1
THE ANALYSIS, DESIGN & EVALUATION OF CUSTOMER
INTELLIGENCE PLATFORM THAT HELP RETAILERS
LEVERAGE THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY...
2 3
	 1. ABSTRACT
1.1 objective
1.2 design challenge
1.3 vision
1.4 value proposition
	
	 2. RESEARCH
2.1 USER EXPERIENCE
...
4 5
1.1 OBJECTIVE: To design a Customer Intelligence Platform using Web Application that can be
accessible in any devices ...
6 7
UCD Principles
8 9
2.1 User Experience
My Design Project is inspired by daily activity as a Shop Owner. My concern always is on
how to de...
10 11
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
A collection of comments, interaction from different networking sites like Facebook and Linked...
12 13
2.5 USER PERSONA
Background: Douglas is 54 years old-single. He goes
to yoga twice a week, walk for 15 minutes every...
14 15
3.1 COGNITIVE ANALYSIS
Criteria of Analysis: People are diverse and I do not assume that all users, including users ...
16 17
OBJECTIVE: The clutter easily frustrate potential user, so this process is very convenient to determine if
the compo...
18 19
CRITERIA: The results will be used in determining the number of functionality for easy integration of
the design pur...
20 21
4.2 CASE STUDY
Mobile Marketing Brings Big Revenue to Furniture Retailer Generates More Than $138K In Four Days
with...
22 23
4.3 CUSTOMER JOURNEY: Customer Touchpoint
A scenario of a couple without any child with predictable routine because ...
24 25
5.2 CUSTOMER LATENT NEEDS
As a facebook user, the site never let forget about
friends’, family, or other important p...
26 27
5.3 INTEGRATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL:
The final design project is to provide system for Retailers in the form of web ap...
28 29
To design a Customer Intelligence Platform that will enable Retailers to link seamlessly to their customers. The
ide...
30 31
7.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPY
Design has the ability to change people’s lives in ways big and small, but only if it responds ...
32 33
34 35
Notes:
Retailers exact location is link to
contact details for easy navigation
The map is also link to voucher by
sc...
36 37
7.5 PRODUCT FEATURES
The Coupon Gallery will provide excitement to the user. It will become the absolute best tools ...
38 39
DESIGN TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY
Getting message across effectively makes recipient more likely to gain
desirabilit...
40 41
Your boyfriend send you a voucher of a movie ticket and you forgot to
ask which cinema you are going to watch. (his ...
42 43
You are always celebrating
Christmas with your Nana but
this time circumstances has
changed. You decided to send
her...
44 45
8.1 USER EXPERIENCE
This is very convenient method to link if the desired goal
is achieved according to user experie...
46 47
IN THE BEGINNING: BARTER
Barter is the exchange of
resources or services for mutual
advantage, and the practice like...
48 49
The design thinking in the ideation was used through story telling based on researcher own experience
as Retailer. T...
50
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

THE ANALYSIS, DESIGN & EVALUATION OF CUSTOMER INTELLIGENCE PLATFORM THAT HELP RETAILERS LEVERAGE THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY TO CONNECT MORE DEEPLY TO CUSTOMERS

674 views

Published on

Technology will continue to advance and influence peoples’ lives. Innovation has changed how people run their lives, but one thing will never change – the human heart. The great innovation comes from the heart and consumer love innovations that will make their lives convenient, pleasurable, and connected to the world.

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
674
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
187
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

THE ANALYSIS, DESIGN & EVALUATION OF CUSTOMER INTELLIGENCE PLATFORM THAT HELP RETAILERS LEVERAGE THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY TO CONNECT MORE DEEPLY TO CUSTOMERS

  1. 1. 1 THE ANALYSIS, DESIGN & EVALUATION OF CUSTOMER INTELLIGENCE PLATFORM THAT HELP RETAILERS LEVERAGE THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY TO CONNECT MORE DEEPLY TO CUSTOMERS By: PAMELA L. ESMAQUEL PROFESSOR: LEONG YAP MASTER OF DESIGN AUCKLAND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. 2 3 1. ABSTRACT 1.1 objective 1.2 design challenge 1.3 vision 1.4 value proposition 2. RESEARCH 2.1 USER EXPERIENCE 2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.1 INDUSTRY REVIEW 2.3 UNDERSTANDING USER 2.4 COGNITIVE PROCESSES 2.5 USER PERSONA 3. DATA ANALYSIS 3.1 COGNITIVE ANALYSIS 3.2 INFORMATION PROCESSING A. MILLER MAGIC 7 TEST B. THE FIVE SECOND TEST C. CARD SORTING 4. DESIGN SYNTHESIS 4.1 UNDERSTANDING SHIFTS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 4.2 CASE STUDY 4.3 CUSTOMER JOURNEY 5. ACTIONABLE INSIGHTS 5.1 DISCOVERY 5.2 CUSTOMER LATENT NEEDS 5.3 INTEGRATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL 6. DESIGN CONCEPT 7. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 7.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 7.2 WIREFRAME 7.3 METHOD OF PROTOTYPING 7.4 PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR 7.4.1 THE SCIENCE BEHIND COLOUR 7.4.2 COLOURS ON JIN JANG PRINCIPLES 7.5 PRODUCT FEATURES 8. DESIGN EVALUATION 8.1 USER EXPERIENCE 8.2 PROTOTYPE TESTING 8.3 EVALUATION: USER TOUCHPOINTS 8.4 EVALUATION: CUSTOMER TOUCHPOINTS 9. EXEGESIS 10. CONCLUSION 11. REFERENCE Technology will continue to advance and influence peoples’ lives. Innovation has changed how people run their lives, but one thing will never change – the human heart. The great innovation comes from the heart and consumer love innovations that will make their lives convenient, pleasurable, and connected to the world. TABLE OF CONTENTS
  3. 3. 4 5 1.1 OBJECTIVE: To design a Customer Intelligence Platform using Web Application that can be accessible in any devices from desktop to mobile that will support Retailers in keeping customers happy. The system can make a mobile coupon, gift voucher, and greeting cards that the user can send to delight their customers in real-time. Design thinking and user-centred design will be used to deliver convenience, ease of use to the user. 1.2 DESIGN CHALLENGE: How to deliver delightful experience to customer in real-time? 1.3 VISION: To become innovative enterprise that help Retailers solve the problem with simplicity, ease of use and provide a meaningful experience to customers. 1.4 VALUE PROPOSITION: To provide useful, usable and pleasurable products. The system put users at the centre of the design process and align it to their customer need and expectation. The approach goes beyond the traditional focus on the physical and cognitive needs of users and encompasses cultural, social and emotional factors. To deliver design innovation born out of honest understanding of human sensitivities and values. The concept starts from user then transform it into new innovative solutions. The processing of data shaped the idea then the embodied values become one cultural identity that represents community values. To deliver emotional satisfaction and build a long lasting customer relationship. The user can leverage technology to accelerate business performance. The platform will provide convenience flexibility and time will be considerably reduced in the work activities thus productivity improved that will support business sustainability in the long run. 1.5 PRODUCT: The final output is a Customer Intelligence Platform that will enable Retailers to link seamlessly to their customers. The idea is to transform the Retail Environment into a new dimension by using technology as tools to accelerate business goal. The system include a mobile app that both user and the customer can to distribute gift vouchers, discount coupon and greeting cards. The product innovation shaped by user centred research of needs and transform it to desirable tools for convenience. Customer behaviour transformed into interactive engagement for the user and customer. User can make it usable tools to deliver customised delightful experience.
