WHAT IS IT ? THE FORCES ACTING ON OR WITHIN AN ORGANISM TOENERGIZING AND DIRECT BEHAVIOR THE CONCEPT TO EXPLAIN DIFFERENCES IN THEINTENSITY OF BEHAVIOR.MORE INTENSE BEHAVIORS ARE CONSIDER ED TO BETHE RESULT OF HIGHER LEVELS OF MOTIVATION THE CONCEPT TO INDICATE THE DIR ECTION OFBEHAVIOR.W HEN YOU AR HUNGR YOU DIRECT YOUR BEHAVIOR E Y,IN WAYS TO GET FOOD
THEORIST HAVE DIFFERED IN THEIR EXPLANATIONS OF THE MECHANISM THAT ACTIVATE & DIRECT BEHAVIOR INSTINCTIVE THEORIES : MOTIVATION IS THE RESULT OF PHYSICAL NEEDS ; FOOD, W ATER SEX, , AVOIDANCE OF PAIN COGNITIVE THEOR IES : OUR THOUGHTS, FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES CAN MOTIVATE US. Contoh : orang yang percaya akan berhasil pada suatu tugas akan rajin berusaha; yang percaya dirinya tidak mempunyai kemampuan tidak akan berusaha. Jadi perasaan atau pikiran dapat memberi atau tidak memberi motivasi. Teori kognitif menyatakan bahwa untuk mengerti motivasi tingkah laku perlu mengerti proses yang
SOCIAL APPROACH : W ARE SOCIALLY MOTIVATED. E W INTERACT W E ITH OTHERS, AND THIS INTERACTION BOTH GENER ATES & DIRECTS BEHAVIOR. THIS APPROACH POINT OUT THE MOTIVATING PROPERTIES OF THE PR ESENCE OF OTHERS. ACTUALIZATION APPR OACH : THE BASIC MOTIVE OF ALL HUMANS IS TO BECOME AS PERSONALLY FULFILLED AS W CAN. E THIS APPROACH STRESS THE POSITIVE NATURE OF BEHAVIOR & HAVE POINT OF VIEW THAT W STRIVE E TO CONTROL OR AFFECT OUR ENVIRONMENT.
MAJOR CONSTRUCT IN MOTIVATION DIGUNAKAN untuk MEMAHAMI PER BEDAAN KONSEP TEORI2 MOTIVASI. 1. ENERGYTHERE’S some SOURCE OF ENERGY that DRIVES BEHAVIORSOME THEOR IST have PROPOSED that just ONE SOURCE of ENERGY EXIST for ALL BEHAVIOR, that the ENERGY BEHIND BEHAVIOR IS GENER AL.
OTHER THEORIST have PROPOSED that the FORCE BEHIND PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR IS SPECIFIC. ENERGI-ACTIVATING BEHAVIOR can also serve a DIRECTING BEHAVIOR, because EACH BEHAVIOR HAS ITS OW ENERGI. EX : during hunger, food- N getting behavior would be activated and directed, while water-directed behaviors would occur during thirst. OTHERS THEOR IES have PR OPOSED that an ENERGY CONCEPT IS UNNECESSARY & W CAN E UNDER STAND MOTIVATION of BEHAVIOR without having to assume some ENERGY behind behavior. THUS the CONCEPT of ENERGY is more IMPORTANT in some THEORIES than in OTHERS.
