Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Memorya
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Memorya

215
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
215
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ingatan(Memory)Part IWilliam G. HuittLast revised: May 2005
    • 2. Summary Manusia diwarisi kondisi: Biologis Dapat dikondisikan (dibentuk) olehlingkungan Mencari data dan mengolahnya Emosi Kecerdasan
    • 3. The Cognitive SystemKognisi (Cognition) adalah:“proses mengetahui (process of knowing);dan khususnya hal-hal yang terkait denganproses intelektual (intellectual process)dengan apa pengetahuan diperoleh”;termasuk didalamnya kegiatan-kegiatan:mengamati, melihat, memperhatikan,membayangkan, memperkirakan, berfikir,mempertimbangkan, menduga dan menilai(Websters Dictionary).
    • 4. Sistem Kognitif(The Cognitive System)Merupakan inti perkembangan psikologisebagai disiplin ilmiah• Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory (1879)• Mendominasi pendekatan dalam psikologi saat ini• Sering dibandingkan (dipertentangkan) dengan:• Behavioral view• Psychoanalytic view• Humanistic view• Social Cognition view
    • 5. Teori belajar kognitif (cognitive learning theory)digambarkan sebagai sebuah paradigma S-O-R.Organisme dianggap sebagai pemroses aktif(active processor) dari informasi.Stimulus(S)Organism(O)Response(R)The Cognitive System
    • 6. Dalam pendekatan behavioral, externalstimulus dapat:• Dikaitkan dengan respons sebagai hasil dari prosespengkondisian (conditioning); or• Menghilangkan munculnya respon secara alami• Merubah (meningkatan atau menurunkan)probabilitas munculnya perilaku (voluntary response)dimasa yang akan datangThe Cognitive System
    • 7. External stimulus yang berhasil ditangkapoleh alat sensor (sensory receptor) akanmemunculkan adanya suatu “sensorymemory.”Pada teori kognitif (the cognitive model),proses belajar dimulai ketika suatu externalstimulus mengaktifkan alat sensor.The Cognitive System
    • 8. Memory Menurut Ahli psikologi (Psychologists),ingatan (memory) terjadi melalui tiga proses Encoding Mentransformasikan informasi kedalam bentuk yangdapat disimpan dalam short-term or long-term memory Storage Proses mengatur dan menyimpan informasi dalammemory Konsolidasi (Consolidation) Perubahan fisiologis dalam otak (brain) karenainformasi yang dimasukkan disimpan dalammemory Retrieval Memunculkan kembali ke permukaan (kedalam pikiran)materi-materi atau informasi yang telah disimpandalam memory
    • 9. Tahapan-tahapan Memory Atkinson-Shiffrin model Mengelompokkan tiga sistem memori:Sensory memoryShort-term memoryLong-term memory
    • 10. Tahapan memori (Stages of Memory)
    • 11. Tahapan Memory
    • 12. Sensory Memory• Sensory memory dikaitkan denganproses mengarahan energy. Sistem memori yang menahan informasiyang ditangkap oleh alat sensor untukbeberapa saat (antara hitungan detiksampai menit) Visual sensory memory--less than ½second Auditory sensory memory--lasts 2 to 3seconds
    • 13. Short-term Memory Juga dikenal sebagai working memory—yaknibagian dari otak yang menyimpan informasidari dan ke long term memory (walaupundalam waktu yang singkat) dan selalu siapdimanfaatkan kapan saja diperlukan Limit 5 + 2 units (earlier thought to be 7 + 2 15-30 tanpa rehearsal (mengulang) Chunking Mengelompokkan informasi agar lebihmudah untuk mengingatnya
    • 14. Short-term Memory Memasukkan informasi kedalam STM Perhatian (Attention) Menjaga (Keeping) informasi dalam STM Pengorganisasian (Organization) Pengulangan (Repetition) Penyelaan (interruption) terhadap suatupengulangan (repetition) dapat menyebabkanhilangnya informasi hanya dalam hitungan detik Displacement Suatu keadaan dimana short-term memory yangdalam keadaan penuh, dimasuki informasi barulagi, dan hal ini mau tidak mau mendorong keluarinformasi (lama) yang ada dalam short termmemory
    • 15. Long-term Memory Sistem memori yang relatif permanendengan kapasitas yang hampir tidakterbatas Elaborative rehearsal Suatu teknik yang digunakan untukmemasukkan informasi kedalam long-termmemory dengan cara: memberi arti(meaning); dan mengaitkannya denganinformasi lain yang telah ada dalam long-term memory
    • 16. Methods of ElaborationAda beberapa contoh elaborasi yangbiasanya digunakan dalam proses belajardan pembelajaran:Membayangkan(Imaging)Menciptakan suatugambaran mental(mental picture)
