Tec538 Module 2

485 views

Published on

Instructional Strategies and Technology

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
485
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Perhaps Howard Garner put it best when he stated, “The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual, and thus to feel justified in teaching them the same subjects in the same ways” (Siegel and Shaughnessy, 1994). In the 21st Century, teachers will not be effective in the classroom if they share the belief that all students learn in the same way. Our students are not alike, and they should not be treated as such in the classroom. As teachers develop their knowledge base, one of the most important elements they need to incorporate is a repertoire of instructional techniques centered around the use of technology.
  • According to Neiss (2007), some of the important questions that a teacher needs to ask are:Is a lecture the best way for guiding students in learning the ideas I am trying to teach?How can I challenge the students to want to learn these ideas?How can I assure they are actively involved in thinking and learning about the ideas I teach?What other strategies might I use that could be more effective in teaching my students (p. 239)?Answering these questions requires that teachers use a pedagogical reasoning which integrates what they know about the subject matter, teaching learning, and the potential use of technology. Each of these must be taken into account as they select the best instructional strategy so that the most effective learning for the students might be achieved.
  • In order for teachers to effectively plan instruction, they need to have a clear understanding of what learning is and a clear understanding of how students learn. Students do not simply learn by memorizing the words of the teacher and writing them down on the test. Instead, students need to be engaged in constructing their own understanding, as well as acquire the motivation to challenge ideas and look for new solutions. In order to accomplish this, teachers need to make sure they are constructing a learning environment that fosters active and engaged students.
  • When planning for student learning, teachers need to create lesson plans that do the following:Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant learning environments.Provide for social negotiation and shared responsibility as a part of learning.Support multiple perspectives and using multiple representations of content.Nurture self-awareness and an understanding that knowledge is constructed. Promote ownership in learning (Woolfolk-Hoy, 2004, p. 327).
  • One of the important questions for teachers to consider as they are preparing to teach is: “How can I integrate technology into my lessons plans as I use those criteria?” (Niess, 2008, p. 243).
  • There are three main objectives that all teachers need to consider before integrating technology into the classroom:1. Scaffold student learning with technology within the context of the subject matter so that they also learn about technology. It is important that teachers carefully plan how they are going to guide their students in learning about technology if they hope to use the technology as a tool for learning. If teachers break learning into smaller parts that relate to the overall task, than students will be more apt to see technology as a tool for learning.
  • 2. Vary the experiences with technology as a tool for learning.Students need to have experiences using technology as a productivity tool, communications tool, research tool, problem-solving and decision-making tool.
  • Select problems that motivate and challenge students to use the technology as a tool for exploration.If the goal is for students to use technology as a tool, then the problems students are engaged in needs to be realistic and relevant to technology (Niess, 2008, p. 243).
  • There are multiple strategies that can be used to teach with technology, and the job of a teacher is to identify the strategies that are most effective in teaching students about the technology while enabling them to learn from the technology as well. There is not one particular strategy that is beneficial for all students, and teachers need to make sure they do not simply use strategies that they like and are comfortable with---they need to use a variety of strategies so that all students will have opportunities to learn in the most effective way.
  • Teachers are flexible in their teaching methods, and they strive to modify the curriculum for each student rather than have each student try to modify it for him/herself. In order to differentiate instruction, the teacher must realize that all students vary in background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, and interests (Tomlinson, 1999).
  • According to Tomlinson (1999), there are three main areas in which curriculum can be differentiated: content, process, and product.
  • Please view the figure to see the process of differentiated instruction.
  • The use of several different materials and elements to support instructional content. It is important that teachers integrate a variety of support materials, other than the textbook, to enhance the content for the learner. Technology can be used for various types of support through the use of the Internet, networks, communication groups, and research to help engage all types of students.Align tasks and objectives to learning goals. Teachers need to consider the learning goals for each lesson which usually come from state and national standards. Once teachers have a goal for the lesson, objectives need to be created in order for students to meet the goal. These objectives need to be observable to the teacher. Technology can provide opportunities for students to master goals and objectives in unique ways. For example, instead of students writing a paper to show their understanding of the civil war, teachers can have them make a movie or documentary demonstrating their knowledge.Instruction is concept-focused and principle driven. Instruction concepts need to be broad-based and not based upon minute details or irrelevant facts. When teachers focus on the concepts, skills, and processes that students should learn, it makes it easier to differentiate. The content of the instruction should focus on only those concepts which are required to master the objectives, but it is to be adjusted with regard to the degree of difficulty depending on the diversity of learners in the classroom. Technology can be used to help teachers differentiate as they teach students a technological process, thus allowing each student to work at his/her own pace. For example, a teacher may teach students how to play a game on the computer to learn math skills. Each student will go through the same process to play the game, but each student’s level of difficulty may be different.
