TheOtherStrugglePresentation

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  • TheOtherStrugglePresentation

    1. 1. The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement
    2. 2. The Chicano Movement
    3. 3. The Chicano Movement
    4. 4. El Movimiento
    5. 5. The Other Struggle For Equal Schools:Mexican Americans During the Civil Rights Movement
    6. 6. The Other Struggle For Equal Schools:Mexican Americans During the Civil Rights Movement Rubén Donato Presentation By Ellison Williams Melissa Rodriguez Amanda Tanti Vincent Narcia David Aponte
    7. 7. The Evolution of the Mexican American Community
    8. 8. The Evolution of the Mexican American CommunityMexican-American War (1846-1848) ‣ Mexico lost the war and half of its territory ‣ Approx. 6000 Mexicans had to move or become U.S. citizens
    9. 9. The Evolution of the Mexican American CommunityMexican-American War (1846-1848) ‣ Mexico lost the war and half of its territory ‣ Approx. 6000 Mexicans had to move or become U.S. citizensCalifornia ‣ Mexico lost half its territory ‣ Approx. 6000 Mexicans had to move or become U.S. citizens
    10. 10. The Evolution of the Mexican American CommunityMexican-American War (1846-1848) ‣ Mexico lost the war and half of its territory ‣ Approx. 6000 Mexicans had to move or become U.S. citizensCalifornia ‣ Mexico lost half its territory ‣ Approx. 6000 Mexicans had to move or become U.S. citizensGOLD! ‣ 1850 brought an influx of white settlers and made Mexicans a minority group. Gold depleted miners turned to farming and squatting. ‣ Encroached onto properties with rent and good faith payments.
    11. 11. The Evolution of the Mexican American Community
    12. 12. The Evolution of the Mexican American Community ‣ Settlers started to acquire positions in government and challenge land ownership of Mexican Americans/Californios
    13. 13. The Evolution of the Mexican American Community ‣ Settlers started to acquire positions in government and challenge land ownership of Mexican Americans/CaliforniosLand Act of 1851 ‣ Called for land titles, which Mexicans did not have. ‣ Mexicans/Californios could not afford legal fees to fight for land. ‣ When legal matters would not take their land, armed squatters or lynchers would force them off their property.
    14. 14. The Evolution of the Mexican American Community ‣ Settlers started to acquire positions in government and challenge land ownership of Mexican Americans/CaliforniosLand Act of 1851 ‣ Called for land titles, which Mexicans did not have. ‣ Mexicans/Californios could not afford legal fees to fight for land. ‣ When legal matters would not take their land, armed squatters or lynchers would force them off their property.White settlers thought that the amount of land that Mexicans owned wasoutrageous. ‣ It was impossible for the Mexicans to defend their property.
    15. 15. Northward Tide
    16. 16. Northward TideImmigrating Mexicans made up labor force. ‣ Even former middle class was forced to become unskilled or semiskilled laborers. ‣ Caused tensions with Americans due to employers hiring Mexicans for cheap labor.
    17. 17. Northward TideImmigrating Mexicans made up labor force. ‣ Even former middle class was forced to become unskilled or semiskilled laborers. ‣ Caused tensions with Americans due to employers hiring Mexicans for cheap labor.Bracero Program ‣ US/Mexico deal in 1942 for temporary contracted labor. ‣ It ended up lasting for over 20 years. ‣ 1946-1960, an average of 278, 800 Mexican Bracero were brought in each year
    18. 18. Brownfield, California
    19. 19. Brownfield, CaliforniaTried to keep Mexican laborers out tomaintain higher wages for white laborers.
    20. 20. Brownfield, CaliforniaTried to keep Mexican laborers out tomaintain higher wages for white laborers.However, Mexican laborers becamenecessary for the town’s economic survival.
    21. 21. Brownfield, CaliforniaTried to keep Mexican laborers out tomaintain higher wages for white laborers.However, Mexican laborers becamenecessary for the town’s economic survival.Mexican enrollment in high schools rose.