2. Heredity ASSUME that such MOTIVATIONAL MECHANISM are GENETICALLY PROGRAMMED or “WIRED IN” to the ORGANISM. THIS BIOLOGICAL APPROACH TAKEN 2 FORMS: INSTINCT approach & the ACTIVATION CIRCUIT BRAIN THE INSTINCT approach PROPOSED that ENERGY ACCUMULATES WITHIN the ORGANISM and LEADS to a MOTIVATED STATE. TRIGGERED BY the SPECIFIC STIMULI that have the EFFETC OF RELEASING the
THE ACTIVATION CIRCUIT approach PROPOSED THAT CIRCUIT WITHIN the BRAIN MONITOR the STATE of BODY and ACTIVATE BEHAVIORS when CHANGES are DETECTED. THE ACTIVATION of these CIRCUITS than LEADS to the MOTIVATION OF RESPONSES, which may be either INNATE OR LEARNED
3. Learning CLARK HULL (1940) OUTLINED the INTERRELATIONSHIPS of LEARNING and MOTIVATION IN GENERATING BEHAVIOR LATER THEORIST have stressed the ROLE of INCENTIVES in CONTROLLING GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR RESEARCH EXAMINED: CLASSICAL & OPERANT CONDITIO-NING maybe INVOLVED in the DEVELOPMENT of MOTIVE STATES SOME MOTIVES also seem to be LEARNED through OBSERVATION (NAMED is MODELLING)
4. Social Interaction OUR INTERACTIONS with OTHERS can also be MOTIVATING RESEARCH in SOCIAL PSY : POINTED to the POWER of the GROUP in MOTIVATING US to CONFORM and to the POWER of AUTHORITY FIGURES in MOTIVATING US to OBEY THE PRESENCE of OTHERS often REDUCES that INDIVIDUAL will PROVIDE HELP in an EMERGENCY SITUATION SOCIAL SITUATION have a LARGE INFLUENCE on our BEHAVIOR because the PRESENCE of OTHERS ALTERS our
5. Cognitive Process THE KINDS of INFORMATION we “TAKE IN” & the W AYS in which that INFORMATION is PROCESSED have IMPORTANT INFLUENCES on our BEHAVIOR THEORIES : HEIDER’S BALANCE theory, FESTINGER’S COGNITIVE DISSONANCE theory ATTRIBUTION theory has also EMPHASIZED the R OLE of COGNITION in the INTERPRETATION of OTHERS (and our own) BEHAVIOR and INDICATES that OUR BEHAVIOR will be BASED on these INTER ETATIONS PR
THE PURPOSE OF MOTIVATION 1. HOMEOSTATIS HOMEOSTATIS : the IDEA that an OPTIMALLEVEL STATE of the BODY W HEN the BODY DEVIATES too far fromthis OPTIMAL LEVEL, MOTIVATIONALCIRCUITS are TRIGGERED by the, andBEHAVIORS will BRING the BODY BACKto its OPTIMAL LEVEL are BEGUN
2. HEDONISM HEDONISM assume that we are MOTIVATED by PLEASURE and PAIN. W E LEARN to approach SITUATION that are PLEASURABLE and SIMILARLY LEARN to AVOID SITUATIONS that are PAINFUL MODERN HEDONISTIC PROPOSED that PLEASURE & PAIN EXIST ALONG a CONTINUUM, and that what is PAINFUL OR PLEASURABLE will CHANGE as CONDITIONS CHANGE Ex : ditraktir makan dalam kondisi kenyang, is NOT PLEASURABLE !
3. GROWTH MOTIVATION GROWTH MOTIVATION stresses the IDEA that HUMANS are MOTIVATED to REACH their FULL POTENTIAL–PHYSICALLY, PSYCHOLOGICALLY & EMOTIONALLY ROGERS DISCUSS THIS GROWTH MOTIVATION in RELATION to the FULLY FUNCTIONING INDIVIDUAL MASLOW uses TERM SEL-ACTUALIZATION to Describe the MOTIVATION to STRIVE for PERSONAL FULFILLMENT GROWTH MOTIVATION theories SUGGEST that HUMANS are STRONGLY MOTIVATED to TEST and IMPROVE their CAPACITIES
Understanding EmotionalExperience Feelings that can affectbehavior and generally have both physiological andcognitive elements and that influence behavior
The functions of Emotion Preparing us for action emotions act as a link between events in our environment and our response. Example : Angry dog = emotional reaction (fear) Shaping our future behavior emotions help us learn information that improves our chances of making appropriate responses in the future. Something unpleasant = teaches us to avoid, pleasant = lead us to seek out similar situation in the future Helping us interact more effectively with others
The Roots of Emotion The James-Lange Theory The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation ( “I feel sad because I am crying” ) The James-Lange theory poses difficulty : physiological arousal does not invariably produce emotional experience
The Roots of Emotion Canon-Bard Theory of Emotion The belief that both physiological and emotional arousal are produces simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus
The Roots of Emotion Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues.
INTELLIGENCE Intelligence The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenge Intelligence Test Test devised to identify aperson’s level if intelligence
Mental Age The average age of individuals who achieve a particular level of performance on a test Intelligence Quotient (IQ)A score that takes into account an individual’s mental and chronological ages