  • Flexible grouping is consistently used. Working in groups is essential. It is expected that learners interact and engage with one another as they develop new knowledge. Groups can consist of the entire class, small groups, and pairs. Groups can also be constructed based on ability, personality type, learning style, or other skill sets that may be pertinent to a particular task. Technology can open the door for different grouping strategies based on such criteria as technological skills and content knowledge. For example, a student may be low in content knowledge but strong in video making skills. He/she can be paired with a student who is high in content knowledge but low in video making skills.
  • Initial and ongoing assessment of student readiness and growth are essential. Teachers need to use pre-assessments on a regular basis to determine the needs of their students. Pre-assessments are one of the key elements to effective differentiation. In addition, teachers can use various types of assessments in the classroom. These can include formal and informal assessments, interviews, performance-based assessments, surveys, etc. By using a variety of assessments, teachers can begin to understand each student as a whole, rather than relying on the results of one assessment. Technology can be used to help in the assessment process in a variety of ways, including online assessments and performance-based assessments.Students are active learners and responsible explorers. Teachers need to make sure each child not only feels challenged, but that he/she is interested and engaged in the task and learning process. Technology can help students see content as meaningful, since it can create the bridge between the classroom and real-world learning (Tomlinson, 1999).
  • Please view the following video to see differentiated instruction in action.
  • Howard Gardner has contributed greatly to the awareness that students vary in intelligence preferences or strengths resulting in a significant impact on their learning. Through his continuous research on multiple intelligences, he has helped educators understand that a child who is strong verbally may take in information differently than a child whose strength is logical-mathematical. According to Gardner’s theory, every individual possesses some degree of each of the intelligences, but one or more of the intelligences dominates.
  • Gardner (1993) has described “Entry Points” as a strategy for addressing varied intelligence profiles. Students are able to explore any given topic through as many as five Entry Points:Narrational Entry Point: Presenting a story or narrative about the topic or concept in questionLogical-Quantitative Entry Point: Using numbers or deductive/scientific approaches to the topic or question.Foundational Entry Point: Examining the philosophy and concept that undergird the topic or concept.Aesthetic Entry Point: Focusing on the sensory features of the topic or concept.Experiential Entry Point: Using a hands-on approach where the student deals directly with the materials that represent the topic or concept. These materials also make links to the student’s personal experience (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 81-82).
  • Over the last decade, there have been various types of research done on brain-based learning, impacting the way teachers teach. There are 15 principles to brain-based learning:1. The brain is a parallel processor. It can perform several activities at once. 2. The brain perceives whole and parts simultaneously. 3. Information is stored in multiple areas of the brain and is retrieved through multiple memory and neural pathways.  4.Learning engages the whole body. All learning is mind-body: movement, foods, attention cycles, and chemicals modulate learning.  5.Humans’ search for meaning is innate. 6. The search for meaning comes through patterning. 7. Emotions are critical to patterning, and drive our attention, meaning and memory.  8. Meaning is more important than just information. 9. Learning involves focused attention and peripheral perception. 10. We have two types of memory: spatial and rote. 11. We understand best when facts are embedded in natural spatial memory. 12.  The brain is social. It develops better in concert with other brains. 13. Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by stress. 14. Every brain is uniquely organized. 15. Learning is developmental. (Caine, Caine, and Crowell, 1999)
  • Based upon these principles, teachers can apply some simple changes to help make learning more meaningful in the classroom. First, since the brain seeks meaningful patterns, it is more efficient at retaining information that is “chunked.” The brain is constantly seeking to connect parts to wholes, and students can do this the best when they are able to connect something new to something they already understand (Tomlinson, 1999). Secondly, the brain responds more to information that carries deep and personal meaning. Teachers need to make sure they find a way to take the lesson and evoke emotions, experiences, or ideas that will generate this type of meaning in the learner so learning can occur. If teachers want students to retain, understand, and use ideas and skills, teachers need to give them opportunities to “own” their ideas through involvement in complex learning situations (Tomlinson, 1999). Technology can provide these types of experiences through hands-on activities and student interaction. Technology can open the doors for students to experience real-world scenarios based on the content standards that will create a meaningful and powerful learning environment where students are engaged and interacting with one another.
  • There are many strategies available for teachers to use in the classroom. However, it is important that teachers choose the strategies that are best for each individual student and find the means to connect technology in a meaningful way in order that effective learning can take place. Understanding the concepts of differentiation, multiple intelligences, and brain-based learning can greatly benefit the teacher as he/she develops objectives and lesson plans which can incorporate a variety of technologies and promote student understanding and motivation.
  • Tec538 Module 2