    22. 22. Consolidation
    23. 23. ConsolidationRestructured loosely constructed school systems intoefficient and unified districts.
    24. 24. ConsolidationRestructured loosely constructed school systems intoefficient and unified districts. “The idea behind the consolidation movement maintained that larger school districts would generate higher teacher salaries, bestow status on educators, yield administrative efficiency, and generate a tax base where minimum educational standards were met.”
    25. 25. Consolidation
    26. 26. ConsolidationMexican American students caused local papers to point outproblems ‣ Poverty ‣ Academic failure ‣ Inability to speak English ‣ Isolation from White peers
    27. 27. ConsolidationMexican American students caused local papers to point outproblems ‣ Poverty ‣ Academic failure ‣ Inability to speak English ‣ Isolation from White peersBrownfield school officials were not giving much attention to theproblems of Mexican American students.
    28. 28. “Schooling in the Pre-Brown Era”
    29. 29. “Schooling in the Pre-Brown Era” When Progressive Education (1890s-1930s) came into play, policymakers forgot about issues of race in schools.
    30. 30. “Schooling in the Pre-Brown Era” When Progressive Education (1890s-1930s) came into play, policymakers forgot about issues of race in schools. Progressivism evolved into an era of bureaucratization, tracking testing, and vocational education.
    31. 31. “Schooling in the Pre-Brown Era” When Progressive Education (1890s-1930s) came into play, policymakers forgot about issues of race in schools. Progressivism evolved into an era of bureaucratization, tracking testing, and vocational education. Schools sought to Americanize immigrants.
    32. 32. Segregation
    33. 33. SegregationSchools assimilated 35 million immigrants, but“failed to integrate a significant portion of the U.S.Population.”
    34. 34. SegregationSchools assimilated 35 million immigrants, but“failed to integrate a significant portion of the U.S.Population.”In 1930, 85% of Mexican Americans attendedsegregated schools.
    35. 35. SegregationSchools assimilated 35 million immigrants, but“failed to integrate a significant portion of the U.S.Population.”In 1930, 85% of Mexican Americans attendedsegregated schools.Mexican Americans were segregated into separateclassrooms and schools with ‣ Inferior Buildings and Equipment ‣ Poorly paid teachers
    36. 36. Segregation
    37. 37. SegregationSchool boards came up with strategies to avoidsegregation laws. ‣ They classified Mexican Americans as Whites to legally segregate them. ‣ Texas schools claimed that it would benefit Mexican American students.
    38. 38. SegregationSchool boards came up with strategies to avoidsegregation laws. ‣ They classified Mexican Americans as Whites to legally segregate them. ‣ Texas schools claimed that it would benefit Mexican American students.Parents threatened these school boards.
    39. 39. Milo Hogan
    40. 40. Milo HoganHogan (a scholar of education) claimed that segregation would“hinder the academic progress of white children.”
    41. 41. Milo HoganHogan (a scholar of education) claimed that segregation would“hinder the academic progress of white children.”Hogan claimed that Mexican Americans would be happier withtheir own kind. ‣ Claimed that they were not as “independent” as their White counterparts. ‣ Claimed that “Mexican contact with bright white children [would have] damaging effects on Mexican children’s psychological well-being. ”
    42. 42. Milo HoganHogan (a scholar of education) claimed that segregation would“hinder the academic progress of white children.”Hogan claimed that Mexican Americans would be happier withtheir own kind. ‣ Claimed that they were not as “independent” as their White counterparts. ‣ Claimed that “Mexican contact with bright white children [would have] damaging effects on Mexican children’s psychological well-being. ”Hogan’s ideas were widely accepted by educators in California.
    43. 43. Discrimination
    44. 44. DiscriminationCharles Carpenter gave Mexican Americans terrible labels: ‣ “lawless,” “dirty,” “lazy,” and “violent.” ‣ Claimed that they had different “morals, standards, and hygiene.”
