911 Conspiracy Theories Dissertation


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911 Conspiracy Theories Dissertation

  1. 1. Was 911 an inside job? By Elliot Jones
  2. 2. As part of my Extended Diploma: Creative & Media course, I am doing adissertation for my extended project.Everything written here is my ownpersonal opinion on what I believe happened on the day of the 11thSeptember 2001. Though my opinion is different to the majority, I am in noway telling you what to believe, I am explaining the facts that are there foreveryone to see but because of the media and the government are left quietand unspoken. I mean no disrespect to anyone who has been affected by this,or lost someone due to the attacks.The topic I have chosen for my dissertationis writing the true facts of A) The two planes crashing into the twin towers, B)The pentagon being hit. I will not be covering the strange crash of Flight 93 asthere just isn’t enough evidence to suggest what could of happened eitherway. It was such a strange and empty event. I will also say how I believe theAmerican Government have involvement with these three horrific events. Allof the above happened all in one day. 11th September 2001. 111 days beforethe end of the year.I will talk briefly on Flight 93 and the Pentagon but as mymain focus is the biggest story, which blew the media and general public away;the two planes crashing into The Twin Towers.If for some reason you have not heard of any of the 3 events before I will giveyou a quick understanding of what the government has said had supposed toof happened on this day. United Airlines Flight 93 was a passenger flight whichwas supposedly hijacked by four al-Qaeda terrorists as part of the September11 attacks. It crashed into a field near Shanks Ville, Pennsylvania during anattempt by some of the passengers to regain control, killing all 40 peopleaboard plus the hijackers. The aircraft involved was a Boeing 757–222.On the 60th anniversary of The Pentagons groundbreaking, a team of five al-Qaeda affiliated hijackers took control of American Airlines Flight 77, en routefrom Washington Dulles International Airport to Los Angeles InternationalAirport, and deliberately crashed into the Western side of the Pentagon at 9:37am EDT. All 64 people on the airliner were killed as were 125 people who werein the building.At 8:46 a.m., five hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the WorldTrade Centers North Tower and at 9:03 a.m., another five hijackers crashedUnited Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower in New York City; both towerscollapsed within two hours.
  3. 3. A variety of conspiracy theories question the mainstream account of theSeptember 11 attacks in the United States. These theories stress that theofficial report on the events is not sufficiently forthrightor truthful. Manycritics allege that individuals in the government of the United States knew ofthe impending attacks and intentionally failed to act on that knowledge. Somecritics state that the attacks could have been a false flag operation carried outby high-level officials in the U.S. government who may have engaged incompartmentalization to keep knowledge of their actions limited. The commonsuspected motives were the use of the attacks as a pretext to justify overseaswars, to facilitate increased military spending, and to restrict domestic civilliberties.Many of the theories have been voiced by members of the 9/11 TruthMovement, a name adopted by some organizations and individuals whoquestion the mainstream account of the attacks. Some 9/11 Truth Movementmembers question the accuracy of the mainstream account of the attacks, andthey are committed to further investigation. Others claim that the collapse ofthe World Trade Centre was the result of a controlled demolition and/or thatUnited Airlines Flight 93 was shot down. Airliner did not crash into thePentagon; this position is debated within the Truth Movement.Published reports by the US National Institute of Standards and Technologyrejected the controlled demolition hypothesis. The community of civilengineers generally accepts the mainstream account that the impacts of jetaircraft at high speeds in combination with subsequent fires, rather thancontrolled demolition, led to the collapse of the Twin Towers. Some alsooppose that a commercial did crash there, but that it was allowed to do so viaan effective stand down of the military.I will be writing about September 11 in the order that the events happened onthe day. I believe this will give a more clear understanding of everything; I alsohave the times of when each attack was recorded. There are 25 myths all in allof the September 11 attacks which the government won’t answer, or if theyhave people have gone out and found the facts about the matter anddebunked it for themselves, I am going to talk about these 25 myths and
  4. 4. hopefully explain and show you the truth to the best of my ability. At the endof this dissertation I have left a timeline of events of the day, which I found onthe official September 11th page on Wikipedia. It was released as the officialtimeline report of the day.Firstly, going by the order of the day, the world trade centre was first hit. So Iwill be talking about the myths and facts of this first. If we go all the way backto 1945, where a B-25 bomber that got lost in the fog crashed into the side ofthe Empire State Building; conspiracy theoristspoint to this as proof that commercial planeshitting the World Trade Centre could not bringdown the towers. They also discussed theconstruction of the towers compared to theconstruction of the Empire State Building andhow the Towers’ structure was in some waysmore fragile. While the Towers were mostlyempty space by volume, this is true of any largebuilding/skyscraper. The idea of the towers Empire State Building after been hit by a B-25 bomberbeing less structurally sound than the EmpireState Building is challenged by a variety of technical sources, from sucharchitectural businesses like Emery Roth & Sons that designed the TwinTowers. “Because of its configuration, which is essentially that of a steel beam209’ deep, the towers are actually far less daring structurally than aconventional building such as the Empire State building where the spine orbraced area of the building is far smaller in relation to its height”. Also “Thebuilding as designed is sixteen times stiffer than a conventional structure. Thedesign concept is so sound that the structural engineer has been able to beultra-conservative in his design without adversely affecting the economics ofthe structure.” Both of these statements show that the Empire State Buildingwas that of weaker than the Towers. So then why didn’t the Empire StateBuilding fall if it had the same impact that the Towers had? The empire statebuilding also burned for 40 minutes. I also have another statement from theWorld Trade Centres lead engineer John Skilling. John told the Seattle Timesthis; "We looked at every possible thing we could think of that could happen tothe buildings, even to the extent of an airplane hitting the side… Our analysis