  4. 4. 6 7 UCD Principles
  5. 5. 8 9 2.1 User Experience My Design Project is inspired by daily activity as a Shop Owner. My concern always is on how to deliver delightful experience to my customer. I’m struggling to cope up with a multi-tasking lifestyle. Sometimes I tend to ignore the crucial part of retail business which, is how to move inventory timely with the change of seasons and style. I’m into Fashion Retailing wherein moving the inventory rapidly at the right time is always my biggest concern. The consumers behaviour has changed the delivery of the campaign should be align to customers own preferences. The Retail Industry is highly competitive method is constantly changing. However, budget constraint is one of the main concern too. It is extremely expensive and time consuming using traditional campaign materials (e.g. posters, flyers). There’s no accuracy in determining the success rate of every campaign because of limited access for tools to analyse the data. As Entrepreneur, I do not have any capacity to hire a Sales Team or even Administrative Team. Sometimes the activity failed to recognise the urgency of needs and money tied in to inventory. I also realised being in touch remotely will provide power to manipulate customer behaviour even in my absence. My question is how? It is very common for Entrepreneurs to multi-task because of many limitations. The channel of distribution is no longer align to customers preferences and printed campaign is becoming a less attractive communications. The current technology system for retailers is not enough most of them are technology driven lack of customise functionality for Retailers. The Point Of Sales system is not enough. The business cycle of pattern during peak season is always my biggest concern. Retailers can recover and make a substantial return of investment during seasonal events based from my experience. However, tools that will make my customer engage and happy to receive is my big Q (question) that is why I decided to use a project that might solve my problem as retailer. Example: The traffic flow in the shopping mall is erratic anytime of the day it will always bring surprises to us retailers. If I encounter huge numbers of shoppers I just changed my floor signage sometimes it works! It is time consuming, physically exhausting and many times not consistently realized when I’m not around. The flyers dissemination is hard to control no quantifiable success rate, and even newspaper advertisement is not producing enough exposure because of the declining print readership. This is my story. One of the Sports Wear Retailers inside the shopping mall in Northcote placed a big advertisement on a local newspaper in North Shore Times. They spent $500 in one page with a message ‘cut the coupon for a discount’ with a promise exposure for four consecutive weeks. Unfortunately, the campaign did not produce any single response. The campaign happened May of 2013.
  6. 6. 10 11 2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW A collection of comments, interaction from different networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn was documented by taking a snap shot of some information relevant to my design project. The selected information was chosen on the basis of user’s need, expectations and current issues involving the substitute’s products that is useful to the functionality of my system design. 2.2.1 INDUSTRY REVIEW: The increasing number of customer relying on their mobile phone in purchasing decisions is one crucial factor that need to consider. The statistics showing that peer reviews before buying a product is also becoming more influential channel because of the multiplying networking sites. The survey showing that most kiwis are happy to receive promos on their mobile is an indicator that businesses need to leverage the behaviour of the customers. The need to provide engagement tool that will delight the customer in real-time will provide a better decision making insight for both user and customer. 2.3 UNDERSTANDING USERS The following activities will become the basis in developing the information structure. This will be further develop through actual testing through a series of methods using User Centred Design principles to organise the flow of information. ACTIVITY 1: The unexpected flow of traffic in a shopping mall. What is the convenient way to send the message and take advantage of the situation and probably make more sales? ACTIVITY 2: The Shop Owner is away on Holiday overseas the only means of communication maybe email, sms, skype, viber etc. How to implement the strategy even the owner is in a remote area? ACTIVITY 3: There is an overload of inventory and money tied up. What would they need considering budget in the marketing campaign limited? ACTIVITY 4: The Retailer is using POS with inventory system. They can see the inventory, the tools stop from there. What else should they need to support the movement of goods? The first step of developing design concept is to identify the user’s cognitive strength and weaknesses and process the data to become more appealing design to the target audience. 2.4 COGNITIVE PROCESSES It is important to note that many of these cognitive processes are interdependent, involvement varies from a given activity. In this design project, I wanted to capture the attention so that target audience can focus on the relevancy of the information on their needs and eventually transform the attention to a desire. Trying to hook them up to sign up a trial version is my ultimate goal. The evaluation on the perception & recognition will determine if the message and visual presentation effectively achieved the purpose. The cognitive memory was assessed according to information that the user can retain into their brain. The cognitive process involved information and visual presentation to the participant activities and documented in a video. The participant asked on what learning the project has achieved and compare it to the design goal and expectations. (Preece)
  7. 7. 12 13 2.5 USER PERSONA Background: Douglas is 54 years old-single. He goes to yoga twice a week, walk for 15 minutes every day consider himself as physically active person. He like multi-tasking always on the phone giving instructions to his sales staff even before opening the shop. He is managing a Retail Shop selling personal care products. He is working 8 hours a day for five days, and during the weekend he is selling in a flea market just for fun. He love travelling for business and pleasure usually away three times a year. He uses emails and the free VOIP application like viber. He used it as means of communication to his sales staff whenever he is overseas. Douglas uses the computer at home, where he has set up a home office. He learned to use the Web because he always posts products to TradeMe. He own his house and have 3 flatmates. He slowly learned how to use computer through his flatmates who are mostly young professionals or students. He uses the Web daily on his Samsung mobile to check his emails and his TradeMe account. He has limited knowledge about computer, but he is using latest model of Samsung mobile phone. He is using a simple CRM system for his sales and inventory. However, according to him everything taught by his business consultant that is why he can efficiently manage the system. He acknowledge that his computer literacy is not enough, so he always ask assistance from other expert. Douglas has difficulty seeing small text or text with poor contrast to the background on the computer monitor Douglas does not represent the whole community of the target audience. However, the method is useful in extracting insight on how a typical businessman uses technology to support business activities. The activities can be translated as user touchpoints based on his cognitive needs. that is why he love his new Samsung mobile – he can enlarge the SMS text messaging. His flatmate showed him how to increase the text size in Internet Explorer, and that works for some sites. It is frustrating to Douglas that on some sites the text size is still small—it does not get larger with his browser settings. He like the site that he can zoom in and zoom out the images. He had tried to use screen magnification software, but finds it difficult to get oriented because he can not see the entire screen at one time. He has some difficulty following logical sequencing in using website unless he is familiar with the icon. He is fascinated by the predicted text messaging features of Samsung mobile. He said very convenient for typing messages and helping his memory problem to remember the next word he wanted to type.