    45. 45. DiscriminationCharles Carpenter gave Mexican Americans terrible labels: ‣ “lawless,” “dirty,” “lazy,” and “violent.” ‣ Claimed that they had different “morals, standards, and hygiene.”Mexican Americans were stigmatized as drunkards who wereinclined to fight.
    46. 46. DiscriminationCharles Carpenter gave Mexican Americans terrible labels: ‣ “lawless,” “dirty,” “lazy,” and “violent.” ‣ Claimed that they had different “morals, standards, and hygiene.”Mexican Americans were stigmatized as drunkards who wereinclined to fight.Were considered to be workers and domestic servants.
    47. 47. DiscriminationCharles Carpenter gave Mexican Americans terrible labels: ‣ “lawless,” “dirty,” “lazy,” and “violent.” ‣ Claimed that they had different “morals, standards, and hygiene.”Mexican Americans were stigmatized as drunkards who wereinclined to fight.Were considered to be workers and domestic servants.Critics wanted Mexican Americans “Americanized” beforethey integrated.
    48. 48. Vocational Education
    49. 49. Vocational EducationMexican Americans were placed in vocational schoolsbecause they were considered to have a “natural capacityfor the manual arts.”
    50. 50. Vocational EducationMexican Americans were placed in vocational schoolsbecause they were considered to have a “natural capacityfor the manual arts.”They were considered an economic threat whose onlysolution was manual labor.
    51. 51. Vocational EducationMexican Americans were placed in vocational schoolsbecause they were considered to have a “natural capacityfor the manual arts.”They were considered an economic threat whose onlysolution was manual labor.They were placed in low level, vocational tracks.
    52. 52. Vocational EducationMexican Americans were placed in vocational schoolsbecause they were considered to have a “natural capacityfor the manual arts.”They were considered an economic threat whose onlysolution was manual labor.They were placed in low level, vocational tracks.Emphasis placed on “hard work,” not academicpreparation ‣ “Manual Training,” “Domestic Science,” “Hygiene,” “Home-Making Skills”
    53. 53. IQ Testing
    54. 54. IQ TestingMexican Americans were considered low scorerscompared to Blacks and Whites.
    55. 55. IQ TestingMexican Americans were considered low scorerscompared to Blacks and Whites.Whites were considered to be the highest achievers. ‣ The average Mexican American child was considered to be 14 months behind the regular White child in public schools.
    56. 56. Sleeping Giant: “Emergence of Grassroots Activism”
    57. 57. Sleeping Giant: “Emergence of Grassroots Activism”Mexican Americans were almost invisible when it came to civil rights andeducation issues.
    58. 58. Sleeping Giant: “Emergence of Grassroots Activism”Mexican Americans were almost invisible when it came to civil rights andeducation issues.1963 - The Mexican American Education Committee was formed. ‣ Called for education in Spanish language and the history of Mexico. ‣ Parents pushed for unbiased testing instruments. ‣ Lyndon B Johnson started to focus on the Mexican American.
    59. 59. Sleeping Giant: “Emergence of Grassroots Activism”Mexican Americans were almost invisible when it came to civil rights andeducation issues.1963 - The Mexican American Education Committee was formed. ‣ Called for education in Spanish language and the history of Mexico. ‣ Parents pushed for unbiased testing instruments. ‣ Lyndon B Johnson started to focus on the Mexican American.Office of Education created a Mexican American Affairs Unit toinvestigate how Mexican American students were doing in public schools.
    60. 60. Findings
    61. 61. Findings Texas California‣ 50% dropped out by 10th and 11th grade. ‣ 80% fell 2 grades behind white‣ Made up 14% of school enrollment, students. but represented 40% of enrollments in “mentally handicapped” classes. ‣ Most left school in junior high. 89% were not completing high school.‣ Made up less than 0.5% of University of California campus.
    62. 62. Findings Mexican American White Students StudentsYears Completed 8.6 21.1 76%
Population in East L.A. (7%
had
no
formal
 schooling
and
9%
had
only
 one
year
of
college.) 47.5-58.3% in Garfield and 2.6-3.1% in Monroe andDropout Rate Roosevelt High (East Palisades High (West Side) Side) ‣ Parents and activists attributed these findings to negative teacher attitudes towards Mexican American children.
