Goodwins theory the 7 key principles of goodwins theory - the lyrics and visuals are linked -the music and visuals are linked - genre conventions -voyeurisms -representation of music or artist-performance based, narrative based, concept based -intertextual references
the lyrics and visuals are linked• One of the parts of this theory is that the lyrics and the visuals are linked. A perfect example of this is stan by Eminem. Almost all of the songs lyrics are presented on screen. For example, the lyrics are being spoken at almost all times by either stan or Eminem, allowing for a constant link• Another song that has a strong link between a songs lyrics and visuals is again and again by the bird and the bee. Every lyric either appears in text form or is spoken by a character, making the link between lyrics and visuals a constant one.
Stan, eminem• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOMhN- hfMtY Again and again, bird and the bee• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kxDxLAjk O8
The music and visuals are linked• One video that excellently demonstrates how visuals and music are linked is the song ignorance, by Paramore. For the majority of the song, the music is fast paced. This is represented in the music video by cutting the footage frequently, which helps increase the pace of the video visually. However, when the song slows down in tempo, the cuts become less frequent. This is done to reflect the change in pace of the music. When the songs tempo becomes faster again (when it hits the chorus) the cuts become faster again. To further represent the link between visuals and music, the filming style adopts a ‘shaky cam’ style for the fast part of the song, which also increases the pace of the video and makes it seem more kinetic.
• Intertextuality according to Goodwin’s theory, one of his key principles was intertextual references to other forms of media, whether it be films, other artists of videos, TV or videogames. As many film directors began their directing careers by making music videos, intertextual references to films are the most apparent. One example is California love by 2pac. It features references to the film mad max. This is apparent from the costumes that the characters wear in the video, as well as the reference to the thunder dome from the film, where the majority of this video takes place.
Genre conventions• A definition of genre is any type of discourse, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria. Genres are formed by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented and the use of old ones are discontinued. Some conventions of the indie genre are:• The artist is shown performing. Lyrics of the song influence the representation of the narrative and images shown within the video. The editing fits in with the pace of the song the clothing represents the genre typical rock instruments e.g. guitars, and many indie bands use synthesizers and keyboards to add a psychedelic/weird tone to their music which makes it so distinctive from other music genres. X ray, by the macabees fits these conventions very well in there video. The macabees: x ray http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNXcHJFtVeI
• Representation of music or artist this is usually done to give the artist a motif or trademark, or to have lots of close ups in the video to make their face recognizable and distinct. One video that does this very well is bad romance by lady gaga. It features lots of close ups, making her more recognizable and selling her as an artist. It also features her unique costumes. These have become her trademark, as she wears lots of different one in the same video. This can be coupled with her strange dance moves which accompany the video. Dance moves, as well as the art direction her video takes, which is very odd. A combination of men with metal beards and charred skeletons make for a quirky, unforgettable video.
Voyeurism• Voyeurism can be defined as where viewers (the voyeur) are granted an intimate perspective with a subject group or individual, often without them knowing. This can is often to gain a form of pleasure, and it is often a man’s controlling gaze towards women that have been sexually objectified. This is a concept that is part of Goodwin’s theory, and is present in music videos. An example of this is call on me by Eric prydz. It features women wearing tight and revealing clothes performing an aerobics workout. There are many close up shots and slow moving pans that linger on the women as they work. This is a prime example of voyeurism.• In some instances however, the voyeurism isnt sexual, but is still about a woman. In rockferry by Duffy, we (as the voyeur) witness Duffy’s sadness. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0YKwL2Q5n4
Applying Goodwin’s theory to our work• The lyrics and visuals are linked• In our video raincloud vs. sunshine, we do frequently link the song’s lyrics to the visual we present in the presentation. For example, in our 1st scene we have the lyrics” You are a sad frown, and I am a smile, you are tearful, and I am laughter” these lyrics are associated with each of our characters. When the lines you are a sad frown and you are tearful” are sung, we will show the sad female character with a sad frown and a tearful eye, repectively. For the lines and I am a smile and I am laughter, we will show the male character smiling and laughing respectively. In scene 2 we have the lyrics “and I will help you climb this hill”. We visualize this by having our male character walk over to the female character and offer her a hand to help her onto her feet so she can climb the hill.
• Music and visuals are linked we also link the music and visuals. In one shot we see the narrator playing his guitar in time with the guitar solo in the song.• Intertextuality we do have one intertextual reference in our music video. In scene 2, the hill where the scene takes place is a reference to the nursery rhyme, jack and Jill. We even have a well at the top of the hill, as referenced by the line in the rhyme jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pale of water”.
• Genre conventions• Our video does show genre conventions. For example, one shot shows the stories narrator playing the guitar, when the guitar part of the song plays. The lyrics of the song also have an effect on the narrative and the images that we show during the video. An example of this is how the line “I will help you climb this hill”. In the video the male character does help her climb the hill. The hill can also be a metaphor for the female characters depression.
• Representation of music or artist• As our artist, lion o Brien isnt a big name in the music industry; we can’t represent him with various trademarks. We can represent the genre of music though (indie). We do this with performance shots and genre conventions, such as lyrics having an effect on narrative.• Voyeurism• We have also incorporated voyeurism into our video. An example of this would be in the opening scene, where we witness both of the characters lives through the windows on their house. We (as the audience) are essentially spying on them and their relationship issues.