  8. 8. 14 15 3.1 COGNITIVE ANALYSIS Criteria of Analysis: People are diverse and I do not assume that all users, including users with limited technical knowledge can use the product the same way. People use different interaction techniques, different adaptive strategies, and different assistive technology configurations. People have different experiences, different expectations, and different preferences. This scenario is just one example of a user in this user group. The over- all objective are: • To understand if the user can follow system just using identifiable icon • To know if user understand the functions of each navigation • To understand if user will feel comfortable based on the design goal • To be able to discover information based on user expectations • To document behaviour of activities, synchronicities and logical understanding of each functions • To identify if any functions is understood according to the design purpose 3.2 INFORMATION PROCESSING The information processing provided a basis from which to make predictions about human performance. Hypotheses can be made how long someone will take to perceive and respond to stimulus. The method of Miller’s Magic (7±2) principle will be used by using spatial contiguity technique While Miller’s “Magic (7±2)” principle reminds us of moderation, it is not appropriate for fundamental navigation decisions and leads to an arbitrary “one-size- fits-all” solution. In no event should it be taken as an absolute law. On the other hand, feelings of confusion and information overload could be immediately improved by using Miller principle. The Miller principles can be applied using variours techniques and one of them is spatial contiguity technique. The test images used at Figure 1.3.2 Figure 1.3.1
  9. 9. 16 17 OBJECTIVE: The clutter easily frustrate potential user, so this process is very convenient to determine if the composition of the element on the web page is enough to be understood by potential user. The purpose of applying the spatial contiguity technique is to validate which is better an image separated from the corresponding message or message that is integrated to the image. The landing page need a visual image with corresponding messages critical design thinking approach is needed to determine the best layout. The test will determine the best way of sending a clear message to the target audience. So in that sense, the viewer may not become particularly disoriented, It is extremely important to use ‘persuasive design thinking’ in order to induce a perception that users and the customer wanted to learn more that makes the design immensely appealing to any potential users. (Silvana M. R. Watson, n.d.) CRITERIA: The test used two sets of images, the first one with separates important definitions from the image that shows what the product is all about. The other image is integrated with the corresponding messages. (See Figure 1.3.1) FINDINGS: The image tested to 10 participants and the results 8 choose the integrated presentation. The viewers learn better when corresponding pictures and words are presented near each other on a page rather than separated from each other. The results were used as a guide in positioning all the elements of the landing page. B. METHOD: The Five Second Tests DATA PROCESSING: The Five Second Tests principle were used in exposing the participant to identify people’s first impression of the designs. A single content page was used for a quick 5 seconds tests to gather participants initial impressions.(See figure-1.3.2) The tests were done online using a free site with five structured questionnaire they need to answer after exposure to the content. The participant was asked by the following questions with the scenario question as a heading: • What do you think of this page was all about? • What do you think of this page was all about? • Which element on the page, did you focus on most? (picture, logo, heading, text, icon) • Will you be interested in learning more? • Did you notice the sign Get Free Account? • What did you remember most? OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to find out if the message is effectively translated into the design purpose. Five seconds may not seem like a lot of time, but users make critical judgments in the first moments they visit a page. This can also be used to identify the cognitive memory through recognition of the most prominent elements of the web app. Using this technique, it will uncover essential information for making huge improvements to the web app landing page. Figure 1.3.2 Figure 1.3.3 CRITERIA: The five minute tests online revealed information on the objective of validating the clarity of the message in the landing page. A single content was used with messages and large picture.The decision not to include any navigating button is to avoid distraction from real objective of the tests. The composition of elements is just text and big pictures. (see figure 1.3.2). The intention is to send the message accross by simply showing visual image as the prominent element if it will help to successfully achieved clarity of the message. The results expectations that the audience should use the keyword like crm, sales, mobile, software or service as the most obvious perception that will categorise the product. This is useful key word for Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) for easy findings from potential user whenever they search products from Google. FINDINGS: The challenge is how to connect the link to prove that the theory can support the outcome of the tests. The participant is not properly identified as the target user. Therefore, the probability of error is hard to quantify because no individual profiling of participants due to time constraint. However, the design purpose can be successful in terms of identifying the cognitive response of the participants. After the tests the system generated results in visual report showing dominating keyword see figure 1.3.3 ( Actual test can be found at www.fivesecondtest.com) From the visual results generated by the online Five Minute Testing the most prominent ‘keywords’ translated the perception of the audience about the product. The test was participated by 10 and profile of audience is unknown because the test was a free online usability testing. The benefit of the results from unidentified audience has proved that the message successfully achieved the purpose. Therefore message can be easily understood by the target audience and search engine optimisation will be achieved succesfully. However, further technical test is recommended this is just to pilot test the design project. C. METHOD: Card Sorting . OBJECTIVE: This method is particularly appropriate because the platform is a new concept. The results will help to understand the user preferences and words that they can easily relate to. By isolating the plus and minuses of the design elements through this process, number of elements can easily identify redundant activities. Speaking the customers language will help to encourage engagement by allowing the participant to share their own thoughts and incorporate to the existing cards. The objective of choosing this method is to confirm or validate hypotheses about specific social psychological structures hidden in data. The objective is to uncover assumption into realistic approach in identifying structure that is known to a potential user but unknown to design concept. The lack of structured guideline is the ultimate reason on why Card Sorting is a convenient method of data gathering for designing web app. The interaction was documented with the potential user as participant.
  10. 10. 18 19 CRITERIA: The results will be used in determining the number of functionality for easy integration of the design purpose into the participants’ behaviour. This is not scientific evaluation just to pilot tests the concept for the design project. The participant has a home based business selling clothing online. The idea is to find out what information and categories should be on the landing home page. The processing of cognitive attention is important to know the number of functionality needed so that the user will not be disoriented and learning will become easier. The following guidelines used: • The cards was placed on the table and asked the participant to re-arrange according to her own thoughts • The participant was asked to ignore cards thinks does not belong to any group • The participant was asked after the session what working in order to get her thoughts rationale about the information provided during the session • The participant was encourage to incorporate her own label and write it down if it is missing from the stack of cards • The participant was asked to combine together information that can be group • The participant was asked to use a coloured post note to indicate a link for additional topics FINDINGS: A prepared questionnaire was constructed based on observation in order to get a clear communication and synthesize the participant thoughts and rationale. Q (researcher) P (participant) Q. The participant was seen focusing so much attention with a group of information. The participant was asked why she is very much engaged in a specific group? P. Participant says it is very addictive (exact word) and they think this group has so much to do. Q. The participant put a post note to link one label on the same group. The participant was asked on why they posted a link to the primary label. P. Participant says it is similar to website they usually seen on-line. Q. The participant was seen writing down additional information on a card. The participant was asked on why they added that information. P. Participant says they always encounter that sign (terms & conditions) whenever they sign up in any website so they think it is essential. Q. The participant was seen putting a two post note in one group but facing different direction. The participant was asked why the post note looks like in a confusing position. P. Participant thinks they belong together but just confused where to put the link. Q. The participant was asked to describe their understanding about grouping label together? P. Participants says they enjoy it, and all familiar words in the Internet. They think the activities is very simple to follow. They got confused with one group because some similar names, and they do not know what group they belong. The exercise revealed that the participant is very familiar with common navigating names in the Internet. The participant easily get confused with unfamiliar names. The participant cognitive memory has been established when they incorporated their own label. The participant was seen visually engaged it is a strong indicator that cognitive attention achieved successfully. The participant was able to put the logical sequencing of the link. It is a good sign to identify her learning capacity. However, it takes time for the participant to figure out how to make a sub link. Nevertheless, the tests results conveniently provided direction in designing the number of navigating button for web application. The participant understanding of language has successfully achieved although sequencing may not be 100% perfect. Nevertheless, as far as the design purpose is concern the results provided direction. The participant finished the tasks by 25 minutes, and 8 seconds number of functionality will considerably modify in the design development. The method of evaluation has no scientific basis this is just to pilot test the design project.