    • 17. Ada beberapa contoh elaborasi yangbiasanya digunakan dalam proses belajardan pembelajaran:Method ofloci(locations)Ide atau hal-hal yang akandiingat dikaitkan denganlokasi objek yang sudahfamiliar dan mudah diingatMethods of Elaboration
    • 18. Ada beberapa contoh elaborasi yangbiasanya digunakan dalam proses belajardan pembelajaran:PegwordmethodIde atau hal-hal yang akandiingat dikaitkan dengan kata-kata tertentu (e.g., one-bun,two-shoe, three-tree, etc.)Methods of Elaboration
    • 19. Ada beberapa contoh elaborasi yangbiasanya digunakan dalam proses belajardan pembelajaran:Rhyming(songs,phrases)Informasi yang akan diingat disusun menjadi suatu bait ataulagu (e.g., 30 days hathSeptember, April, June andNovember, etcMethods of Elaboration
    • 20. Ada beberapa contoh elaborasi yangbiasanya digunakan dalam prosesbelajar dan pembelajaran:InitialletterHuruf pertama dari tiap kata digunakan untuk membuat satukata ata kalimat yang mudahdiingat (the sillier, the better)Methods of Elaboration
    • 21. Long-term Memory Beberapa ahli (experts) meyakiniadanya dua subsistem utama dalamlong-term memory Declarative memory Nondeclarative (procedural) memory
    • 22. Long-term Memory Declarative memory Subsistem dalam long-term memory yangmenyimpan fakta, informasi, danpengalaman-pengalaman hidup pribadi Ada dua bentuk declarative memory Semantic memory Sub bagian dari declarative memory yangmenyimpan pengetahuan umum; danmerupakan encyclopedia atau kamus mental Penelitian terhadap otak (Brain)menunjukkan bahwa semantic memory inilebih banyak memanfaatkan bagian otak kiridibanding otak kanan
    • 23. Long-term Memory Declarative memory Subsistem dalam long-term memory yangmenyimpan fakta, informasi, danpengalaman-pengalaman hidup pribadi Ada dua bentuk declarative memory Episodic memory Sub bagian dari declarative memory yangmenyiman memori dari kejadian pengalamanyang sangat pribadi Penelitian menunjukkan, orang yangmengalami masalah (kerusakan) padasebagian sistem long-term semantic memorymasih dapat belajar dan mengingat denganmenggunakan episodic memory-nya
    • 24. Long-term Memory Nondeclarative memory (dikenaldengan istilah procedural memory) Sub sistem dalam long-term memory yangmenyimpan ketrampilan yang diperolehmelalui latihan yang berulang-ulang,kebiasaan, dan respon sederhana yangmuncul melalui pengkondisian klasik(classically conditioned)
    • 25. Long-term Memory Eidetic imagery Kemampuan untuk menahan (mengingat)gambaran visual untuk beberapa menit Penelitian menunjukkan, sekitar 5% anak(dibawah 2 tahun) dapat mengingat foto(gambar) orang yang telah dikenalnya Secara Virtual semua anak akankehilangan eidetic imagery sebelummencapai usia dewasa
    • 26. Long-term Memory Flashbulb memories An extremely vivid memory of theconditions surrounding one’s firsthearing the news of a surprising,shocking, or highly emotional event Pillemer Argues that flashbulb memories do notconstitute a different type of memoryaltogether Suggests that all memories can vary on thedimensions of emotion, consequentiality, andrehearsal
    • 27. Long-term Memory Flashbulb memories Neiser and Harsch Questioned university freshmen about theChallenger disaster the following morning When the same students were questionedagain 3 years later, one-third gave accountsthat differed markedly from those giveninitially, even though they were extremelyconfident of their recollections
    • 28. Levels-of-Processing Model Proposed by Craik and Lockhart A model of memory as a single system inwhich retention depends on how deeplyinformation is processed With the shallowest levels of processing, aperson is merely aware of the incoming sensoryinformation Deeper processing (elaboration) takes place onlywhen the person does something more with theinformation, such as forming relationships,making associations, attaching meaning to asensory impression, or otherwise engaging inactive elaboration on new material
    • 29. Levels-of-Processing Model Craik and Tulving Had participants answer yes or no to questionsasked about words just before the words wereflashed to them for 1/5 of a second Participants had to process the words visually,acoustically, or semantically The test required shallow processing for the firstquestion, deeper processing for the secondquestion, and still deeper processing for thethird question Later retention tests showed that the deeper thelevel of processing, the higher the accuracy rateof memory
