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A2 Media Studies, MS4 exam prep tv

A2 Media Studies, MS4 exam prep tv



A2 Media Studies, MS4 exam prep tv

A2 Media Studies, MS4 exam prep tv



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    A2 Media Studies, MS4 exam prep tv A2 Media Studies, MS4 exam prep tv Presentation Transcript

    • Industry TV
    • The TV industry • John Logie Baird’s first demonstrated the ability to transmit moving silhouette images in 1925 • We now have fully integrated internet and Web 2.0 features on gigantic plasma screens the size of a whole wall • Connected TV seems to be the future, • HD and 3D is already established.
    • • The TV has always held pride of place in our living rooms with furniture arranged to accommodate its importance. • B4 TV this was the same for the wireless.
    • • On November 2nd, 1936 the BBC began broadcasting from Alexandra Palace and lays claim to be the ‘birthplace of television’ while the technology became popularised with audiences in the United States at the 1939 • America at the forefront of the technology and TV became more popular in American homes in the 1950s than in UK homes as we saw cinema as the primary audio visual culture. • Television was and remains attractive for advertisers who see the medium as an exciting, lucrative and high production way of reaching audiences.
    • TV in the UK • BBC is a non commercial television channel and was the first UK broadcaster in 1936, closing during the war years but reopening in 1946 • Public Service Broadcasting - funded by the licence fee • 1955 - ITV the first commercial broadcaster launched • BBC2 launched in 1964 • Channel 4 in 1982 and Channel 5 as the final analogue broadcaster launched in 1997 before channel digitisation.
    • Ideology • TV has provided clear divisions of social class • the BBC more associated with middle class viewers • ITV known for its popular culture, entertainment output consumed by primarily working class audiences • BBC2 offers more ‘high brow’ cultural output • Channel 4’s original aim was to broadcast challenging, minority interest programming • Channel 4 today has become more mainstream after broadcasting the first Big Brother in 2001 and acquiring This Morning from ITV in 2001, rebranding the programme as Richard and Judy.
    • • Channel 4 still offers a range of programming and has extended channels: Film4, E4, More4 and 4Music • As well as some innovative programming appealing to 18-35, ABC1 target audiences it also includes Shipwrecked, Embarrassing Bodies and The Undateables which illustrates Channel 4 embracing the voyeuristic, exploitative explosion of Reality TV programmes over the last 10-15 years.
    • Section B • Explore the impact of digital technologies on your selected industry.
    • TV and new technology • TV dominates our culture • It’s a source of information, entertainment, a social activity, an asset and even a danger • Marshall McLuhan looked at the ways in which communication technologies developed in relation to one another and our needs – The Tetrad (4 Q’s) • What will it enhance? • What will it impair? • What will it recover/rejuvenate? • What will it make obsolete?
    • Is TV obsolete? • TV should have become obsolete because the following have become affordable: • Home PC’s • Films and TV on demand • Games machines • Mobile phones • Personal recording devices – Sky+ • The internet
    • Convergence • In order to maximise profits media companies will work together • The ultimate ideal would be for the consumer to use one technology for all their media needs • What we watch on TV is not always what is aired – Sky+, computer games, DVD’s, internet etc.
    • The future of TV • How do we use TV? • Structural users: to satisfy needs – Uses and Gratifications theory. Audiences have a direct relationship with programs • Rational users: use TV as a regular social ritual, how it fits into the home routine. The relationship between viewer and programme is indirect • It is the rational user who has become significant in broadcasting schedules and innovations like the Wii.
    • The family & TV • Due to the many different media available it was thought that the family bond with TV would end • Fragmentation – theory that multi channel TV and all the possibilities for personalised viewing would inevitably undermine the mass audience • The extinction of PSB & high quality TV • The end of the mass audience sharing significant experiences ‘Live’ • The destruction of the family – each member retreating to their own personal viewing space
    • Exam Question Section B • Explore the impact of digital technologies on your selected industry • Answers: • Explore the range of different ways of accessing TV programmes • TV’s are no longer only used to watch programmes • The concept of convergence and theories of Fragmentation • The impact on the mass audience and niche marketing
    • X Factor • Created to Entertain and amuse the national demographic (MASS) • A direct response to the theory of Fragmentation • A reflection of the active audience and a democratic society as we have the chance to vote • Despite it being a search for talent there is always 1 act that is used for comedy to allow for variety
    • X Factor and the mass audience • In 2009 X factor built an audience following over 12 weeks that peaked to 19 million viewers of the live final. • Different responses: • Some though it had homely charm • Others thought it was mass manipulation • Either way it was nothing new – Search for a Star, New Faces, Opportunity Knocks going back as far as the 60’s
    • Interactivity • This is the new key to success • Not just phoning in but interacting with each other • The wii is an example of getting the family to interact – this myth was presented in their marketing which created desire/hope/fear and guilt of this imaginary ideal
    • WWW. • The X factor uses no end of ways to connect with the audience: • Sms • Blogs • Phone ins – The extra Factor • Website • The web was also a negative for the show when an internet campaign made Rage Against the Machine number 1 in 2009
    • X Factor • • • • • • • • • What do we know about X Factor Genre Narrative Representation Audience Production Marketing Regulation Distribution/Global implications
    • Genre and ideology • X Factor is a reality TV programme • It attempts to turn an ordinary person into a pop star through its talent contest narrative. • It reflects the ‘American Dream’ ideology in the way that it can turn people’s lives from ‘rags to riches’. • Genre conventions : • ordinary people trying to make their lives better, • high production values which includes viewing luxuries such as flashy lights, extravagant camera angles (such as Birdseye), special effects, and celebrities. • The X Factor has influenced the typical representation of other talent shows ever since, so this would include the Two Step Flow theory as the X Factor has acted as an opinion leader, and has set down the modern conventions for reality talent shows. • How does The X Factor compare to BGT?