  5. 5. indicated the biggest problem would be the fact that all the fuel (from theairplane) would dump into the building. There would be a horrendous fire. A lotof people would be killed. [But] the building structure would still be there."TheWorld Trade Centre was built with this exact attack in mind, but yet it stillcollapsed, could this be bad design and architectural work, or something else?Within the building there was damage to the windows and lobby floors waybelow where the plane crashed. The 911 Truth movements have said that thisis evidence of explosives being planted in the buildings, but the argument thatothers put forward is that the jet fuel from the planes had just trickled downthe elevator shafts and caused explosions down below which then damagedthe lobby. Jet fuel being ignited would have just caused fire though, especiallyif it only trickled, there would not have been enough of it to cause such anexplosion, and fire cant blow through windows. Though even fire doesn’t looklike the case, after looking into this the white marble walls have no sign whatso ever of being exposed to fire, also the plants next to the blown out windowsshow no signs of being burnt. After also getting in an explosives expert theyhave said he doesn’t believe the damage was caused by the jet fuel from theplane trickling down the elevator shafts, looking at the appearance of thelobby. It is argued that one of the reasons the World Trade Centre collapsed isthat the fire on the floor could have melted the steel. Which is one of myfavourites to be honest as there is no way that fire could have done such athing. Steel melts, or liquefies, at 2750 degrees F. Jet fuel burns at up to 1500degrees F. within 10 minutes, the jet fuel was exhausted, and the fire thenraged among the building itself: through the furniture, rugs, curtains, papersand whatever else. The temperature preceding the collapse reached amaximum of 1832 degrees F. With fire out of the question of being able tomelt the steel, it leads me onto a certain type of explosive, particularlythermite. Molten steel was discovered in the basements of the collapsedWorld Trade Centre, which was confirmed by these 3 people; Mark lorieux ofControlled Demolition, Inc. Peter Tully, President of Tully Construction, andfinally the American Free Press newspaper. These pools of molten steel wereburning 70 feet below street level for 100 days after 911. Since we know thejet fuel burnt off within a couple of minutes and jet fuel fires cannot evencome close to the temperatures it takes to create a molten or liquid state insteel, then how do they explain this? Once again, hydrocarbon fires can only
  6. 6. reach a maximum temperature of 1517 degrees F. The melting point of steel is2,795 degrees F and the boiling point of steel (when it becomes a moltenliquid) is 5,182 degrees F. “Molten steel was encountered primarily duringexcavation of debris around the South Tower when large hydraulic excavatorswere digging trenches 2 to 4 meters deep into the compacted/burning debrispile. There are both video tape and still photos of the molten steel being"dipped" out by the buckets of excavators. Im not sure where you can get acopy.” This was said by Mark Loizeaux, President of Controlled Demolition, INC.Squibs are one of the very big and noticeable things about the footagecaptured of The World Trade centre as it well to the ground. Squibs areblasting caps (initiators) used in the explosive industry to set off highexplosives. People have used this term to explain the appearance of puffs orjets of dust emerging from the buildings during a demolition. These are causedby the detonation of explosive charges. These squibs can be seen in photosand footage of the towers. I haveimages to the right.Many people have said that thesquibs could have been editedinto the videos and the photosafterwards, as all over the internetthere is undocumented footage.However, the squibs have shownup in many videos andphotographs, and there has notbeen evidence yet to show thatthese squibs did not exist. Thesesquibs show up in both the northand south tower. The final reportfrom the National ConstructionSafety Team mentions a piston theory to try and explain the puffs of dust. “Thefalling mass of the building compressed the air ahead of it, much like the actionof a piston, forcing material, such as smoke and debris, out the window as seenin several videos.”There are quite a few problems with this statement though.The squibs are thick and of a light colour which is said to be concrete and
  7. 7. gypsum. Though these kinds of materials would not have been crushed yet, thepancaking floors above impacted the floor which shot out the squibs. Thismeaning that the dust would have not been made until the air was alreadysqueezed out. There would be no dust produced at this point. Furthermore tothis the squibs shoot out of the building 10 to 20 floors below the explodingcloud, which appears to be the crushed concrete of the floor slabs, which wasthe only concrete factor of the tower. This ‘piston theory’ requires for thefloors to of already pancaked down to the level of the squib, though theywould be non-existent for the making of the concrete dust more than 10 floorsabove. Also on The North Tower, there were three very distinct squibs whichwere at different levels of the building. Each set was visible as two distinctsquibs on the same floor, one shooting out from about halfway centre of eachof the towers two showing faces. The pattern for these would be far toofocused for it to happen from just the building pancaking. Also if you go back tothe images of the squibs and look at the second one down you will see thegiant mushroom shape. Both of the Twin Towers had a mushroomingbehaviour as they collapsed, this resulted in the steel being dispersed severaltimes the size of the buildings bottoms. By about five seconds into eachcollapse the diameter of the mushroom was about three times the diameter ofthe tower. The 1st tower started at the 80th floor and collapsed from there.From the crash zone it took 9.733 seconds exactly, from the roof of thebuilding it took exactly 11.613 seconds. The 2nd tower started on the 95th floorand collapsed down from there. From that floor it took 11.604 seconds, fromthe roof it took 12.608 seconds. These times are the exact of how long acontrolled demolition would take for it too collapses down to the ground. Onceagain I ask you, is this just a coincidence?The firemen which were on scene of The World trade centre when it was hitare some huge evidence of something else being put inside the building, asthey give truthful evidence as to what they heard and/or saw. One fireman(Assistant Fire Commissioner Stephen Gregory) who saw it all for himself saidthis in an interview; “I know I was with an officer from Ladder 146, a LieutenantEvangelista, who ultimately called me up a couple of days later just to find outhow I was. We both for whatever reason -- again, I dont know how valid this iswith everything that was going on at that particular point in time, but for somereason I thought that when I looked in the direction of the Trade Centre before
  8. 8. it came down, before No. 2 came down, that I saw low-level] flashes. In myconversation with Lieutenant Evangelista, never mentioning this to him, hequestioned me and asked me if I saw low-level flashes in front of the building,and I agreed with him because I thought -- at that time I didnt know what itwas. I mean, it could have been as a result of the building collapsing, thingsexploding, but I saw a flash flashflash and then it looked like the building camedown.Q.: Was that on the lower level of the building or up where the fire was?A: No, the lower level of the building. You know like when they demolish abuilding, how when they blow up a building, when it falls down? Thats what Ithought I saw. And I didnt broach the topic to him, but he asked me. He said Idont know if Im crazy, but I just wanted to ask you because you were standingright next to me. He said did you see anything by the building? And I said whatdo you mean by see anything? He said did you see any flashes? I said, yes, well,I thought it was just me. He said no, I saw them, too.”But Gregory wasn’t the only fireman to of said he saw or heard explosionscoming from inside the building, there was also Chief Frank Cruthers “Therewas what appeared to be at first an explosion. It appeared at the very top,simultaneously from all four sides, materials shot out horizontally. And thenthere seemed to be a momentary delay before you could see the beginning ofthe collapse.”I could carry on quoting fireman all day, but I think we both knowthat proves nothing. This can be taken as very strong evidence of whathappened on scene or you could also say ‘wait a minute that is no proof?’ Ofcourse I can agree with that anyone could have posted a name and a quotethere is no actual footage, but wait, there is. Online and also in 9/11documentary’s I found clips from fire fighters live on the scene saying whatthey saw and heard. “Flashes of light”, “loud explosions”. Most of which theyjust couldn’t get there words out; they were so speechless of what they saw. Ialso came across a clip which was of the fireman screaming “There is a bomb inthe building, start clearing out” he then repeated this again, while otherfiremen started moving and clearing the area. I believe this is one of the veryclear pieces of evidence there is.
