Marianne Georgsens presentation "Exploring new pedagogies" at CAL11
Exploring new pedagogies – away forward towards practice based competence buildingMarianne Georgsen & Jacob Davidsen Aalborg University Department of Communication & Psychology
Agenda• ICT in schools – where are we?• Competence within ICT-based teaching – what do teachers need?• Two empirical studies -findings and new questions
ICT in teaching and learning in schools – promises and problems• Political focus on the importance of using ICT in schools since late 1980’s ICT can help develop teaching and learning further• National evaluation in Denmark shows that ICT in schools is used in three main ways: • as a motivator towards pupils (to make learning ”fun”); • by pupils to produce nice looking products and presentations; • but first and foremost to search information on the internet.
Three phases of ICT development in schools in Denmark• Phase 1 technology into the school buildings (hardware and software which is mostly very general ’office type’-programs, or very specific software: dictionaries, maps)• Phase 2 ICT becomes integrated into teaching in general, and finds its way out of IT-rooms, and into the classrooms• Phase 3 we need to focus on integrating ICT into the content subjects of the school
What we are still missing• Way of developing teachers’ qualifications within pedagogic ICT- use• Ways of relating this comptence building closer to the teaching practice,• and orient it towards actual use of ICT in classrooms and schools
Ways of dealing with competence building• Through policy making – as part of policies for ICT integration into teaching/learning and into schools• Through formal education – as part of teacher training in colleges or other institutions (pre service)• Through further education – as part of courses/training programmes offered to in service teachers• Through peer to peer-learning and/or workplace learning – as part of development projects, special initiatives or ’private’ initiatives by a few teachers
Research questionso The competence development of teachers involved in the projects – how does progression from the operational level to the level of pedagogical planning take place?o What are the main resources used by the teachers in the development processo In what ways do they learn from their practical experience and share their experience and knowledge with each other
4 stages in teachers’ ICT learning1. Gaining basic ICT skills2. Conducting ICT-focused lessons3. Appropriate ICT integration4. Challenge existing pedagogical structures (ICT as means for pedagogical development) (Schibeci et al. 2008)
Approach in study• Two different projects were studied • Project A: 6 weeks project in 7th grade with mobile technologies; students doing field work/project work in small groups. 5 teachers, one pedagogical ICT-coordinator, 70 pupils • Project B: 10 months project in 2nd grade with interactive screens in the classroom; pupils work in pairs; technology used across all subjects. 3 teachers, one ped. ICT- coordinator, 45 pupils
Methods usedPROJECT A PROJECT B• Observations, video and • Classroom observations field notes – classroom for 10 months – video and in the field and field notes• Interviews with pupils • Interviews with teachers• Group based and and pupils indvidual interviews with • Video feedback sessions teachers with teachers• Document analysis • Video analysis with ICt- coordinator • Teachers blogging throughout project period
Findings I• The collaboration with researchers is a unique way of creating a space for reflection in everyday practice • This challenges the common understanding and practice that training and teaching must take place in ’labs’ and ’safe’ environments• The school in this study has a policy for ICT use and –integration – it is supported by school management, but formulated and implemented by the ICT-coordinator • Challenges our preference for consensus-based, democratic policy making
Findings II• Teachers have personal preferences and circumstances which influence their approach towards the changes involved in taking ICT into use • Challenges our understanding that those who enter into development projects, are always positive towards the changes occuring• Parents turned out to be a substantial source of opposition to the changed teaching practices – if they do not understand (= recognise) these from their own experience, they get insecure about the learning outcomes • This challenges the conception that parents want new (’modern’) ways of teaching and learning for their children
Findings III• The participating teachers took of in very different directions • Anne got into preparing her own teaching materials for the interactive screens – not converting existing materials, rather creating new ones which integrated merged P, T and C knowledge in new ways • Following video feedback sessions with researchers, Clive started reflecting about his way of interacting with the pupils (from ’zapper’ to ’dweller’) • Bridget used the technology to conserve her current teaching practice – turned problems into virtues (e.g. teacher control)
ICT-coordinators as innovators• Motivate teachers and other to rethink• Contextualising his/her work to the experiences of teachers and pupils in developing ICT-pedagogical designs• Point out what the potentials in various technologies are, and how new learning designs will work in the specific context• Manage the phases of change• Take part in the change and development proces and work together with teachers
Conclusions…• Room for reflection is very important• This approach will (probably) not work well in schools with strict curriculum ’control’• Support from the surrounding environment is crucial • colleagues; ICT-coordinator; school management; parents; and pupils• Practitioners need to join forces, and work in teams
Future work• Further conceptualise these (and more) findings into a model/framework which can be used proactively in school development• Conduct more studies (less detailed that these ones) on a range of different schools in order to test the versatility of this model for competence building• Your feedback and suggestions are welcome…
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