  11. 11. 20 21 4.2 CASE STUDY Mobile Marketing Brings Big Revenue to Furniture Retailer Generates More Than $138K In Four Days with Email & Mobile Coupons (source:www.mobilestorm.com) OJECTIVES: In a tough economy, executives at Broad River Furniture knew they had to and new ways to effectively reach consumers, both to encourage them to spend money and to make sure the money was spent at their shops—and not at a competitor’s. Newspaper advertising, traditionally one of this retailer’s main marketing channels, no longer offered the results it once did. The chain wanted to and more effective, effcient, and direct means of marketing to interested buyers. SOLUTIONS: Mobile coupon. The retailer sent its first coupon campaign offering coupons, to 27,000 of its customers. One-day secret sale. This “12-hour private event” was announced only via SMS and email to subscribers, on the evening before the sale began. It generated $30,000 in just one day.$500 shopping spree. The furniture chain puts on a weekly contest in which customers participate, via SMS, to win a shopping spree. With this campaign, the company also gathers demographic information on its customers, adding to the database of people who ultimately received the Secret Sale coupons. RESULTS: Broad River Furniture was able to generate $138,460 in revenue across all its stores after it gave out $24,491 in discounts. Of revenue generated by coupon type, after discounts, $85,438 was attributed to text messages and $53,022 to email. Because of the system ability to report campaign results, the furniture retailer was able track the conversion rate for each coupon code. The company therefore was able to and which coupon was the most frequently redeemed, as well as which coupon generated the greatest amount of revenue. CONCLUSION: Leveraging an intelligent, comprehensive approach to developing digital relationships with consumers in the region, Broad River Furniture was able todemonstrate a signifcant return on investment. After discounts, for every dollar spent the furniture chain generated approximately $122 with mobile coupon SMS and about $76 with mobile email. The company received high sastisfying rating from customers through emails they received from happy customers. 4.1 UNDERSTANDING SHIFTS IN CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR It is essential for the firm to gain the good understanding of it’s target market. The more the Consumer Behaviour is learnt the more the needs and wants of the Customers are fulfilled. The objectives are: • To determine where the product or service should be available that would easy for the customers to buy. • To determine which method of promotion would be most effective for getting the customers to buy a product. • To determine factors influencing the changing behavior of the customers. • To align the product to customers preferred channel of distribution. Individual consumers spend to express their particular personality and uniqueness: they want tailored offerings that will bring out who they really are. According to Accenture research on ‘How and Why of Consumption” the following analysis gathered from 600 executives, we surveyed 10,000 consumers in 10 countries to gain a data-led perspective on changing behaviors. (source: accenture.com) • Experiential consumers want more than the digital world can offer. They seek the enjoyment of new and different experiences, from traveling to new places to attending live events. • Resourceful consumers can seem like a familiar type: they work hard and spend thriftily to get ahead. The difference today is that they turn to new online platforms to buy used products, sell directly to other consumers or participate in online auctions. • Disconnected consumers like to distance themselves from the constant presence of the digital world and are willing to spend to do so. One in five reported that they turn off their phones for extended periods. But they still want products and services that help them leave the stresses of the world behind, ranging from scented candles to cruise vacations. Customer is the most important person. The business revolves around the consumer...
  12. 12. 22 23 4.3 CUSTOMER JOURNEY: Customer Touchpoint A scenario of a couple without any child with predictable routine because they are both working the 9-5 job. The daily scene the husband normally wake up early because his workplace is 45 minutes’ drive from their place. He wake up around 7:00 am and after taking shower he always make sure he is on the road by 7:30 am to avoid traffic. His wife already awake by the time he finished his shower. However, on that day she is still in bed sleeping. He became sad because he was expecting a hug and kisses because it was his birthday. He arrived at the parking lot by 8:15 am and regularly drop by at the coffee shop located at the ground floor of his office. He is known to the cafeteria because he has been a regular early breakfast diners for eight years. He was about to approached the counter and suddenly his mobile made a beeping tone. He checked his message saying “Honey I made you a free breakfast today Happy Birthday, see you tonight for more surprises”. The message has visual picture of his favourite ham and egg breakfast. He was delighted from a simple message a small gesture of surprise can make a man treasure the moment for the rest of his life. He was giggling while showing the gift voucher to the sales staff. While eating breakfast, the sales staff approached his table with a small muffin with fancy candle on top. Another surprise but this time the owner of the coffee shop has been alerted by the system that someone claimed a voucher. The system will send a message to the user once the barcode is entered from the user system. (Voucher coded by event). Then user can track the recipient in real-time. Now, he is absolutely overwhelmed and imagining his wife while having his breakfast. DELIVERABLE: The user can trigger an attitude change to their customers through delightful messages and manipulate the behaviour according to events or in any circumstances. The design information can produce delightful experience to the customer and in return the user received the same experience if the business objective achieved with ease. The increasing number of mobile user as preferred device to browse internet checking deals and reviews before making purchasing decisions should be capitalize by any businesses. (Cognitive Response theory, 2012)
  13. 13. 24 25 5.2 CUSTOMER LATENT NEEDS As a facebook user, the site never let forget about friends’, family, or other important people’s birthday. The presented Birthday Reminders will generate on-screen pop-up on the facebook wall or emails. Now days, people are very busy in their professional, personal and social life. It is human psychology that we have gotten a tendency to forget things. This behaviour of us could prove it is very costly if in the list of forgotten things, we have significant events like birthdays of special ones, important dates for official work, and many more. About 10 Kiwis’ were asked to choose 3 among the list provided with them. The following list appeared to be very important events for them.Birthdays • Christmas Day • Boxing Day • New Year’s Day • Rugby • Valentines Day • Mother’s Day • Waitangi Day • Annual Leave Holiday (not on my list but appeared during interview) 5.1 DISCOVERY I wanted to incorporate something ‘new’ but do not know where to start. I was a little bit depressed while I was writing ‘the socio-cultural integration’. It was my birthday circumstances made no room for celebration. I deactivated my Facebook to get rid of distraction had to focus on my final research paper. I started receiving greetings via SMS messages and graphic greetings via free messaging platform. I started to feel valued even in the absence of popular Facebook close friends and family did not miss to send messages that made me feel great in the midst of my difficulties. I realised these messages made me feel happy, so I Google and search for the famous greetings application for Facebook. I found “Free Greetings For The Planet” it is the world’s leading application for human expressions, reaching over 91 million unique users annually. Wow! It was an amazing discovery. Then, suddenly remembered when I was 10 years old I used to sell Christmas greeting cards to my classmates. It is a common practice for all of us students to exchange greeting cards every Christmas. I immediately scroll back my cursor and read my personal inspiration for doing this project. I remembered saying one of my problem as a retailer is how to take advantage of events and circumstances and connect to customers. What else can I offer beyond physical products? Then, suddenly realised that Customer Profiling should go beyond physical needs. Just like what I experienced, alone far away from family, my birthday, circumstances holding me up to let go of celebration. However, birthday greetings have changed my attitude. As human it is cherishable feelings to received greetings specially if we are far away from home and the only means is technology. (Narrated by the researcher) CRITERIA: The participant must be living in New Zealand for the past 10 years regardless of the country of origin. The nationality was never part of the consideration. The assumption that a naturalised born New Zealanders’ or immigrant who has been living in New Zealand for the past 10 years has the same way of thinking in terms of celebrating circumstances. Participants should own a smartphone. The event during World Cup everyone is into it sharing the same spirit New Zealand became one culture even just for a single event. These events is the catalyst for integration of culture. DECISION: The deciding factors in choosing events it should be usable and will compliment the users need in terms of accelerating the business growth. Integration of business and technology will be the focus of delivering innovative solutions to retailers. The primary consideration is to make the feeling translated into a desirable innovation and will support economic growth for Retailers. “It is not how much we give but how much love we put into giving ”Mother Teresa By Nicholas Spa