  9. 9. The Pentagon was second to be hit be hit on September the 11th. It is thoughtto of been an American 77 plane, with 58 passengers, four flight attendantsand two pilots. The attack has been once again left by the governmentsconcealing of relevant evidence, the location of the attack is an unquestionablefact; the damage was kept to the outer three rings of the building’s west block,a portion of the Pentagon that was undergoing renovation scheduled to becomplete in mid-September of 2001. The targeting of this one wedge savedthousands of lives. This was the only area of the Pentagon building with asprinkler system within. It has also been reconstructed with steel columns andbars, also blast-resistant windows to withstand bomb blasts. On an averageday about 4,500 people would have normally been working here, but becauseof the renovation work only about 800 were there. Only 123 of these peoplewere killed (I am notsaying that is a smallnumber, it just seemsstrange consideringthere were 800). Alsoof these 123 people,none of them werehigh-level officials.Secretary of DefenceDonald Rumsfield wassafe in his office on theopposite side of thebuilding (convenient).Considering that thiswas claimed to be aterrorist attack, andthat it targeted theone portion of thebuilding that wasmostly empty is all themore questionableconsidering the
  10. 10. method required by the aircraft blamed for the damage. It was said to be anAmerican Airlines Flight 77 approached the Pentagon from the northwest,flying over the White House before swooping down on the Pentagon (Onceagain, being a terrorist, why wouldn’t they attack the white house?). Theninstead of attacking the Pentagon in a straight on fashion, the jet then did a320-degree downward spiral to its east, south, and southwest, going down byseven thousand feet before levelling out at near enough tree-top level as itthen made its last shot from the southwest.Photography’s taken immediately after bypassers-by show a number of pieces of (said tobe) aircraft debris. One of the larger pieces wasdocumented by a photograph by passer-by MarkFaram (to the right). It shows the piece on thelawn of the Pentagon northwest of the heliport.The piece was a few hundred feet from theimpact centre. This could be suggesting that ithad been moved before Mark Faram arrived.There are also other photographs (such as theone to the right) of people, some of whichdressed in work clothing, moving the pieces ofdebris. The photographs and videos of theseactions do not show any attempt to carefullynote or record the positions of each piece ofdebris they may have been finding. Surely onany crime scene investigation or attack thepolice would have been there to mark each partand then either get an expert in to work outwhat could have happened, or to send the parts of the plane to be inspected.A year after the attacks in March 2002, five frames from a pentagonsurveillance camera became public; this was published by the Associated Press.The camera was positioned north of the section of the Pentagon’s west wallwhich was the section destroyed. This was the only video footage capturingthe seconds of the attack that had been made available to the public until May,
  11. 11. 2006, when the Pentagon itself released two video clips. They both showedslightly more than three minutes at about one frame per second. One of theclips released by the Pentagon contains the five frames which were earlierreleased in March, 2002. The other is from a nearby camera. Below are thefirst two shots of the video, the other 3 just show the explosion get bigger andmore red and fiery.Obviously by this security camera it is not at all clear what hits the pentagon asin one shot there is nothing, and then the next there is an explosion. It couldhave been anything. The five frames that were released in 2002 fuelled hugespeculation that the Pentagon was not actually hit by a jetliner. In a bookcalled ‘Painful Deceptions’ by Eric Hugschmid he points out that The first frame shows a vapour trail of the kind made by missiles, not jetliners. The first frame shows an apparent mostly-obscured plane that is much too small to be a 757. The second frame shows an explosion whose white colour indicates the detonation of an explosive rather than the deflagration of jet fuel.None of the above observations of the images/clips support a conclusion aboutwhat hit the Pentagon, since the video’s resolution is too poor to make a finalconclusion, and it is possible that the image could have been edited. There arealso many people that think that because of the lack of evidence from the
  12. 12. Pentagon attack it than something other than Flight 77 or a Boeing 757,crashed into the Pentagon. There have said to of been a lot of eye witnessreports that people have seen that a plane crashed into the Pentagon, not allhave said what type though, a whole load of people are actually saying adifferent plane to what had supposedly hit the Pentagon. Mike Dobbs whoobserved from the upper level of the outer ring of the Pentagon said lookingout of the window when he saw an American Airlines 737 twin-engine airlinerstrike the building. Terry Morin who watched from the 5th wing of BMDOoffices at the old Navy Annex said ‘The plane had a silver body with red andblue stripes down the fuselage. I believed at the time that it belonged toAmerican Airlines, but I couldn’t be sure. It looked like a 737 and so I reportedit to the authorities’. Out of the 100+ eye witnesses, whether they were tellingthe truth or they were told to say otherwise, more eye witnesses believed theysaw a different plane to what was actually recorded.In conclusion to these events, firstly starting with the Twin Towers; I believethe government were involved by not planning the plane to crash into thebuilding, but I believe that they knew of the terrorist attack was going tohappen, and instead of them stopping this, they chose to get as much as theycould out of it. They did this by 1) putting layers of thermite on the steel bars.This is the only way that the steel could have melted and turned into themolten steel that it did, and what was found weeks after the attacks. 2) Ibelieve they planted bombs in several levels of the Towers. This could havebeen so that the tower would have fallen and no evidence would have beenleft over. There is no way that the tower could have fallen without explosives.The temperature of the fire got nowhere near steel melting level.Also theblasts below the mushroom show where explosive charges had gone off. 3)The fact that the American government will not answer any questions aboutthe September 11 attacks, they will just put off the idea of it saying that theyhave answered what they need to answer. They have left unfinished business.The reason I believe that they did all of this was that because of the terroristattacks, if they were to stop them they would have no reason to start war.Letting it happen created a new reason for them to invest in militaryequipment to fuel the army and make them more powerful and become thesuperior country. The 2nd reason I believe that they have done this is too scare
  13. 13. the Americans. By having such events like this it makes the country feel scaredand not knowing what is going on or has happened. They then come in to tryand sound like the good guys, when really they knew it was coming.The Pentagon once again was an attack in which to fuel their militaryequipment. Even though the attack was against the weaker point, I believethey did this so it would cost them less afterwards to replace putting more intheir ‘bank’. Any terrorist would aim for the place with the most people, so theback section of the Pentagon where the Head people work OR hit the WhiteHouse but they chose to fly straight over, that seems very strange to me.I apologise for being quite upfront about the situation. I know it isn’tsomething to be heavy about, and something that should be taken intoconsideration. Once again I don’t wish to tell you what to believe. I’ve writtenthe facts down, so that you can make your own mind up and then see it as youwish.