    63. 63. Mobilization of Dissent
    64. 64. Mobilization of Dissent1965 - Brownfield schools were not serving needs of MexicanAmerican students and they were ignoring the problem.
    65. 65. Mobilization of Dissent1965 - Brownfield schools were not serving needs of MexicanAmerican students and they were ignoring the problem.Social Discrimination ‣ Housing discrimination - above market rent for substandard conditions or refusal to rent to Mexican families ‣ Mexican students automatically went to vocational programs and white students went to college. ‣ Educators expected them to act a certain way because they were Mexican.
    66. 66. Mexican American Communities Start to Rumble
    67. 67. Mexican American Communities Start to RumbleSilence was common for Mexican American rights.
    68. 68. Mexican American Communities Start to RumbleSilence was common for Mexican American rights.1968 - Mexican American parents formed theCommunidad Organizada Para Educacion (COPE) ‣ COPE sought reforms in education. ‣ They found out that Brownfield schools had received Title 1 funding, but couldn’t show how it was being used to help their children.
    69. 69. Mexican American Communities Start to Rumble
    70. 70. Mexican American Communities Start to RumbleCOPE and school officials obtained a half-million dollargrant to set up bilingual-bicultural elementary school inBrownfield. The small victory led to inclusion in decisionmaking process for schools.Mexican Americans still lacked representation on schoolboards and held almost no position of power. They sawforming a cohesive ethnic group would help bring aboutfavorable changes.
    71. 71. Mobilization of MexicanAmerican Parents in Brownfield
    72. 72. Mobilization of MexicanAmerican Parents in BrownfieldIn Southwest, scholars linked Mexican American strugglew/ bilingual education and community control of schoolsRarely ever linked Mexican American education with yearround schooling
    73. 73. Mobilization of MexicanAmerican Parents in BrownfieldIn Southwest, scholars linked Mexican American strugglew/ bilingual education and community control of schoolsRarely ever linked Mexican American education with yearround schoolingFocused mainly on education for white middle classstudents in urban and suburban areas.
    74. 74. Mobilization of MexicanAmerican Parents in BrownfieldIn Southwest, scholars linked Mexican American strugglew/ bilingual education and community control of schoolsRarely ever linked Mexican American education with yearround schoolingFocused mainly on education for white middle classstudents in urban and suburban areas.Few studies were done to focus on Mexican Americans.
    75. 75. The Evolution of Year-Round Schools
    76. 76. The Evolution of Year-Round SchoolsVery controversial
    77. 77. The Evolution of Year-Round SchoolsVery controversialIn 1904-1915 in Buffton, Indiana the school system first experimented with the concept. ‣ However the idea of year round schooling usually was rejected because of intense public criticism.
    78. 78. The Evolution of Year-Round SchoolsVery controversialIn 1904-1915 in Buffton, Indiana the school system first experimented with the concept. ‣ However the idea of year round schooling usually was rejected because of intense public criticism.Early 20th century ‣ Newark, New Jersey wanted to serve non-English speaking immigrant children throughout the year. ‣ Omaha, Nebraska wanted to offer vocational training on a year-round basis. ‣ Buffton, Indiana wanted to institute curricular reforms.
