia Subsystem Internet of Content Internet of Services Internet of Things JavaScript Object Notation Machine-to-Machine Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions Machine Type Communication Next Generation Network Quality of Service Reachability, Addressing and Repository Remote Entity Management Representational State Transfer Real-Time Communications Service Capability Layer Software Development Kit Service-Oriented Architecture Simple Object Access Protocol Web of Things eXtensible Markup Language 12
  • 14. Contact More information about OpenMTC can be found at: www.open-mtc.org Contact the experts at: info@open-mtc.org Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems FOKUS Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 31 10589 Berlin, Germany www.fokus.fraunhofer.de

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