  14. 14. Here is the timeline of events from the day – I got this off of Wikipedia6:00 a.m.6:00: Mohamed Atta travels Colgan Air from Portland International Jetport, Portland, Maine,to Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts, along with Abdulaziz al-Omari.[1]6:45: Atta and al-Omari arrive at Bostons Logan Airport.[1]6:52: Marwan al-Shehhi calls Atta from another terminal at Logan to confirm that the plansfor the attack are set.[1][edit]7:00 a.m.7:35: Atta and al-Omari board American Airlines Flight 11.7:40: The rest of the American Airlines Flight 11 hijackers board the plane.7:59: American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767, carrying 81 passengers and 11 crewmembers, departs 14 minutes late from Logan International Airport, bound for Los Angeles,California[edit]8:00 a.m.8:13: Flight 11 has its last routine communication with the FAAs Boston Air Route TrafficControl Center.8:14: Flight 11 fails to heed air traffic controllers instruction to climb to 35,000 feet. Aircraftis hijacked.8:14: United Airlines Flight 175, another fully fueled Boeing 767, carrying 56 passengers andnine crew members, departs from Boston Logan airport, also bound for Los Angeles. Fivehijackers are aboard.8:19: Betty Ong, a flight attendant on Flight 11 alerts American Airlines via an airphone,“The cockpit is not answering, somebody’s stabbed in business class—and I thinkthere’s Mace—that we can’t breathe—I don’t know, I think we’re getting hijacked.” Shethen tells of the stabbings of two flight attendants.8:20: The Federal Aviation Administrations Boston Center flight controllers decide thatFlight 11 has probably been hijacked.8:20: American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 58 passengers and six crew members,departs from Washington Dulles International Airport in Fairfax and LoudounCounties, Virginia, for Los Angeles. Five hijackers are aboard.8:21: Flight 11s transponder signal is turned off, but the plane remains on radar screens as ablip without additional information. (Prior to the 9/11 Commissions report, newsorganizations reported this time as 8:13 or immediately thereafter.)8:24: A radio transmission comes from Flight 11: "We have some planes. Just stay quiet, andyoull be okay. We are returning to the airport." It is believed Atta mistakenly held a buttondirecting his voice to radio rather than to the planes cabin as he intended. A few secondslater, Attas voice says, "nobody move. Everything will be OK. If you try to make any moves,
  15. 15. youll endanger yourself and the airplane. Just stay quiet." Air traffic controllers hear thetransmission.8:25: Boston Center flight controllers alert other flight control centers regarding Flight11. NORAD is not yet alerted.8:26:30: Flight 11 makes a 100-degree turn to the south heading toward New York City.[2]8:34: A third transmission from Flight 11: "nobody move please. We are going back to theairport. Dont try to make any stupid moves."8:34: Dan Bueno from Boston Center notifies the tower controller at Otis Air National GuardBase at Cape Cod of the hijacking of Flight 11. The controller directs Bueno tocontact Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS), the northeast sector of NORAD.[3] Thecontroller then notifies Otis Operations Center that a call from NEADS might becoming.[4] Two F15 pilots begin to suit up.[5]8:37: Flight 175 confirms sighting of hijacked Flight 11 to flight controllers, 10 miles (16 km)to its south.8:37:52: Boston Center control notifies NEADS of the hijacking of Flight 11, the firstnotification received by NORAD that American 11 had been hijacked. The controllerrequests military help to intercept the jetliner.Cockpit view of the World Trade Center towers from the Hudson River – the flightpath ofAmerican Flight 118:41: The FAAs New York Center requests information about Flight 11 over the radio. Flight175 responds: "[...]ah we heard a suspicious transmission on our departure out of Boston ahwith someone ah, ah sound like someone sound like someone keyed the mike and said aheveryone ah stay in your seats"[6] New York Center acknowledges and says it will pass theinformation on.8:42: United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757, takes off with 37 passengers and seven crewmembers from Newark International Airport (now Newark Liberty International Airport),bound for San Francisco International Airport, following a 40-minute delay due to congestedrunways. Four hijackers are aboard. Its flight path initially takes it close to the World TradeCenter before moving away westwards.8:42 to 8:46 (approx.): Flight 175 is hijacked.8:44: Flight attendant Amy Sweeney, aboard Flight 11, reports by telephone to MichaelWoodward at the American Airlines Flight Services Office in Dallas, "Something is wrong. Weare in a rapid descent... we are all over the place." A minute later, Woodward asks her todescribe what she sees out the window. She responds, "I see the water. I see the buildings. Isee buildings..." After a short pause, she reports, "We are flying low. We are flying very, verylow. We are flying way too low." Seconds later she says, "Oh my God, we are way too low.”The call ends with a burst of very loud, sustained static.8:46: Two F-15 fighter jets are ordered to scramble from Otis Air National Guard Basein Massachusetts, intended to intercept Flight 11. Because Flight 11s transponder is off, thepilots do not know the location of their target. NEADS spends the next several minuteswatching their radar screens in anticipation of Flight 11 returning a radar contact.
  16. 16. Seconds after American Airlines Flight 11 impacted North Tower8:46:30[7] Flight 11 crashes at roughly 466 mph (790 km/h or 219m/s or 425 knots) into thenorth face of the North Tower (1 WTC) of theWorld Trade Center, between floors 93 and 99.(Many early accounts gave times between 8:45 and 8:50). The aircraft enters the towermostly intact. It plows to the building core, severing all three gypsum-encased stairwells,dragging combustibles with it. A powerful shock wave travels down to the ground and upagain. The combustibles and the remnants of the aircraft are ignited by the burning fuel. Asthe building lacks a traditional full cage frame and depends almost entirely on the strengthof a narrow structural core running up the center, fire at the center of the impact zone is ina position to compromise the integrity of all internal columns. People below the severedstairwells start to evacuate—no one above the impact zone is able to do so.French filmmaker Jules Naudet and Czech immigrant PavelHlava videotape the crash ofFlight 11 with their video cameras from different locations. A WNYW TV camera records thesound, but not the image, of the crash.8:48 to 10:28: At least 100 people (some accounts say as many as 250), primarily in theNorth Tower, trapped by fire and smoke in the upper floors, jump to their deaths. [citationneeded] One person at street level, firefighter Daniel Suhr, is hit by a jumper and dies. [8] Noform of airborne evacuation is attempted as smoke is too dense for a successful landing onthe roof of either tower, New York City lacks helicopters equipped for horizontal rescue andthe roof tarmac would have been too hot with too much smoke to land a helicopter. [citationneeded]8:48:08: The first television report of an incident at the World Trade Center is broadcastlocally in New York by WNYW less than two minutes after the plane crashed into the NorthTower. WNYW breaks into a Paramount Pictures movie trailer for Zoolander with the firstlive TV pictures of black smoke coming from the North Tower, relayed by a WNYWcameraman at ground level. One of the stations camera crews already had been out on thestreet that morning for New Yorks mayoral primary election. As WNYW broadcasts the firstlive pictures of smoke, the voice of reporter Dick Oliver is heard from the scene:“ "Jim (referring to WNYWs Jim Ryan, who was not in the studio at the time), just a few moments ago, something believed to be a plane crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center. I just saw flames inside, you can see the smoke coming out of the tower; we have no idea what it was. It was a tremendous boom just a few moments ago. You can hear around me emergency vehicles heading towards the scene. Now this could have been an aircraft or it could have been something internal. It appears to be something coming from the outside, due to the nature of the opening on about the 100th floor of the South Tower of the World Trade Center." ”Three minutes later, Jim Ryan corrected the location of the first plane crash from the SouthTower to the North Tower.Around the same time the first radio report of the incident is heard on WCBS-AM throughtraffic reporter Tom Kaminski. WCBS traffic reports are delivered every ten minutes "on the8s", meaning that Kaminskis traffic report was to come within two minutes of the initial
  17. 17. impact of Flight 11 (although there is no record of how much time actually passed). At thetime Kaminski was in "Chopper 880", WCBS helicopter that he reports from for morningand evening rush hour traffic reports. The following consists of WCBS anchor Pat Carrolltossing to Kaminski in the chopper before he files his report.“ Pat Carroll: WCBS news time, 8:48, its traffic and weather together sponsored by Henry Millers Theatre. Tom Kaminski, Chopper 880. Tom Kaminski: Alright uh, Pat, we are just currently getting a look...at the World Trade Center, We have something that has happened here at the World Trade Center. We noticed flame and an awful lot of smoke from one of the towers of the World Trade Center. We are just coming up on this scene, this is easily three- quarters of the way up...we are...this is...whatever has occurred has just occurred, uh, within minutes and, uh, we are trying to determine exactly what that is. But currently we have a lot of smoke at the top of the towers of the World Trade Center, we will keep you posted. ”CNN breaking the news of a plane crash at the World Trade Center8:49:34: The first network television and radio reports of an explosion or incident at theWorld Trade Center. CNN breaks into a Ditech commercial at 8:49. The CNN screen subtitlefirst reads "World Trade Center disaster." Carol Lin, the first TV network anchor to break thenews of the attacks, says:“ This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. ”Just a minute later, Sean Murtagh, CNN vice-president of finance, in an on-air phone call,says from his office in the CNN New York bureau that a large passenger commercial jet wasseen to hit the World Trade Center. Murtagh is the first network employee on the air. Thefirst email bulletins of breaking news from CNN and MSNBC report "fire at tower of WorldTrade Center". Both CNN and MSNBCs websites receive such heavy traffic that manyservers collapse. BBC News website is active and shows a picture of the North Tower onfire. Minutes later, email news bulletins revise the reports of fire to a plane crash.8:50: NEADS is notified that a plane has struck the World Trade Center as they continue totry to locate the flight on radar.8:50 to 8:54 (approx.): Hijacking begins on Flight 77.8:50 to 8:55 (approx): Howard Stern reports live on his radio show that something hashappened to one of the Towers. He states that it was clearly a terrorist attack. This wasmentioned within the first five minutes after the first plane hit. The name Osama BinLaden came up within a half hour of the first impact. Sometime around 10:00 Howard madea remark to the effect that those buildings wont stay standing. ^Source #28- History ofHoward Stern series, day 10, segment 3.