    79. 79. National Resistance
    80. 80. National ResistanceConflicted with athletes, extracurricular activities, summer camps, socialactivities
    81. 81. National ResistanceConflicted with athletes, extracurricular activities, summer camps, socialactivitiesTiming was bad for year-round reform, due to space and cost
    82. 82. National ResistanceConflicted with athletes, extracurricular activities, summer camps, socialactivitiesTiming was bad for year-round reform, due to space and costGovernment support, public confidence, established cultural traditionsprevented the year-round movement to be reformed
    83. 83. National ResistanceConflicted with athletes, extracurricular activities, summer camps, socialactivitiesTiming was bad for year-round reform, due to space and costGovernment support, public confidence, established cultural traditionsprevented the year-round movement to be reformedIn the 1960s dramatic change to US schools due to, postwar increase inbirths, enrollments soared, school financial difficulties
    84. 84. National ResistanceConflicted with athletes, extracurricular activities, summer camps, socialactivitiesTiming was bad for year-round reform, due to space and costGovernment support, public confidence, established cultural traditionsprevented the year-round movement to be reformedIn the 1960s dramatic change to US schools due to, postwar increase inbirths, enrollments soared, school financial difficultiesConsequence: ‣ Tried to find mew solutions other then building new schools
    85. 85. National Resistance
    86. 86. National ResistanceArgued the that the traditional calendar “was establishedwhen america was largely and agrarian society andyoungsters were needed at home during planting andharvesting time.”
    87. 87. National ResistanceArgued the that the traditional calendar “was establishedwhen america was largely and agrarian society andyoungsters were needed at home during planting andharvesting time.”School systems argued that a nine month schooling and a3-month summer was failing education.
    88. 88. National ResistanceArgued the that the traditional calendar “was establishedwhen america was largely and agrarian society andyoungsters were needed at home during planting andharvesting time.”School systems argued that a nine month schooling and a3-month summer was failing education.Year round school reform became more successful after1960 but it did not have a major impact.
    89. 89. “[T]he long, hot summer is a period of retrogression through idlenessand boredom...[the] manner in which the traditional school calendar wasstructured was an open invitation to mischief and vandalism.” George Jensen President of the Minneapolis Board of Education The Supreme Court
    90. 90. “[T]he long, hot summer is a period of retrogression through idlenessand boredom...[the] manner in which the traditional school calendar wasstructured was an open invitation to mischief and vandalism.” George Jensen President of the Minneapolis Board of Education The Supreme Court
    91. 91. Year-Round Education Comes to Town
    92. 92. Year-Round Education Comes to TownBrownfield was a very nice place to live and go to school but soon it became overcrowded. ‣ Every bond increase and tax increase was rejected between 1966 and 1971 ‣ Believed year round schooling would be a solution to there problem late 1960s ‣ Formed ad hoc advisory committee to study the extended school year and its effects
    93. 93. Year-Round Education Comes to TownBrownfield was a very nice place to live and go to school but soon it became overcrowded. ‣ Every bond increase and tax increase was rejected between 1966 and 1971 ‣ Believed year round schooling would be a solution to there problem late 1960s ‣ Formed ad hoc advisory committee to study the extended school year and its effects School officials appeared to be operating under status congruent power model. ‣ Depended “on a thorough investigation of relevant facts before reaching important decisions ‣ Claimed to be open to new ideas
    94. 94. Year-Round Education Comes to Town
    95. 95. Year-Round Education Comes to TownHad a large Mexican American population and served more then1,200 Mexican immigrant students ‣ Believed they would benefit from the nontraditional calendar of schooling ‣ Based on the hypothesis would improve the mexican migrant attendance record because they would attend school during the summer months. ‣ School officials said it was the only solution to overcrowding.
    96. 96. Year-Round Education Comes to TownHad a large Mexican American population and served more then1,200 Mexican immigrant students ‣ Believed they would benefit from the nontraditional calendar of schooling ‣ Based on the hypothesis would improve the mexican migrant attendance record because they would attend school during the summer months. ‣ School officials said it was the only solution to overcrowding.1960s early 1970s school systems were able to choose from overthirty extended school years patterns.