  14. 14. 26 27 5.3 INTEGRATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL: The final design project is to provide system for Retailers in the form of web application. The primary design element is a platform to make a mobile marketing. However, an extended system is recommended to encourage customers to engage so mobile app will become part of the design as an extended channel of engagement from the customer end. In New Zealand, it is very common to received SMS promotions, but mobile coupon with barcode or QR code with graphic is something new for the target demographics. It is being used occasionally by large companies during special events but not yet utilised for the common customers consumption. OBJECTIVES: The concept need critical design thinking to shape it to a more pleasurable experience and must have characteristics to achieve seamless socio-cultural integration. (Dubois, n.d.).However, taking the Human Centred Design as an approach to discover what truly matters to the customer is another key factors that need to be discover. As a graphic designer, it is a two minute job, but it needs to go beyond visual to make it valuable design to customer. Culture is a crucial variable in innovation. The critical importance in determining the degree of acceptance of an innovation is the extent to which innovation characteristics and the culture of the receiving group are compatible. Each innovation is unique each is compatible in different degrees with the culture of a given group. The challenge is how to gel it together. (Dubois, n.d.) “Either people of different faiths having lived together in friendship have produced a beautiful blend of cultures, which we shall strive to perpetuate and increasingly strengthen the shape, or we shall cast about for the day when there was only one religion represented in Hindustan and retrace our steps to that exclusive culture. It is just possible that we might not be able to find any such historical date and if we do and we retrace our steps, we shall throw our culture back to that ugly period and deservedly earn the execration of the universe.” Quote from Mahatma Ghandi. FINDINGS: : In New Zealand cultural diversity were highly embraced (see figure 5.3.1). At AUT campus friendship, love blossom between different cultures. The design elements shape by human emotional needs. The cultural infusion of technology driven by the desire to connectivity is the force that bridging the gap of differences. The design innovation will transform the desire into one cultural identity. The love for giving, the social need to connect with friends, the feeling of desire to have a gadget that will make their lives more convenient. The common denominator is human psychological needs that will make the design elements seamlessly integrated to deliver delightful experience to a customer. From Kiwis latent needs, the most common celebrated events will be the key factors that will make it as a desirable innovation.most common celebrated events will be the key factors that will make it as a desirable innovation. No culture can live, if it attempts to be exclusive. Ethnic Groups(1) in New Zealand 2006 Census New Zealand % European 2,609,592 67.6 Maori 565,329 14.6 Pacific Peoples 265,974 6.9 Asian 354,552 9.2 Middle Eastern, Latin American & African 34,743 0.9 Other Ethnicity New Zealander 429,429 11.1 Other ‘Other Ethnicity’ 1,491 0.0 Total, Other Ethnicity 430,881 11.2 Figure 5.3.1
  15. 15. 28 29 To design a Customer Intelligence Platform that will enable Retailers to link seamlessly to their customers. The idea is to transform the Retail Environment into a new dimension by integrating technology and design, and become tools to engage with customers in real-time giving the retailers a better decision making insight. The retailers staff no longer need to search through the database to find customers’ discount card numbers: they simply scan the barcode on their smartphone and the reduction applies immediately thus time will be considerably reduced. Sending discount coupons via the smartphone app is considerably cheaper and faster than paper coupons. Customers are delighted with the app as they no longer have to worry about bringing discount cards or coupons with them. Waiting times at the counter have also reduced considerably. The free app will support the users need as channel of distribution as part of acquiring the platform. They can customise their service delight that will keep the customer happy. Great example is to send greeting cards to loyal customer to provide unexpected delightful experience that will touch the heart of the recipient. This process is quicker and easier for customers and staff. A smartphone app seemed the obvious solution providing it could meet a number of objectives. The app needed to be easy for customers to use and reflect the company’s highly distinctive brand identity. The design thinking approach and user centred design principles will be executed throughout the entire journey. The conceptualisation process user is at the centre of the design project. STEVE JOBS
  16. 16. 30 31 7.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPY Design has the ability to change people’s lives in ways big and small, but only if it responds to their needs. The key link is ensuring that stakeholders’ voices are heard and acted upon in the design process. The combination of ethnographic research methods with a designer’s arsenal of ideation using visualization tools, to shed light on unmet - often unspoken needs. Then, translating these into strategic insights and opportunities to become a customer centric-design. We call it Critical Thinking — a 360º approach to exploring and inducing insights from all angles while staying grounded in the stated problem. (Petrina, n.d.) 7.2 WIREFRAME STYLE GUIDELINE The following guideline of styles will be used to make the platform precisely align to users’ needs and expectations. The results from the interaction tests using UCD principles and Ethnography Documentation of Users Activities were used to formulate a design guideline to achieve the objectives of the design project which is simplicity and ease of use. For style guideline (see figure 7.1.1) COGNITIVE PROCESSES DESIGN GOAL ATTENTION Avoid cluttering with too much information. Use graphics, colour sequencing of information and lots of spacing Plain and simple landing page PERCEPTION & RECOGNITION Use of identifiable icon Text should be legible using distinguishable colour against background Allow users to recognise the meaning of various touch sensations by emulating them. MEMORY No complicated procedures for carrying tasks to save time Interface that promote recognition rather than recall by using menus, icons and consistently placed objects. Provide users with a variety of ways of encoding electronic information (e.g., files, emails images) to help remember where they have stored them. LEARNING Design should encourage exploration to provide immersion Design should provide users to select their own preferences during interaction Link representations that need to be learned so that access to learning is convenient. DECISION MAKING Provide options that easy to access for users who wish to understand more about how to carry out an activity more effectively Provide immediate free full access in order to realise the concept Figure 7.1.1 7.3 METHOD OF PROTOTYPING: The used of paper prototyping is the preferred method. It is a key component of the user-centred design (UCD) process and it is easy to iterate. The characteristics of paper prototyping lends itself to the iterative approach that is so valuable in the UCD process. The following principles was the primary consideration on why paper prototyping is the best method for the project. • Early and continual focus on users and their tasks. This understanding is arrived at by directly studying their behaviour and attitudes, and by studying the nature of the goals expected to accomplish. • Empirical measurement of user behaviour. Early in the development process, intended users will be expose to simulations and prototypes to carry out real tasks, and their performance and reactions should be observed, recorded and analysed. • Iterative design. When problems are found in user testing (as they will be) they can be fixed at early stage. This means design must be iterative: there must be a cycle of design, test and measure, and redesign, repeated until the usability. However, this will not be part of the process the validity of findings is not scientific only to pilot tests the design concept.