  18. 18. 8:51: A flight controller at the FAAs New York Center notices that Flight 175 had changedits transponder code twice four minutes earlier; he tries to contact the flight.8:52: Lee Hanson receives a phone call from his son Peter, a passenger on United 175, whosays "I think theyve taken over the cockpit-An attendant has been stabbed- and someoneelse up front may have been killed. The plane is making strange moves. Call United Airlines-Tell them its Flight 175, Boston to LA." Also on Flight 175 a flight attendant aboard calls aUnited Airlines office in Chicago, reporting that the flight had been hijacked, both pilots hadbeen killed, a flight attendant had been stabbed, and the hijackers were probably flying theplane.[9]8:52: The F-15s at Otis Air National Guard Base are airborne. Still lacking an intercept vectorto Flight 11 (and not aware that it has already crashed), they are sent to military controlledairspace offLong Island and ordered to remain in a holding pattern until between 9:09 and9:13.8:54: Flight 77 deviates from its assigned course, turning south over Ohio.8:55 (approx.): Announcements are made over the building-wide PA system by officials inthe still-undamaged South Tower of the World Trade Center, reporting that the building is"secure" and that people should return to their offices. Some do not hear it; others ignore itand evacuate anyway; others congregate in common areas like the 78th floor sky lobby.8:55: President George W. Bush is at Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota,Florida as part of a scheduled visit to promote education when presidential advisor AndrewCard, who is with Bush, informs him that a small twin-engine plane has crashed into theWorld Trade Center. Before entering the classroom, the President speaks to NationalSecurity Advisor Condoleezza Rice, who is at the White House. She first tells him it was atwin-engine aircraft—and then a commercial aircraft—that had struck the World TradeCenter, adding “that’s all we know right now, Mr. President.”[10]8:56: The transponder on Flight 77 is turned off and even primary radar contact with theaircraft is lost. During radar blackout Flight 77 turns east, unnoticed by flight controllers.When primary radar information is restored at 9:05, controllers searching for Flight 77 tothe west of its previous position are unable to find it.[11] Flight 77 travels undetected for 36minutes on a course heading due east toward Washington, D.C.8:58: Flight 175 takes a heading toward New York City.[edit]9:00 a.m.The Twin Towers burning from the impact of flights 11 and 175.9:00: Lee Hanson receives a second call from his son Peter, aboard Flight 175: "Its gettingbad, Dad. A stewardess was stabbed. They seem to have knives and Mace. They said theyhave a bomb. Its getting very bad on the plane. Passengers are throwing up and gettingsick. The plane is making jerky movements. I dont think the pilot is flying the plane. I thinkwe are going down. I think they intend to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building.Dont worry, Dad. If it happens, itll be very fast. My God, my God." The call ends abruptly, asLee Hanson hears a woman scream.[9]9:01 to 9:02: A manager from the FAAs New York Center tells the Air Traffic Control SystemCommand Center in Herndon, Virginia, "We have several situations going on here. Its
  19. 19. escalating big, big time. We need to get the military involved with us. . . Were, wereinvolved with something else, we have other aircraft that may have a similar situation goingon here."9:01: FAAs New York Center contacts New York terminal approach control and asks for helpin locating Flight 175.9:02: Evacuation is ordered by FDNY Battalion Chief Joseph Pfeifer (North Tower). Anannouncement is made over the PA system to evacuate the buildings.9:03:02: Flight 175 crashes at about 590 mph (950 km/h, 264 m/s or 513 knots) into thesouth face of the South Tower (2 WTC) of the World Trade Center, banked between floors77 and 85.[12] All 65 people onboard the aircraft die instantly on impact, and unknownhundreds in the building as well. By this time, several media organizations, including thethree major broadcast networks (who have interrupted their morning shows), are coveringthe first plane crash—millions see the impact live. Parts of the plane leave the building fromits east and north sides, falling to the ground six blocks away.A massive evacuation begins in the South Tower below its impact zone. One of the stairwellsin the South Tower remains unblocked from the top to the bottom of the tower, but is filledwith smoke. This leads many people to mistakenly go upwards towards the roof for arooftop rescue that never comes. The Port Authority kept the two sets of heavy metal doorsleading to the buildings only roof exit tightly locked.[13] The impact severs communicationwith several television and radio broadcast towers at the WTC; local station WPIXs feedfreezes on an image of the second impact which is all the station broadcasts until alternatetransmitters are set up hours later.Because of the North Towers obstruction of the South Tower from certain camera angles,some are originally unaware that a second plane has struck the South Tower, and insteadmistakenly believe that the second explosion has occurred in the North Tower. As instantreplays of the second plane crash are shown, the anchors on the three major broadcastnetworks speculate on whether they are witnessing a terrorist attack or some sort of veryrare accident. CNN changes its headline to read "Second plane crashes into World TradeCenter." In the case of the anchors on the local stationWABC, they at first assume that theexplosion seen was caused when the fuselage of the first plane exploded. As other sourcesand eyewitnesses correct them that it was actually a plane that had hit the South Tower, theWABC anchors then initially suggest it was a rare accident, saying that the two crashesmight have been caused by navigational system failure.Several eyewitness accounts and camera footage reveal that the plane was coming in atan angle, and was seen to turn drastically to the left to be able to hit the tower, unlike itspredecessor, Flight 11, which had been able to hit the North Tower straight on. Thus, it isbelieved that had the plane continued flying straight, it would have at least simply clippedthe side of the building with its left wing, or even missed the building entirely. (Flight 175came in from the southwest, apparently heading for the Empire State Building, but turnedright, then left into the South Tower.)George W. Bush being told by his Chief of Staff Andrew Card about the second plane hittingthe WTC9:03: President Bush enters a classroom as part of his school visit.