    97. 97. “Mandated Bilingual Education Comes to Town”
    98. 98. “Mandated Bilingual Education Comes to Town”Controversial because it provided curriculum and pedagogy in Spanishfor Mexican American Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students
    99. 99. “Mandated Bilingual Education Comes to Town”Controversial because it provided curriculum and pedagogy in Spanishfor Mexican American Limited English Proficiency (LEP) studentsRaised issues concerning ‣ Immigration ‣ Language Policy ‣ Patriotism ‣ Demographic Changes ‣ Ethnocentrism
    100. 100. National Debate
    101. 101. National DebateBilingualism debate arose in the 1960s and 1970s
    102. 102. National DebateBilingualism debate arose in the 1960s and 1970sBecame a Civil Rights issue that entailed ‣ A means for Mexican Americans to obtain mainstream respect for their cultural ‣ An instrument to fight discrimination against the non-English- speaking ‣ A device for Mexican Americans to integrate themselves into the education profession
    103. 103. Bilingualism and the Law
    104. 104. Bilingualism and the Law1968 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signed theBilingual Education Act
    105. 105. Bilingualism and the Law1968 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signed theBilingual Education Act1970 - U.S. Government enters a debate
    106. 106. Bilingualism and the Law1968 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signed theBilingual Education Act1970 - U.S. Government enters a debateLau v. Nichols (1974) ‣ Argued that federally funded school districts had to provide students of foreign origin with limited English proficiency the services that would give them equal access to schools.
    107. 107. “[Bilingual education is going to]tempt the infestation of[Brownfield] with more peoplefrom Mexico [and] aid in thedeterioration of our society as weknow it.” J. Crawlings Resident of Brownfield, Texas
    108. 108. “[Bilingual education is going to]tempt the infestation of[Brownfield] with more peoplefrom Mexico [and] aid in thedeterioration of our society as weknow it.” J. Crawlings Resident of Brownfield, Texas
    109. 109. Opposition to Bilingualism
    110. 110. Opposition to BilingualismWhite teachers became frustrated with bilingual educationbecause they lacked the skills to work with non-English-speaking students.
    111. 111. Opposition to BilingualismWhite teachers became frustrated with bilingual educationbecause they lacked the skills to work with non-English-speaking students.As the district drew closer to a Bilingual Master Plan draft,a group of white parents and teachers, calling themselvesConcerned Citizens for Education (CCFE), sought todefeat the expansion of bilingual education in theirdistrict. ‣ They believed that it was harmful to their children.
    112. 112. Opposition to Bilingualism
    113. 113. Opposition to Bilingualism
    114. 114. Opposition to BilingualismIf Brownfield did not follow the law, their would belegal ramifications
    115. 115. Opposition to BilingualismIf Brownfield did not follow the law, their would belegal ramificationsOpponents of the bill felt that it was “foreign and un-American.”
    116. 116. Opposition to BilingualismIf Brownfield did not follow the law, their would belegal ramificationsOpponents of the bill felt that it was “foreign and un-American.”Support of the bill was crucial for Mexican Americanstudents.
    117. 117. Where Mexican Americans Stood in Desegregation
    118. 118. Where Mexican Americans Stood in Desegregation Mexican Americans were generally left out of the desegregation rhetoric until the 1970s.
    119. 119. Where Mexican Americans Stood in Desegregation Mexican Americans were generally left out of the desegregation rhetoric until the 1970s. Policymakers saw Mexican American students’ integration as a “political nightmare” because they ‣ Had different “linguistic needs” ‣ Did not fit into a “Black White context”
    120. 120. Where Mexican Americans Stood in Desegregation Mexican Americans were generally left out of the desegregation rhetoric until the 1970s. Policymakers saw Mexican American students’ integration as a “political nightmare” because they ‣ Had different “linguistic needs” ‣ Did not fit into a “Black White context” In the 1970s, policymakers questioned the “ethnic status” of Mexican Americans.
    121. 121. Where Mexican Americans Stood in Desegregation Mexican Americans were generally left out of the desegregation rhetoric until the 1970s. Policymakers saw Mexican American students’ integration as a “political nightmare” because they ‣ Had different “linguistic needs” ‣ Did not fit into a “Black White context” In the 1970s, policymakers questioned the “ethnic status” of Mexican Americans. The Keyes v. School District No. 1 decision determined that Mexican Americans were a “protected minority group.”