  17. 17. 32 33
  18. 18. 34 35 Notes: Retailers exact location is link to contact details for easy navigation The map is also link to voucher by scanning the QR code Notes: Customer can opt to register as regular user by using credit card so everytime they use the app it will be automatically debited to their account. The idea is to eliminate hassle of taking same process all over again Notes: Products are group by category Customer can use the search tools on top for quick browsing Notes: Contact details of retailers are group by category so that customer will not be disoriented. Customer can use the search tools on top for quick browsing
  19. 19. 36 37 7.5 PRODUCT FEATURES The Coupon Gallery will provide excitement to the user. It will become the absolute best tools to create a mobile marketing campaign. User does not need knowledge in Graphic Design or a degree in Marketing. The design platform will be providing layout using customer centric-design that were proven to be effective in marketing. The diversity of style will touch the consumers psychological needs. The gallery will showcase an updated style to provide convenience to any circumstances that may arise in regards to seasonal trading activities. Remember consumers respond to visuals that touch their heart. 7.4 PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR Scientists have been studying the way we react to colours for many years. Certain colours make us feel a certain way about something. As long as the designer knows what these colours and emotions are, the designer can use that information to help present the business in the right way. These are not hard and fast rules, but designers can use the information to their clients advantage. 7.4.1 THE SCIENCE BEHIND COLOURS Colour plays a crucial part in graphic design. The colours used in a design can set a mood or drive home a point. Colour can demonstrate strength or compassion, weakness or fear. It is important to consider the message marketer want to portray when selecting the base colours in marketing collateral design. As a Graphic Design Practitioner having been exposed to magazine and newspaper as a layout artist for five years, colours always plays a vital role in the design process. Apart from the technical aspect the audience is the centre of the selection process. It excites all the senses, instantly conveying a message like no other communication technique. The earthquake disaster in Christchurch newspaper shaped the emotion of the pubic by using black and grey colour as the prominent elements of the entire pages of New Zealand Herald. The colour symbolising sympathy, agony, sadness represented by the mood of the entire community. The pink colour expressing moral support for women with breast cancer. The color pink is considered feminine in modern Western countries. It evokes traditional feminine gender roles, caring for other people, being beautiful, being good, and being cooperative. The pink ribbon represents fear of breast cancer, hope for the future, and the charitable goodness of people and businesses who publicly support the breast cancer movement. It is intended to evoke solidarity with women who currently have breast cancer. 7.4.2 COLOURS AND JIN AND JANG PRINCIPLE Both contrary life principles have an important role as they bind everything in the space. The colours influence the emotion and many natural dualities (e.g. Light and dark, high and low, hot and cold, fire and water, life and death) are thought of as physical manifestations of the yin-yang concept Jin is feminine, introverted, passive principle, which is night, darkness and silence. Corresponding are round, wavy shapes, pastel colours, soothing colours (blue,green,violet), soft materials (wood,cloth) and are dominated by a dim light. People of jin type are peaceful, balanced and introverted. Jang is man, extroverted, active and represents the sun, day, light and movement. The corresponding straight lines and square shapes, strong or light-emitting colours (red, yellow, orange) cold and smooth materials (stone, glass, metal) and bright light prevail in every space. People of jang type are dynamic,ambitious and extroverted. They are conditional: jing is not without jang and vice versa. It is important that both are constantly in a balanced relationship (source:www.sacredlotus.com/theory/yinyang) The principles of Jin Jang have influenced western culture. It is being used by some Architecture and Interior designer in harmonising shapes, colours because Yin/Yang deals with balance of Chi or energy. If these principles will be apply in the marketing elements of design colours and space this will bring harmonious relationship with the receiver. The emotions and many natural dualities (e.g. Light and dark, high and low, hot and cold, fire and water, life and death) are thought of as physical manifestations of the yin-yang concept If these principles will be apply in the marketing elements of design using Jin Jang prinsiple on colours and space will bring harmonious relationship with the receiver. The human respond to stimuli that provide clarity, simplicity and colours that will please the retina of the customer. The gallery is organised according to category of emotions align to retailers product offering. • The messages were taken from customers so consumer consumption will become easier. • The colour selection for every category will be available as per Industry Standard. The platform will provide a proper guideline in choosing colours that will compliment the mood of their campaign. • The system will provide a variety of images according to Retail Category with an option to use their own images or logo. • The availability of font will compliment the variety of styles according to Industry practice. The example (see figure 7.3.3.4) will be the tools and guideline for making mobile voucher ensure that the quality of selection adhere to the Industry Practice to make it as an effective marketing tools for Retailers. 7.4.3 COLOUR TESTING Colour is a big influence on visual branding because it can affect people emotionally. According to the Seoul International Colour Expo, the colour of a brand logo improves brand recognition by 80%. The 84% of people believe that colour amounted to the utmost consideration when they chose a brand. Different colours affect people differently, for example, red is the highest stimulation hue. It increased pulse and heart rate, raise blood pressure and stimulates appetite. This can be used by sensory branding in restaurants to stimulate hunger or in bars because of its exciting properties. In order to validate the theory a test was done by exposing the participant to basic colours (black, red, yellow, blue and green-see figure 7.3.3.1). The participant was asked not to take any meal before lunch. The objective is to make sure that by the time the actual test is being done the participant is already craving for food. The six candies with primary colours were placed against a white paper on the left side. Before the participant enter the testing room, a brief information were discussed. The participant were asked that as soon as they seated comfortably, that is time to start taking the test. The participant was told to pick only 3 candies from the five pieces of candies. The candies picked by participant should be moved to the right hand side of the paper. The action should be simultaneous and the participant finished the test by 5 seconds. FINDINGS: From the pictures taken during activity (see figure 7.3.3.2) the participant picked the colour red first followed by blue then third green. The technique of testing and findings has no scientific basis just to pilot test the validity on how colour stimulate the senses of human.