  20. 20. 9:03: FAAs New York Center notifies NORAD (NEADS) of the hijacking of Flight 175.9:04 (approximately): The FAAs Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center stops all departuresfrom airports in its jurisdiction (New England and eastern New York State).9:05: After brief introductions to the Booker elementary students, President Bush is aboutto begin reading The Pet Goat with the students when Chief of Staff Andrew Card interruptsto whisper to the president, "A second plane hit the second tower. America is underattack."[14] The president stated later that he decided to continue the lesson rather thanalarm the students.9:06: The FAA bans takeoffs of all flights bound to or through the airspace of New YorkCenter from airports in that Center and the three adjacent Centers — Boston,Cleveland, andWashington. This is referred to as a First Tier groundstop and covers the Northeastfrom North Carolina north and as far west as eastern Michigan.9:08: The FAA bans all takeoffs nationwide for flights going to or through New York Centerairspace. ABC reports later that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the agencythat runs the New York-area airports, asked the FAA for permission to close down the NewYork Center airspace.9:11: The last PATH train leaves the World Trade Center. The station is vacant when thetowers collapse.9:13: The F-15 fighters from Otis Air National Guard Base leave military airspace near LongIsland, bound for Manhattan.9:14: President Bush returned to a holding room commandeered by the SecretService shortly before 9:15. The holding room contains a telephone, a television showing thenews coverage, and several senior staff members. The president speaks to VicePresident Dick Cheney, Condoleezza Rice, New York Governor George Pataki, and FBIDirector Robert Mueller, and prepares brief remarks.[15]9:15: NBCs Today program reports unconfirmed statements from employees at UnitedAirlines that an American Airlines aircraft had been hijacked previous to its destruction.9:17: The FAA closes down all New York City-area airports.[16] The city had initially asked theFAA to close down the airports.9:17:02: CBS News correspondent Jim Stewart in Washington mentions that in theintelligence community, Osama bin Laden is a probable suspect.9:18: CNN makes reference to foul play for the first time, stating the FBI was investigating areport of plane hijacking. CNN headline: "AP: Plane was hijacked before crashes".9:21: All bridges and tunnels into Manhattan closed.[16]9:23: Flight 93 receives warning message text from United Airlines flight dispatcher:"Beware any cockpit intrusion- Two a/c [aircraft] hit World Trade Center."9:24: The FAA notifies NORADs Northeast Air Defense Sector about the suspected hijackingof Flight 77. The FAA and NORAD establish an open line to discuss Flight 77, and shortlythereafter Flight 93.9:25: The Otis-based F-15s establish an air patrol over Manhattan.
  21. 21. 9:25: A video teleconference begins to be set up in the White House Situation Room, ledby Richard A. Clarke, a special assistant to the president, that eventually includes the CIA,the FBI, the departments of State, Justice, and Defense, and the FAA.9:25: The Associated Press informs CNN that the two plane crashes in the World TradeCenter appeared to be an "act of terrorism" (terrorist attack).9:26: The FAA bans takeoffs of all civilian aircraft regardless of destination—a nationalgroundstop. All military bases in the United States are ordered to increase threatconditions to Deltastatus.[citation needed]9:28: Hijackers storm the cockpit on Flight 93 and take over the flight. The entry of thehijackers is overheard by flight controllers at Cleveland.9:29: President Bush makes his first public statements about the attacks, in front of anaudience of about 200 teachers and students at the elementary school. He states that hewill be going back to Washington, that "weve had a national tragedy", and leads a momentof silence. No one in the Presidents traveling party has any information during this timethat other aircraft were hijacked or missing.[17]9:32: A radio transmission from Flight 93 is overheard by flight controllers at Cleveland:"Keep remaining sitting. We have a bomb on board."9:32: Controllers at the Dulles Terminal Radar Approach Control in Virginia observe "aprimary radar target tracking eastbound at a high rate of speed", referring to Flight 77.9:33 to 9:34: Tower supervisor at Reagan National Airport tells Secret Service operationscenter at the White House that "an aircraft [is] coming at you and not talking with us,"referring to Flight 77. The White House is about to be evacuated when the tower reportsthat Flight 77 has turned and is approaching Reagan National Airport.9:34: The FAAs Command Center relays information concerning Flight 93 to FAAheadquarters.9:35: The Presidents motorcade departs from the elementary school, bound for Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport and Air Force One.9:35: Flight 93 reverses direction over Ohio and starts flying eastwards.9:35: Based on a report that Flight 77 had turned again and was circling back toward theDistrict of Columbia, the Secret Service orders the immediate evacuation of the VicePresident from the White House.9:36: Cleveland advises the FAA Command Center that it is still tracking Flight 93 andinquires whether someone had requested the military to launch fighter aircraft to interceptthe aircraft.9:37: Vice President Cheney enters an underground tunnel leading to a security bunker.A Lincoln Town Cartaxicab was hit by a lightpole as American Airlines Flight 77 passed overWashington Boulevard and crashed into the Pentagon.[18]9:37:46: Flight 77 crashes into the western side of the Pentagon at 530 mph (853 km/h, 237m/s, or 460 knots) and starts a violent fire. The section of the Pentagon hit consists mainly
  22. 22. of newly renovated, unoccupied offices. All 64 people on board are killed, as are 125Pentagon personnel.9:39: Another radio transmission is heard from ZiadJarrah aboard Flight 93: "Uh, this is thecaptain. Would like you all to remain seated. There is a bomb on board and are going backto the airport, and to have our demands [unintelligible]. Please remain quiet."9:39: Fox News Channel reports, "We -- we are hearing -- right now that another explosionthat -- has taken place. At the Pentagon."[19]9:39: NBC and MSNBC report an explosion at the Pentagon.9:40: Video teleconference in White House Situation Room begins with the physical securityof the President, the White House, and federal agencies. They are not yet aware of thePentagon crash.9:40:49: CNNs Breaking News bulletin reads "Reports of fire at Pentagon."9:42: Ben Sliney of the FAA issues the execution order for SCATANA grounding all air trafficover the United States and diverting any incoming international traffic to alternatedestinations.9:43: The White House and the Capitol are evacuated and closed.9:45: United States airspace is shut down. No civilian aircraft are allowed to take off, and allaircraft in flight are ordered to land at the nearest airport as soon as possible. Allinternational flights headed for the U.S. are redirected to Canada. TransportCanada, Canadas transportation agency, also closes down its airspace. The FAA announcesthat civilian flights are suspended until at least noon September 12, while Transport Canadagives similar orders, but until further notice, to take in diverted U.S.-bound internationalflights, launching the agencys "Operation Yellow Ribbon". The groundings last untilSeptember 14. Military and medical flights as well as Con Air flights continue. This is thefourth time all commercial flights in the U.S. have been stopped, and the first time asuspension was unplanned. All previous suspensions were military-related (Sky Shield I-III),from 1960 to 1962. Many newspapers (including The New York Times) mistakenly print thatthis is the first time flights have been suspended. This was also the first time commercialflights in Canada have been stopped.Further information: Operation Yellow Ribbon9:45: CNN receives initial reports that, in addition to a fire at the Pentagon, there is also afire at the National Mall. These reports, however, are later proven to be false.9:49: The FAA Command Center at Herndon suggests that someone at FAA headquartersshould decide whether to request military assistance with Flight 93. Ultimately, the FAAmakes no request before it crashes.9:50 (approximately): The Associated Press reports that Flight 11 was apparently hijackedafter departure from Bostons Logan Airport. Within an hour this is confirmed for both Flight11 and Flight 175.9:51: FDNY Battalion Chief Orio Palmer reaches the 78th Floor Sky Lobby of the South Toweralong with Fire Marshal Ronald Bucca. Palmer reports that there are two pockets of fire andnumerous dead bodies.[citation needed]
