POLITICS AND CULTUREAntonio Gramsci1836410 Ceren Köktürk
Content• Important points• Cultural association and organization• A single language• Culture and class struggle• Communism and art• The problem of school• Questions of culture• Party art• Hegemony
Keywords proletariat, bourgeois, hegamony, association, organization,culture,class struglgle,communism Important Points• Hegemony is a concept to show the political leadership of the working-class in a democratic revolution• Maintained control not just through violence and political and economic coercion, but also ideologically, through a hegemonic culture in which the values of the bourgeoisie became the common sense values of all.• Working class needed to develop a culture of its own, which would overthrow the notion that bourgeois values represented natural or normal values for society
Cultural association and organization• Cultural association is a proletarian institution seeking definite goals• Proletariat : working-class people regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism)• The association is the right place to discuss political and economic actions, religious and philosophical problems• an organization that sufficient to create proletarian soul.• exercise of thought, acquisition of general ideas habit of connecting causes and effects.
A single language• cosmopolitan not an international anxiety.• the language for beauty more than means of communication• language is a thing formed itself and only by sharing life of the nation, relations, it spreads due to productive activities like writings, trade and commerce of the people who speaks same language
Culture and class strugle• The proletariat is a practical construct; the individual proletariats are more or less educated, equipped by class struggle to understand the most refined socialist concepts• They try to adapt themselves the average level of social strata they address but their articles and propaganda always above this average level• Turin has proletarian class which continues to absorb new individuals who are not intellectually developed , not able to understand the full signification of exploitation to which they are subjected.
Communism and art• Intellectuals held prejudice that the workers movement and communism are enemies of beauty and art• proletariats tends to establish the reign of beauty and graceThe problem of school• Not even claimed that bourgeois class molds the school; even though they are control the state they have no interest in school.• School represent the most important and essential public activities,• Education of practice of the social discipline necessary for realization of communist society
Question of culture• New modes of labour, new modes of production, a new psychology, new ways of feeling• Organizing economically and politically but also culturally itself.• Proletarian culture, proletarian forces of production of cultural values
Hegemony• In capitalist societies there are two fundamental class which are bourgeois(the class controls capital) an proletariat (working class)• Marx’s theory of society refers to infrastructure and superstructure, they are always in relation and he states that infrastructure determines superstructure. Infrastructure (economic relations, modes of productions) Superstructure ( religion, art, science, politics, morality, culture)• Gramsci superstructure theory: He formalize superstructure as a combination of politic and civil society.
Hegemony• Politic society: Hegemony is forced to society( police, prison, military, laws)• Civil society: Hegemony acquired by ideology or consent of society(family, education, church,media)• Ruling class control hegemony by force or consent . But he states that hegemony cannot ruled by only force.• According to him, ideology is needed to provide, maintain and reproduce the hegemony of ruling class