    122. 122. Indeed, the District Courtrecognized this in classifyingpredominantly Hispano schools as"segregated" schools in their ownright. But there is also muchevidence that, in the Southwest,Hispanos and Negroes have a greatmany things in common. SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado (1973)
    123. 123. Indeed, the District Courtrecognized this in classifyingpredominantly Hispano schools as"segregated" schools in their ownright. But there is also muchevidence that, in the Southwest,Hispanos and Negroes have a greatmany things in common. SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado (1973)
    124. 124. Ethnic Isolation
    125. 125. Ethnic IsolationIn the mid-1970s, Mexican American students wereslightly more isolated, ethnically, than AfricanAmerican students.
    126. 126. Ethnic IsolationIn the mid-1970s, Mexican American students wereslightly more isolated, ethnically, than AfricanAmerican students.
    127. 127. Ethnic IsolationIn the mid-1970s, Mexican American students wereslightly more isolation, ethnically, than AfricanAmerican students.
    128. 128. Ethnic IsolationIn the mid-1970s, Mexican American students wereslightly more isolation, ethnically, than AfricanAmerican students.
    129. 129. Ethnic IsolationIn the mid-1970s, Mexican American students wereslightly more isolation, ethnically, than AfricanAmerican students.These ethnically isolated schools wereinferior. ‣ “‘Inadeqaute Resources, poor equipment, and unfit building construction”
    130. 130. Segregation WithinDesegregated Schools
    131. 131. Segregation WithinDesegregated Schools
    132. 132. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsMexican Americans were placed into low track coursesbecause they were English Language Learners.
    133. 133. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsMexican Americans were placed into low track coursesbecause they were English Language Learners. Educators believed that ELL should “improve their competency in English before mixing with white children.”
    134. 134. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsMexican Americans were placed into low track coursesbecause they were English Language Learners. Educators believed that ELL should “improve their competency in English before mixing with white children.”Became over-represented in lower tracks
    135. 135. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsMexican Americans were placed into low track coursesbecause they were English Language Learners. Educators believed that ELL should “improve their competency in English before mixing with white children.”Became over-represented in lower tracks 1 in 3 Mexican American students was in a low-ability class (1 in 7 for White students)
    136. 136. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsMexican Americans were placed into low track coursesbecause they were English Language Learners. Educators believed that ELL should “improve their competency in English before mixing with white children.”Became over-represented in lower tracks 1 in 3 Mexican American students was in a low-ability class (1 in 7 for White students) 1 in 7 Mexican American students were in high-ability classes (1 in 4 for White studentsMexican Americans were generally left out of the desegregation rhetoric until the
    137. 137. Segregation WithinDesegregated Schools
    138. 138. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsIn the 1970s policymakers realized that separatinglanguage-minority students was segregation. ‣ Some felt that bilingual education and integration contradicted each other.
    139. 139. Segregation Within Desegregated SchoolsIn the 1970s policymakers realized that separatinglanguage-minority students was segregation. ‣ Some felt that bilingual education and integration contradicted each other.Integration and bilingual education were “pitt[ed]”against each other.
    140. 140. Continued Struggle For Equitable Desegregation
    141. 141. Continued Struggle For Equitable Desegregation Policymakers in the 1970s attempted to “prevent and eliminate...racial imbalance.”
    142. 142. Continued Struggle For Equitable Desegregation Policymakers in the 1970s attempted to “prevent and eliminate...racial imbalance.” Minority students in Brownfield were “bused” to the White school (Atherton) to achieve integration.
    143. 143. Continued Struggle For Equitable Desegregation Policymakers in the 1970s attempted to “prevent and eliminate...racial imbalance.” Minority students in Brownfield were “bused” to the White school (Atherton) to achieve integration. Busing had proved unsuccessful by the 1980s.
    144. 144. Continued Struggle For Equitable Desegregation Policymakers in the 1970s attempted to “prevent and eliminate...racial imbalance.” Minority students in Brownfield were “bused” to the White school (Atherton) to achieve integration. Busing had proved unsuccessful by the 1980s. Mexican American and White families both opposed busing to achieve integration.

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