  23. 23. 9:52: The National Security Agency intercepts a phone call between a known associateof Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan and someone in the Republic of Georgia, announcingthat he had heard "good news", and that another target was still to be hit. [20]9:53: CNN confirms a plane crash at the Pentagon.9:55: A CNN correspondent mentions Osama bin Laden as someone determined to strikethe US.9:55: Air Force One leaves Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport.9:57: Passenger revolt begins on Flight 93.9:57: President Bush leaves Sarasota, Florida, on Air Force One. The plane reaches cruisingaltitude and circles for approximately 40 minutes while the destination of the plane isdiscussed.9:59:01: The South Tower of the World Trade Center begins to collapse, 56 minutes and 2seconds after the impact of Flight 175. Its destruction is viewed and heard by a vasttelevision and radio audience. As the roar of the collapse goes silent, tremendous gray-white clouds of pulverized concrete and gypsum rush through the streets. Most observersthink a new explosion or impact has produced smoke and debris that now obscures theSouth Tower, but once the wind clears the smoke it becomes clear that the building is nolonger there. On ABC, Good Morning Americacorrespondent Don Dahler, who was home atthe time of the incident and lived near the site, reports to anchor Peter Jennings on air thathe has witnessed the tower collapse; this is perhaps the first official word of the collapse asDahlers report is filed seconds after the building collapsed.Further information: Collapse of the World Trade Center[edit]10:00 a.m.10:00: Moments after the South Tower fell, Chief J. Pfeifer (inside of North Tower) said onthe radio the order to all firemen, at least twice, "Evacuate the building".10:01: The FAA Command Center advises FAA headquarters that an aircraft had seen Flight93 "waving his wings," the hijackers efforts to defeat the passengers counterattack.10:02: Communicators with the Vice President in the security bunker begin receiving reportsfrom the Secret Service of an inbound aircraft — presumably hijacked — heading towardWashington. This is Flight 93.10:02: CNN announces that the Sears Tower in Chicago has been evacuated.10:03 (approximately): The National Military Command Center learns from the White Houseof Flight 93s hijacking.10:03:11: United Airlines Flight 93 is crashed by its hijackers and passengers at 563 mph(906 km/h, 252 m/s, or 489 knots), due to fighting in the cockpit 80 miles (129 km)southeast ofPittsburgh in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.[21] Later reports indicate thatpassengers had learned about the World Trade Center and Pentagon crashes on cellphones and at least three were planning on resisting the hijackers; the resistance wasconfirmed by Flight 93s cockpit voice recording, on which the hijackers are heard makingtheir decision to down the plane before the passengers succeed in breaching the cockpit
  24. 24. door. The 9/11 Commission believed that Flight 93s target was either the United StatesCapitol building or the White House in Washington, D.C.[22]10:05: Andrea Mitchell, reporting on NBC from outside the Pentagon, reports that Osamabin Laden may have been involved in the attacks.10:05: CNNs headlines read: "SOUTH TOWER AT WTC COLLAPSES."10:05: The IDS Center in Minneapolis is evacuated.10:07: NBC reports for the first time that the South Tower of the World Trade Center hascollapsed. Prior to this time they have said only that a section of the building has fallenaway.10:07: NEADS, controlling the only set of fighters over Washington, first learns of thehijacking of Flight 93.10:08: Air Traffic Control System Command Center in Herndon reports to FAA headquartersthat Flight 93 may be down near Johnstown, Pennsylvania; at 10:17 the Command Centerconcludes it is so.10:10: Part of the west side of the Pentagon collapses.10:10: NEADS emphatically tells fighter pilots over Washington, "Negative clearance toshoot."10:10 to 10:15 (approximately): Vice President Cheney, unaware that Flight 93 has crashed,authorizes fighter aircraft to engage the inbound plane, reported to be 80 miles (129 km)from Washington, based not on radar (from which it has disappeared) but speed andtrajectory projections.10:13: Thousands are involved in an evacuation of the United Nations complex in New York.10:13 to 10:22: The 9/11 Commissions estimated arrival of Flight 93 over Washington had itnot crashed in Pennsylvania.[23]10:14 to 10:19: A lieutenant colonel at the White House repeatedly relays to the NMCC thatthe Vice President has confirmed that fighters are cleared to engage inbound aircraft if theycan verify that the aircraft was hijacked.10:15 (approximately): The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine is reported totake responsibility for the crashes, but this is denied by a senior officer of the group soonafter.10:20: President Bush, aboard Air Force One, tells Vice President Cheney that he hasauthorized a shootdown of aircraft if necessary.[24]10:23: The Associated Press reports a car bomb has exploded outside the StateDepartment in Washington, D.C. This and several other reports of terrorist acts in the capitalare quickly found to be false.[25]10:24: Two men who were being evacuated through the underground shopping mall belowthe South Tower when it collapsed on them are able to climb up through thirty feet ofdebris to safety.10:28:31: The North Tower of the World Trade Center begins to collapse. Due to thedestruction of the gypsum-encased stairwells on the impact floors (most skyscraper
  25. 25. stairwells are encased in reinforced concrete), no one who was above the impact zone inthe North Tower escapes the collapse. The Marriott Hotel, located at the base of the twotowers, is also destroyed. The second collapse is also viewed live on television and heard onradio. The North Tower collapses 1 hour, 41 minutes and 45 seconds after the impact ofFlight 11.Several long-distance videos of the collapse, such as CNN, were able to notice that, after thecloud of dust had partially cleared away, a portion of the building was still standing. Itappeared to be the lower half of the northwest corner column of the North Tower, which,like a spire, grew larger and had more structure still standing near the bottom. The portionrose to a fairly good height considering the collapse around it, as it appeared to rise nearlyforty stories off the ground. This piece remained standing for a few seconds after the initialcollapse before it also came down.10:31: NORAD first communicates the Vice Presidents shootdown authority to NEADS.10:35: Air Force One, carrying the president, turns for Barksdale Air Force Base in BossierCity, Louisiana.10:37: Associated Press reports that officials at the Somerset County airport confirm that alarge plane has crashed in western Pennsylvania. CNNs Aaron Brown passes along reportsthat a 747 is "down" in Pennsylvania. He stresses these reports are unconfirmed. At 10:50,this report is updated: A 767 has "crashed this morning, north of the Somerset CountyAirport".10:37: The Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, is evacuated.10:39: Another hijacked jumbo jet is claimed to be headed for Washington, D.C. F-15s arescrambled and patrol the airspace above Washington, D.C. while other fighter jets sweepthe airspace above New York City. They have orders, first issued by Vice President Cheneyand later confirmed by President Bush, to shoot down any potentially dangerous planes thatdo not comply with orders given to them via radio. Eventually, the aircraft is revealed to bea medevac helicopter on its way to the Pentagon.10:41: NBC News confirms that a plane has "gone down" in Somerset County. The earlierunconfirmed statements about an incident at the State Department in Washington, D.C. arereported as false.10:43: CNN reports that a mass evacuation of Washington, D.C. and New York has beenstarted. A few minutes later, New York mayor Rudy Giuliani orders an evacuation of LowerManhattan.10:49: Fox News Channel is the first of the United States news networks to implementa news ticker at the bottom of its screen for supplementary information about the attacks.CNN adds one at 11:11, and MSNBC adds one at approximately 2:00 pm. All three cablenetworks have used a news ticker continuously in the years since (and many local televisionstations have followed suit).10:50:19: Five stories of part of the Pentagon collapse due to the fire.10:53: New Yorks primary elections are canceled.[edit]11:00 a.m.
