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THE SOCIAL SCIENCE ENCYCLOPEDIA Adam Kuper&Jessica Kuper Class, Community,Status Stratification,Stereotype 1836410 Ceren Köktürk
Class, Social The meaning of class began to refer; large categories of population distinct from other categories in respect of wealth and related social position, deriving their distinctive status mainly from their location in the production and distribution of social wealth, sharing accordingly in distinctive interests either opposing or complementing other group interests, and consequently displaying a tendency to a group;political, cultural and social attitudes and behaviour. David Ricardo, who understood the class as a factor of capitalism and given an economic meaning to classes. Classes are defined as large groups united by their common location within the economic process
Class, Social Marx‟s class theory; questions the idea that all history of a society is the history of class struggle and social changes in society are occurred through class revolutions which is triggered by conflict between capitalists and workers, that arised from the capitalist form of production that going to lead a new, socialist form of production. the struggle for the management of social surplus He is interested in the conflict between industrial workers and owner of capitals. Marxist approach to class analysis of industrial society consists of the two dimensions of class conflict by interpreting the redistribution of surplus and the management of the production of surplus Marxist thinkers are theorized auxiliary theories of class and author mentioned Lukacs‟s “false consciousness” theory.
Class, Social Lukács distinguished „consciousness of class‟ from „class consciousness‟; can be studied by examining; the empirically ascertainable state of ideas and motives of the class members arising from the experience accessible within their daily business of life, through a bird‟s-eye survey of the total situation of the society, and a rational study of the totality of the information related to the social system Morris and Murphy(1966) suggested that class consciousness should be seen as „a processual emergent‟, and that from „no perception of status difference‟ to a „behaviour undertaken on behalf of the stratum interests and ideology‟ lead a number of stages, each subject to a somewhat different set of factors.
Class, Social Weber revised Marx‟s theory of class in three important respects. He accepted Marx‟s notion of class as a category within the network of economic relations, but he denied these relations are the determinants of society on its sociocultural and political planes. In short, Weber denied that economic divisions were necessarily mirrored in the cultural and political articulation of the society. In contrast to Marx theory, Weber argued that interests vary with respect to different goods and market chances. By using Weber‟s insight into the multiplicity of classes British sociologists have applied analysis of the self-perception of classes and their responses to class inequality American approaches to the question of inequality in class theory are analyzed in their own framework, such as theories of stratification.
Community Community is a type of collectivity or social unit and a type of social relationship. Fellowship ties or communion (bund) ties which emotionally intense are consciously sought in community such as those found in religious sects or ideological groups. There are two different approaches to community what may be called territorial and non-territorial approaches. For some scholars, the most important bases of commonality is common territory The non-territorial approach states that community denoted a social entity with common ties and not the ties themselves, but territory is not a necessary ingredient of commonality.
Community Formal Organizations Communal Organizations- a specific, defining goal - diffuse goal orientation- members of formal - inner-oriented goals which are : organizations relate to one they strive to maintain a set of another as specific role-bearers desired relationships among fellow in their goal-related activities members and a state of affairs- Corporations, schools, within the collectivity churches, armies, political - Families, ethnic groups and movements and professional neighborhoods associations
Community What would make a community? some basic functions have to be performed in each community, including the provision of basic economic needs, socialization, social control, social participation and mutual support. its being a microcosm of society. The community, unlike other collectivities, is a social system in itself, including such subsystems as government, economy, education, religion, and family found in a larger society and a certain size has to be attained for these institutional spheres to manifest themselves.
Status Social scientists tried to stratify the society in terms of sex and age, and sometimes many other divisions that are complex In the nineteenth century, after the social revolutions; quickening in the scramble for status has emerged Weber, who pointed out that status, he suggested that class or income, and political power are the three major dimensions of social stratification even though which had priority but he implied that if an individual has high status, wealth would follow, although they usually overlap, both being products of the distribution of power. Anthropologist Ralph Linton defined status is primarily a position in a social structure
Status Two major conceptualizations of status have emerged: status defined by Weber and his followers, other is defined by Linton and others Status Types- There are two types of status which are „ascribed‟ and „achieved‟ status.- Ascribed status is that which is inherited, such as sex, race, or ethnicity, or over time, or age, and is crucial to defining the basic patterns of people‟s lives.- Achieved status is acquired through personal effort or chance, possibly from occupational or educational attainment. Status Communities- From collections of individuals who have commonalities of occupation or education or experience, communities tend to develop. Members, becoming cognizant of their similarities, of shared styles of living and interests, come to identify with one another (Bensman 1972).
Status Status symbols- „Status symbols‟ are those visible marks that celebrate the individual‟s or group‟s difference and superiority. Goffman (1972) defines status symbols „specialized means of displaying one‟s position‟.- Symbolic value can be lent to almost any object or situation, they can be language, etiquette, gestures, material objects. Status analysis, by organized honour, privilege, and power when used together with other stratification theory.
Stratification Social stratification refers to the division of people in the society into layers Social stratification is related to the unequal positions occupied by individuals in society. In the society, the same individuals may be differently ranked depending upon the criteria that selected so criteria should be defined to stratify the society.However every society uses more than one criterion of ranking, and different societies do not give importance to the same criteria. Wealth or income or occupations are important criterias, although closely related, but they are not one and the same. In industrial societies, the occupational role is important in these societies than in all other societies known to history.
Stratification Also education is valuable because it provides access to well-paid occupations but it is valued for other reasons as well. Education gives people access to knowledge and to the inner meaning of life both within and outside their own occupational sphere; all of this is valued for its own sake and not merely for the financial returns it provides When groups differentiated by their styles of life, and they are ranked among themselves, are generally referred to as status groups. Status groups are differentiated from class, A class is defined by its position in the system of production, whereas what characterizes a status group is its pattern of consumption (Weber 1978 ). Race and ethnicity are count in regard to stratification
Stereotypes Stereotypes are usually defined as relatively fixed and oversimplified generalizations about groups or classes of people. Stereotypes serve an important function as cognitive simplifications that are useful for the economic management of a reality which overwhelm us with its complexity linking perception to the concept of pre-established cognitive categories prepared a context for the discussion of stereotyping the hidden dynamics of anti-semitism, ethnocentrism, and of more general predispositions towards oversimplified thinking associated with fascist belief systems. stereotypes are nothing more than cognitive categories that often satisfy emotional needs