  20. 20. 38 39 DESIGN TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY Getting message across effectively makes recipient more likely to gain desirability that will make them visit the app repeatedly. Using standard language, formatting, and style help to create a useful, clear message. There’s an option to integrate their own message, freedom to choose makes them likeable tools Keep Message Short * Speak with the Users Language How do you feel if you received a greeting card while you’re so busy at work? DESIGN FOR EFFICIENCY Customers need not have to worry about bringing discount cards, gift cards or coupons with them. Time savings are considerable as retailers staff no longer need to search through the database to find customers’ discount card numbers. They simply scan the barcode on their smartphone and the reduction applies instantly. It is cheaper and faster than paper coupons and environmentally friendly. You add to your wish list a designers’ bag for Christmas and suddenly received a message like this.
  21. 21. 40 41 Your boyfriend send you a voucher of a movie ticket and you forgot to ask which cinema you are going to watch. (his mobile is out of reach) DESIGN TO ENCOURAGE ENGAGEMENT Provide a Nearby Search Map of Every User’s Location Using QR Code is easy for customer to link to their exact location Provide Engagement Between User and Customer The ability to link the voucher to the retailers website so customer can browse more information Design to integrate easy access to retailers contact numbers for future use DESIGN FOR SIMPLICITY Ease of use eliminate the hassle of going through the process by streamlining the system Ingenious solution to a traditional challenge Direct & Concise straight to the point just scan and go People are very busy in their professional, personal and social life accessible tools to balance lifestyle is pleasurable You’re in Paris attending a convention you suddenly miss your husband and you want to surprise him on his birthday. Then, you decided to buy him an airfare voucher and send it to him.
  22. 22. 42 43 You are always celebrating Christmas with your Nana but this time circumstances has changed. You decided to send her a Christmas gift voucher through her email DESIGN FOR FLEXIBILITY Customer can download the voucher from mobile app and send it to the recepient to suit preferred channel that customer is familiar with Retailers with online shopping can leverage with the customer circumstances. The platform user can incorporate flexibility by providing options for their customers to buy online or through their physical stores.
  23. 23. 44 45 8.1 USER EXPERIENCE This is very convenient method to link if the desired goal is achieved according to user experience. In designing a system, the real scenario is always the best foundation to translate design as augmented reality of users’ daily activities. The design should mirror the user’s real activities for realization of systems functions. BACKGROUND: Participant was given a brief information about the functions of the web application. He was given an example of the final output he needed to achieve at the end of the activities. He is one of the target user among the group of users in New Zealand. SCENARIO: Participant is planning a Clearance Sale for a Personal Care Products. The participant wanted to get rid particular items with lots of inventory on their system. It was decided to use TABME an automated sales force system that can make a mobile coupon. They think sending it in real-time can improved sales. The partIcipant is managing a retail shop and knows basic knowledge about MS Word. The participant usually uses MS WORD to make a simple sign for pricing their stocks. 8.2 PROTOTYPE TESTING TThe actual testing using on-screen graphic prototype were documented. The participant was asked to use a pen as his mouse and provided with an on- screen prototype. (see figure 8.1) The interaction from start to finish were recorded. The testing required no conversation at all to get the participant more focus on the tasks. There is questions and feedback at the end of the activities. Once the participant touched the ‘send’ button that is the end of activities. After the completion of tasks, a fictitious mobile coupon was shown to participant. After showing the user on how to make a mobile coupon the actual interaction with the customers was observed. The objective is to monitor response of customers using the traditional floor signage. The documentation of customers behaviour after they are exposed to a floor signage which was deliberately posted in a slanting position was documented. The basis of observation is the interaction of participant with the customer and the way they constantly changed the floor signage. Some pictures of the scene. (see figure 8.2-.8.4) The participant was asked to use the idea (mobile coupon) by using the traditional signage. The instruction was to place the signage in a slanting position whenever there’s a build up of foot traffic. The slanting positioning of signage is from the concept of ‘augmented reality’ imagining as if they are sending the discount coupon through mobile in real-time. The idea is to test if the customer will respond to ‘stimulus’ and will demonstrate a buying signal. Participant was asked to describe participant own findings by comparing the traditional approach and new technique in getting attention of customers. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to uncover the assumption that sending coupon in real-time will trigger impulse buying using the design concept for project realization that it is usable for retailers. This method will better help to understand the need of the user and their customers needs. The results will provide a better insight on the iteration stage of the design process. The pleasurable benefits for the customer should be based on actual behavioural pattern in order to seamlessly achieved social identity experience. On the other hand, the simulation test was done prior to user actual work activities. The idea is to find out if the functionality and delivery will be achieved according to user expectations. The scenario is the assumption that user signed up to use the system and the participant will be guided from designing the coupon to actual consumption of customers.. 8.3 EVALUATION: USER TOUCH POINTS The simulation testing uncover the underlying touchpoint of user. The actual interaction is marked unforeseen insight and useful in the iterative design and further development of the project. The interaction started by going straight to Coupon Page. The decision of skipping the process of going through the home webpage because the test is only for processing usability of Coupon Maker Page. The available timeframe does not permit to test all the web app pages. However, it is important that testing will focus on the core features of the platform. The interpretation is not scientific nevertheless; participant was able to familiarise at the start of the activities. The icon used is very similar to MS Word so the way the participant interpreted the sequence is the same process. The participant was seen scrolling back and forward the bar at the bottom. He was touching the icon after touching the text area intended for typing. During the activities, the participant paused for about 5 seconds. Then, proceeded to another stage by touching the save file. The end of the interaction lasted for 10 minutes and 5 seconds. After the completion of testing partcipant was asked based on the researcher own interpretation. Here’s the feedback from the participant. (P) participant (R) researcher. • The participant was asked on why they were not seen using the tools for colouring background? • P: The participant says they are not familiar with that icon and do not how to use the tools. • R: The participant was observed not using the barcode generator and was asked why? • P: The participant says the system must have alerted them if they missed one activity. • R: The participant was seen scrolling the bar at the bottom and was asked why? • P: The participant says they wanted to make the image bigger or smaller • R: The participant was asked to describe the experience. • P: The participant says it was easy to use it was not too confusing, not too busy many simple icons. They liked it. Though, they wish they should have been oriented on the barcoding system before the test. (Figure 8.1) (Figure 8.2) (Figure 8.3) (Figure 8.4) 8.4 EVALUATION: CUSTOMER TOUCH POINTS The customer behaviour was evaluated based on their response whenever the floor signage was changed from time to time in a slanting position. The responses was quite impressive in terms of visual numbers of customers responnded to the activity. In one incident one of the customers was overheard calling his wife about the on going sales and asking if she wanted him to buy her favourite perfume. From the picture alone the customer response was captured. However, results would varies depending on the demographics and situation. The results magnify the concept realisation as a valuable insight for future studies. The participant was asked to get rid of the signage in between to have the comparison on the customer behaviour. The test was done from the period of 10:00 am to 2:00 pm. The evaluation has not scientific validity just to pilot the test the design project. The pilot studies was able to established potential problems and can be use as basis to further develop the design concept.