  26. 26. 11:00: Transport Canada halts all aircraft departures until further notice, except for police,military, and humanitarian flights, as part of Operation Yellow Ribbon. The operation waswell underway as international flights headed for the U.S. had already started to land atCanadian airports, beginning at CFB Goose Bay. Fourteen other airports follow,including Halifax, Lester B. Pearson in Toronto,Montréal-Dorval, and Vancouver.11:05: The FAA confirms that several planes have been hijacked in addition to AmericanAirlines Flight 11.11:16: American Airlines confirms the loss of its two aircraft.11:26: United Airlines confirms the loss of Flight 93 and states that it is "deeply concerned"about Flight 175.[26]11:53: United Airlines confirms the loss of its two aircraft.11:55: The border between the U.S. and Mexico is on highest alert, but is not closed.[edit]12:00 p.m.12:01 (approximately): Fourteen people, including twelve firefighters, who were in a sectionof a stairwell in the North Tower that held together during the collapse, climb the stairs tothe top of theGround Zero rubble field.12:04: Los Angeles International Airport, the intended destination of Flights 11, 77 and 175,is shut down.12:15: San Francisco International Airport, the intended destination of Flight 93, is shutdown.12:15 (approximately): The airspace over the 48 contiguous United States is clear of allcommercial and private flights.12:30 (approximately): Secretary of State Colin Powell boards a plane in Lima, Peru, forWashington, D.C.12:39: On CNN, Senator John McCain characterizes attack as an "act of war."12:41: Senator Orrin Hatch tells CNN, "Both the FBI and our intelligence community believethat this is Bin Ladens signature."[edit]1:00 p.m.1:00 (approximately): At the Pentagon, fire crews are still fighting fires. The early responseto the attack had been coordinated from the National Military Command Center, but thathad to be evacuated when it began to fill with smoke.1:04: President Bush puts the U.S. military on high alert worldwide (known as ForceProtection Condition Delta). Taped remarks from the President were aired from BarksdaleAir Force Base, stating that "freedom itself was attacked this morning by a faceless cowardand freedom will be defended." He also said that the "United States will hunt down andpunish those responsible for these cowardly acts." He then leaves for a U.S. StrategicCommand bunker located at Offutt Air Force Base in Bellevue, Nebraska.[27]1:27: Mayor Anthony A. Williams of Washington, D.C., declares a state of emergency;the District of Columbia National Guard arrives on site.[edit]2:00 p.m.
  27. 27. 2:39: At a press conference New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani is asked to estimate the numberof casualties at the World Trade Center. He replies, "More than any of us can bear."2:50: President Bush arrives at Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska to convenea National Security Council teleconference via the U.S. STRATCOM bunker.[edit]3:00 p.m.3:00 (approx.): Pasquale Buzzelli, who lost consciousness in a North Tower stairway duringthe collapse, awakens to find himself lying atop the debris with only a fractured foot.[edit]4:00 p.m.Smoke Plume emanating from the World Trade Center as seen from ISS (4:00 p.m. EST)4:00: National news outlets report that high officials in the federal intelligence communityare stating that Osama bin Laden is suspect number one.4:25: The New York Stock Exchange, NASDAQ, and the American Stock Exchange report thatthey will remain closed Wednesday, September 12.4:36: President Bush departs Offutt Air Force Base on Air Force One[edit]5:00 p.m.5:20: The penthouse on top of 7 World Trade Center crumbles apart, only about 6 secondsbefore the entire building would begin to collapse.5:20:33: 7 World Trade Center, also known as the Salomon Bros. Building, a 47-storybuilding collapses. The building contained New Yorks emergency operations center,operated by the NYC Office of Emergency Management, originally intended to respond todisasters such as the September 11 terrorist attacks. Due to the emergency personnelhaving more than enough time to evacuate the building since the collapse of the NorthTower, there are no injuries or deaths as a result of the collapse.[edit]6:00 p.m.6:00: Explosions and tracer fire are reported in Kabul, Afghanistan, by CNN and the BBC.The Northern Alliance, involved in a civil war with the Taliban government, is later reportedto have attacked Kabuls airport with helicopter gunships.6:00: The last of the aircraft headed for the U.S. to land at a Canadian airport landsat Vancouver International Airport, since it was flying over the Pacific.6:54: President Bush arrives at the White House.[edit]7:00 p.m.7:00: Efforts to locate survivors in the rubble that had been the twin towers continue. Fleetsof ambulances are lined up to transport the injured to nearby hospitals, but they standempty. "Ground Zero", as the site of the WTC collapse becomes known henceforth, is theexclusive domain of New York Citys Fire Department and Police Department, despitevolunteer steel and construction workers who stand ready to move large quantities ofdebris quickly. Relatives and friends of victims or likely victims, many displaying enlargedphotographs of the missing printed on home computer printers, have appeared around New
  28. 28. York. The New York Armory at Lexington Avenue and 26th Street and Union Square Park at14th Street and Broadway become centers of vigil.7:24: Members of Congress join on the steps of the United States Capitol and sing "GodBless America".7:30: U.S. Government denies any responsibility for the reported explosions in Kabul, capitalof Afghanistan.[edit]8:00 p.m.8:00 (approx.): Port Authority Police Officer Will Jimeno, who was in an undergroundcorridor between the two towers, is found alive in the rubble, and eventually freed atapproximately 11:00 p.m.8:30: President Bush addresses the nation from the White House.[28] Among his statements:"Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a seriesof deliberate and deadly terrorist acts," "Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of ourbiggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel,but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve," and "The search is underway for thosewho are behind these evil acts...we will make no distinction between the terrorists whocommitted these acts and those who harbor them."As Bush speaks, members of Congress tell CNN that during private briefings with senioradministration officials, they were told that the administration had enough evidence that itwas "confident" the attacks are the work of Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda terroristnetwork.[edit]9:00 p.m.9:00: President Bush meets his full National Security Council, followed roughly half an hourlater by a meeting with a smaller group of key advisers. Bush and his advisers have evidencethat Osama bin Laden is behind the attacks. CIA Director Tenet says that al-Qaeda and theTaliban in Afghanistan are essentially one and the same. Bush says, "Tell the Taliban werefinished with them."[edit]10:00 p.m.10:00: There are reports (later proven incorrect) of many survivors buried in rubble in NewYork making cell phone calls. Only two more survivors will be pulled from the rubble onSeptember 12 and neither of them had made cell phone calls.[edit]11:00 p.m.11:00: After 3 hours, the NYPD, FDNY and PAPD finally dig out Will Jimeno. They learn thatport authority police sergeant John McLoughlin is also trapped. The NYPD, FDNY and PAPDdig him out at 8:00 am the next morning after he has been there for almost a day.11:30: Before sleeping, President Bush enters into his journal: "The Pearl Harbor of the 21stcentury took place today...We think its Osama bin Laden."