    • 30. Remembering Three kinds of memory tasks Recall A measure of retention that requires a person toremember material with few or no retrieval cues,as in an essay test Trying to remember someone’s name, recallingitems on a shopping list, memorizing a speech or apoem word for word, and remembering May be made a little easier if cues are provided tojog memory Sometimes serial recall is required; that is,information must be recalled in a specific order Research suggests that, in free recall tasks, orderassociations are more resistant to distractions thanmeaningful associations
    • 31. Remembering Three kinds of memory tasks Recognition A measure of retention that requires a person toidentify material as familiar, or as having beenencountered before Multiple-choice, matching, and true/false questionsare examples of recognition test items The main difference between recall and recognitionis that a recognition task does not require you tosupply the information but only to recognize itwhen you see it Recent brain-imaging studies have discovered thatthe hippocampus plays an extensive role inmemory tasks involving recognition, and thedegree of hippocampal activity varies with theexact nature of the task
    • 32. Remembering Three kinds of memory tasks Relearning Measuring retention in terms of thepercentage of time or learning trials saved inrelearning material compared with the timerequired to learn it originally; also called thesavings method Savings score The percentage of time or learning trialssaved in relearning material over theamount of time or number of learningtrials required for the original learning College students demonstrate the relearningmethod each semester when they study forcomprehensive final exams
    • 33. Nature of Remembering Memory as a reconstruction Elizabeth Loftus Believes that what a person normally recalls is notan exact replica of an event Rather, a memory is a reconstruction Reconstruction A memory that is not an exact replica of an eventbut has been pieced together from a few highlights,using information that may or may not be accurate
    • 34. Nature of Remembering Distortion in memory Occurs when people alter the memory ofan event or an experience in order to fittheir beliefs, expectations, logic, orprejudices The tendency to distort makes the worldmore understandable and enables peopleto organize their experiences into theirexisting systems of beliefs andexpectations Bahrick and others Found that 89% of college students accuratelyremember the A’s they earned in high school,but only 29% accurately recall the D’s
    • 35. Nature of Remembering Sir Frederick Bartlett Studied memory using rich andmeaningful material learned andremembered under more lifelikeconditions Concluded that people systematicallydistort the facts and the circumstancesof experiences Information already stored in long-termmemory exerts a strong influence onhow people remember new informationand experiences
    • 36. Nature of Remembering Schemas The integrated frameworks of knowledge andassumptions a person has about people, objects,and events, which affect how the personencodes and recalls information Schemas influence what people notice and howthey encode and recall information When we encounter new information or have anew experience related to an existing schema,we try to make it fit or be consistent with thatschema To do this, we may have to distort some aspectsof the information and ignore or forget otheraspects
    • 37. Nature of Remembering Memory dan budaya (culture) Ahli psikologi kognitif menemukan, individulebih mudah mengingat cerita yangdiseting dalam budayanya Dalam suatu penelitian, penelitimenceritakan suatu kisah berseting(sebagian) tentang wanita amerika danwanita Aborigin (Australia) Para wanita tersebut (Amerika dan Australia)dikelompokkan secara random Hasilnya: wanita Amerika dapat menceritakansecara detail bagian cerita yang terkait denganseting budayanya, sementara yang tidak terkaitdengan seting budayanya banyak yangterlupakan; demikian juga sebaliknya (Australia)