    1. 1. Instructional Strategies & Technology<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />Explain how technology and media can be a resource to facilitate instructional strategies for students in the 21st Century.<br />Compare and contrast the advantages and limitations of various instructional strategies from four perspectives: behaviorist, cognitivist, constructivist, and social-psychological. <br />
    3. 3. Introduction<br />“The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual, and thus to feel justified in teaching them the same subjects in the same ways” (Siegel and Shaughnessy, 1994).<br />
    4. 4. Questions a Teacher Needs to Ask . . . <br />Is a lecture the best way for guiding students in learning the ideas I am trying to teach?<br />How can I challenge the students to want to learn these ideas?<br />How can I assure they are actively involved in thinking and learning about the ideas I teach?<br />What other strategies might I use that could be more effective in teaching my students (Niess, 2007, p. 239)?<br />
    5. 5. How Students Learn<br />Students do not simply learn by memorizing the words of the teacher and writing them down on the test. Instead, students need to be engaged in constructing their own understanding, as well as acquire the motivation to challenge ideas and look for new solutions. <br />
    6. 6. Lesson Plans need to: <br />Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant learning environments.<br />Provide for social negotiation and shared responsibility as a part of learning.<br />Support multiple perspectives and using multiple representations of content.<br />Nurture self-awareness and an understanding that knowledge is constructed. <br />Promote ownership in learning (Woolfolk-Hoy, 2004, p. 327).<br />
    7. 7. The Essential Question . . . <br />“How can I integrate technology into my lessons plans as I use those criteria?” <br />
    8. 8. Integrating Technology<br />1. Scaffold student learning with technology within the context of the subject matter so that they also learn about technology. <br />
    9. 9. Integrating Technology cont’d<br />2. Vary the experiences with technology as a tool for learning<br />
    10. 10. Integrating Technology cont’d<br />3. Select problems that motivate and challenge students to use the technology as a tool for exploration. <br />
    11. 11. Using Multiple Strategies<br />Teachers need to teach students about the technology while learning from the technology.<br />
    12. 12. Differentiation<br />Differentiated Instruction is an approach to teaching and learning where the abilities and needs of each student are taken into account so that students can have multiple options for taking information and making sense of ideas. <br />
    13. 13. Curriculum Differentiation<br /> Curriculum can be differentiated in three main areas:<br /> 1. Content<br /> 2. Product<br /> 3. Process<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Guidelines for Content<br />The use of several different materials and elements to support instructional content.<br />Align tasks and objectives to learning goals.<br />Instruction is concept-focused and principle driven. <br />
    16. 16. Guideline for Process<br />Flexible grouping is consistently used<br />
    17. 17. Guidelines for Product<br />Initial and ongoing assessment of student readiness and growth are essential. <br />Students are active learners and responsible explorers.<br />
    18. 18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPUfj4MSQQU  <br />Embed video in lecture: <object width="445" height="364"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/75kt4iDSP3w&hl=en&fs=1&color1=0x3a3a3a&color2=0x999999&border=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/75kt4iDSP3w&hl=en&fs=1&color1=0x3a3a3a&color2=0x999999&border=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="445" height="364"></embed></object><br />
    19. 19. Multiple Intelligences<br />
    20. 20. Entry Points<br />Narrational Entry Point: Presenting a story or narrative about the topic or concept in question<br />Logical-Quantitative Entry Point: Using numbers or deductive/scientific approaches to the topic or question.<br />Foundational Entry Point: Examining the philosophy and concept that undergird the topic or concept.<br />Aesthetic Entry Point: Focusing on the sensory features of the topic or concept.<br />Experiential Entry Point: Using a hands-on approach where the student deals directly with the materials that represent the topic or concept. These materials also make links to the student’s personal experience (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 81-82). <br /> (view the following video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KiM4aFzRrNY for more information multiple intelligences)<br />
    21. 21. Brain Based Learning<br />The brain is a parallel processor. It can perform several activities at once. <br />The brain perceives whole and parts simultaneously. <br />Information is stored in multiple areas of the brain and is retrieved through multiple memory and neural pathways.  <br />Learning engages the whole body. All learning is mind-body: movement, foods, attention cycles, and chemicals modulate learning.  <br />Humans’ search for meaning is innate. <br />The search for meaning comes through patterning. <br />Emotions are critical to patterning, and drive our attention, meaning and memory. <br />Meaning is more important than just information. <br />
    22. 22. Brain Based LearningCont’d<br />Meaning is more important than just information. <br />Learning involves focused attention and peripheral perception. <br />We have two types of memory: spatial and rote. <br />We understand best when facts are embedded in natural spatial memory. <br />The brain is social. It develops better in concert with other brains. <br />Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by stress. <br />Every brain is uniquely organized. <br />Learning is developmental. (Caine, Caine, and Crowell, 1999) <br />
    23. 23. Brain Based LearningCont’d<br />Brain responds best to information that is “chunked.”<br />Brain responds best to information that carries deep and personal meaning. <br />(View the following video clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iu99aC8YK4Y to see how technology has inspired learning at one school)<br />
    24. 24. Conclusion<br />Understanding the concepts of differentiation, multiple intelligences, and brain-based learning can greatly benefit the teacher as he/she develops objectives and lesson plans which can incorporate a variety of technologies and promote student understanding and motivation. <br />
    25. 25. References<br />Caine, G., Caine, R., and Crowell, S. (1999). Mindshifts: A brain-based process for restructuring schools and renewing education. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press. <br />Niess, M., Lee, J., and Kajder, S. (2008). Guiding learning with technology. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.<br />Siegel, J., & Schaughnessy, M. (1994). Educating for understanding: A conversation with Howard Gardner. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(7), 564. <br />Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.<br />

    ×