    • • TV scheduling was all about fixing programmes around audiences routines • trying to keep us fixed to a single channel by offering a variety of genre texts at certain times • Now texts are commercially endorsed and experienced ‘any time, any place, any where’ • Henry Jenkins calls it ‘trans-media storytelling’
    • Dr Who revival • Perfect example of convergence – becoming a franchise • Accessible through genre repetition but now • through the website • Sticker books, • action figures etc. etc. etc.
    • Torchwood • Torchwood is a Science Fiction TV Drama created by Dr Who Executive Producer Russell T Davies. • Torchwood is a sub genre of TV Drama because it follows the conventions of many TV Dramas but has tweaked the representations to give it a Science Fiction feel.
    • • Davies wanted to develop an Americanised drama like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel but with clear linking to Doctor Who • Captain Jack Harkness appeared several times in Doctor Who as a time traveller. • ‘Torchwood’ is an anagram of Doctor Who. • Both Torchwood and Doctor Who use CGI special effects, elaborate built sets, on location shooting, multiple camera technology, ensemble cast and high production value sound
    • The cast • The cast are alien-hunters who are based at the Cardiff branch of the Torchwood Institute • the first three series were filmed by BBC Wales in and around the Cardiff. • some of the actors have South Wales accents • they use iconic Cardiff locations like Tiger Bay. • Initially broadcast on BBC3 but moved to BBC2 and BBC1 because of the critical and commercial success it received • The BBC often use BBC3 to trial programmes because of its less mainstream target audience and lower audience figures.
    • Global impact • The fourth series attracted American investment through Starz who are a Premium Subscription Channel. • This co-production with BBC1 saw even higher production values and the ability to sell what can be a fast paced, action based series to American audiences. • Torchwood is much more ‘Americanised’ in its content and attracts an older target audience as well as existing fans of Doctor Who
    • Genre • Torchwood also borrows codes and conventions of Crime Drama and has an investigative narrative. • High production values are evident : CGI and aerial shots • intertextual references to CSI & Spooks in the layout of their headquarters but also with the continuous referencing of new technology.
    • Representation • Female empowerment is represented • However there is a male hierarchy • 2 strong female characters would initially suggest a more pluralistic (diverse) representation but both are framed for the male gaze and are seen to be more in touch with their emotions. • Examples? Gwen and The Chinese woman
    • • Men are more physically dominant and logical reflecting the cultural stereotype • like many action based TV Dramas the central protagonist is a dominant male. • The programme has a young male and female aspirational, 16-35, urban and city living target audience • Rather than the younger secondary target audience of Doctor Who. • In the opening sequences the team are seen to walk together in slow motion anchoring their enigmatic status.
    • Audience Appeals • • • • • • • • • • • narrative predictability - Three act structure Act One ‘the problem’, settings, location and characters Act Two narrative chain of cause and effect (development) Act Three resolution - the problem is always resolved or at least understood by the team. Science Fiction, popular with mass audiences who enjoy the idea of the unknown, futuristic technology and life on other planets. Narrative enigmas ensure the audience questions: who, what, why and when narrative action codes borrowing from the action genre. multi stranded narrative - each character having their own storyline, helps audience identification with a character exaggerated hyper real representations, familiar running time (60 minutes), deliberate use of binary oppositions to construct meaning and a reputation for quality and pedigree like Lost, Lie to Me, and 24.
    • • the BBC ident is foregrounded in the first frame, offering audiences ‘promises of pleasure’ in terms of production values • well researched script • star marketing – John Barrowman • Torchwood is pure escapist entertainment • an older target audience will enjoy more graphic violence than in Doctor Who and will appreciate the production values. • Intertextual references to Dr Who • Cultural Capitol of Cpt. Jack (prior knowledge of Dancing on Ice etc.)
    • • Captain Jack–is a former con man which allows audiences to understand him as an anti hero • scheduled post watershed gives the production team some flexibility in developing challenging narratives. • John Barrowman appeals to British and American audiences as a result of his dual nationality
    • • narrative themes of sexuality - Diversity • It has its own spin offs including Torchwood Declassified • online interactivity - an elaborate interactive website with links to alternative sites. • Torchwood Magazine and mini episodes on mobile phones, • an alternative reality game show (via the website), • podcast commentaries, interactive adventures, video blogs and other interactive online games. • Convergence very much apparent in Torchwood with particularly younger audiences invited to interact with the programme on a number of digital platforms.
    • Torchwood Series 3 Children of Earth • It was shown on prime time BBC 1 for 5 consecutive nights • This was attempting the 24 series model where events occur in real time but going for 5 days • Usually texts like Silent Witness only go for two consecutive nights
    • Peep Show • Is very unique – despite receiving critical acclaim has always had quite low rating figures • By the 6th series ratings rose which could partly be to do with aiming at an earlier 10pm slot – DVD sales have always been good • The stylistic creation of storytelling through constant POV is both its success and down fall in finding a wider audience
    • Todorov • Argued that “a world without a theory of genre was unthinkable since genre integrates the reader into the world of the characters and prepares us for a certain kind of reading’ • In other words genre reduces the complexities of texts and makes them accessible to us. • Peep Show hardly has a genre identity but it’s style and character identities help it to be received.
    • Q. How do your chosen texts use genre conventions? • Or How do your chosen texts use narrative conventions? • Consider which texts you would use for either of these questions – is TV the best industry here?