  24. 24. 46 47 IN THE BEGINNING: BARTER Barter is the exchange of resources or services for mutual advantage, and the practice likely dates back tens of thousands of years, perhaps even to the dawn of modern humans. Some would even argue that it’s not purely a human activity; plants and animals have been bartering—in symbiotic relationships—for millions of years. In any case, barter among humans certainly pre-dates the use of money. Today individuals, organizations, and governments still use, and often prefer, barter as a form of exchange of goods and services. 9000 - 6000 B.C.: CATTLE Cattle, which throughout history and across the globe have included not only cows but also sheep, camels, and other livestock, are the first and oldest form of money. With the advent of agriculture also came the use of grain and other vegetable or plant products as a standard form of barter in many cultures. 1200 B.C.: COWRIE SHELLS The first use of cowries, the shells of a mollusc that was widely available in the shallow waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, was in China. Historically, many societies have used cowries as money, and even as recently as the middle of this century, cowries have been used in some parts of Africa. The cowrie is the most widely and longest used currency in history. 1000 B.C.: FIRST METAL MONEY AND COINS Bronze and Copper cowrie imitations were manufactured by China at the end of the Stone Age and could be considered some of the earliest forms of metal coins. Metal tool money, such as knife and spade monies, was also first used in China. These early metal monies developed into primitive versions of round coins. Chinese coins were made out of base metals, often containing holes so they could be put together like a chain. 500 B.C.: MODERN COINAGE Outside of China, the first coins developed out of lumps of silver. They soon took the familar round form of today, and were stamped with various gods and emperors to mark their authenticity. These early coins first appeared in Lydia, which is part of present-day Turkey, A 640 BC one-third stater coin from Lydia, shown larger. Greek drachm of Aegina. Obverse: Land turtle / Reverse:AIT/(INA) and dolphin. The oldest turtle coin dates 700 BC A Persian 309–379 AD silver drachm from the Sasanian Dynasty. but the techniques were quickly copied and further refined by the Greek, Persian, Macedonian, and later the Roman empires. Unlike Chinese coins which depended on base metals, these new coins were made from precious metals such as silver, bronze, and gold, which had more inherent value. 118 B.C.: LEATHER MONEY Leather money was used in China in the form of one- foot-square pieces of white deerskin with colorful borders. This could be considered the first documented type of banknote. A.D. 800 - 900: THE NOSE The phrase “To pay through the nose” comes from Danes in Ireland, who slit the noses of those who were remiss in paying the Danish poll tax. 806: PAPER CURRENCY The first known paper banknotes appeared in China. In all, China experienced over 500 years of early paper money, spanning from the ninth through the fifteenth century. Over this period, paper notes grew in production to the point that their value rapidly depreciated and inflation soared. Then beginning in 1455, the use of paper money in China disappeared for several hundred years. This was still many years before paper currency would reappear in Europe, and three centuries before it was considered common. 1500: POTLACH “Potlach” comes from a Chinook Indian custom that existed in many North American Indian cultures. It is a ceremony where not only were gifts exchanged, but dances, feasts, and other public rituals were performed. In some instances potlach was a form of initiation into secret tribal societies. Because the exchange of gifts was so important in establishing a leader’s social rank, potlach often spiralled out of control as the gifts became progressively more lavish and tribes put on larger and grander feasts and celebrations in an attempt to out-do each other. 1535: WAMPUM The earliest known use of wampum, which are strings of beads made from clam shells, was by North American Indians in 1535. Most likely, this monetary medium existed well before this date. The Indian word “wampum” means white, which was the color of the beads. 1816: THE GOLD STANDARD Gold was officially made the standard of value in England in 1816. At this time, guidelines were made to allow for a non-inflationary production of standard banknotes which represented a certain amount of gold. Banknotes had been used in England and Europe for several hundred years before this time, but their worth had never been tied directly to gold. In the United States, the Gold Standard Act was officialy enacted in 1900, which helped lead to the establishment of a central bank. 1930: END OF THE GOLD STANDARD The massive Depression of the 1930s, felt worldwide, marked the beginning of the end of the gold standard. In the United States, the gold standard was revised and the price of gold was devalued. This was the first step in ending the relationship altogether. The British and international gold standards soon ended as well, and the complexities of international monetary regulation began. THE PRESENT: In our digital age, economic transactions regularly take place electronically, without the exchange of any physical currency. Digital cash in the form of bits and bytes will most likely continue to be the currency of the future. Electronic money was born in 1918, when the United States Federal Reserve moved currency by way of telegraph. John Biggins of Brooklyn, New York introduced the first bank credit card in 1946, called Charge-It. Donald Wetzel pioneered the first automated teller machine in Dallas in 1968. Jane Snowball became the world’s first online shopper using a television and controller to buy groceries in 1984. M-PESA developed the first digital mobile wallet in 2007. A Japanese software engineer is said to have invented bitcoin in 2009, the first digital currency, using cryptography to control creation and transaction, rather than central banks. THE FUTURE: ELECTRONIC MONEY The Royal Canadian Mint will soon test a new digital currency called the Mint-Chip - a virtual type of prepaid product that will be backed by the federal government - and advertisements for mobile banking and electronic cheque deposits are common place. RESEARCHER CONCLUSION: Technology will continue to advance and influence peoples’ lives. Innovation has changed how people run their lives but one thing will never change - human sensitivities. The great innovation comes from the heart and consumer love innovations that will make their lives convenient, pleasurable and connected to the world. (source: www.pbs.org/history/money) COWRIE SHELLS
  25. 25. 48 49 The design thinking in the ideation was used through story telling based on researcher own experience as Retailer. The persona modelling of a user was used to identify the problem, behaviour supported by literature review. The persuasive design thinking process was done using the Usability Testing Method and User Design Principles. The cognitive processes was collected using appropriate techniques in order to develop the design guideline that is usable for the user’s need. The documented data of activities with the participant was critically analysed using UCD principles. It was further developed during the synthesis stage by integrating the Socio-cultural to the technology innovation. The research established viability on the consumer consumption through actual evaluation of user experience. The participants feedback was also integrated and evaluated against UCD principles as part of valuable information for the design process. The functionality and composition of the elements was selected based on the results from the Usability Testing and Findings from Socio-cultural Integration. The execution of the prototype was documented with the actual simulation of the participant to the on-screen prototype. It was analysed and recommended iteration was documented for further development. The validation of product realisation was linked with User Experience Touchpoints. The Customer Journey Mapping was used by integrating a scenario on the consumption of the product. It was further analyse through actual testing at the Shopping Mall with an augmented concept and customers behaviour was documented for future analysis. The evaluation method is not scientific the objective is just to pilot tests the project if it is viable before embarking on the real study. The UCD principles was applied all throughout the journey of this research paper. The iteration of design is subject to further development. The iteration stage was not part of the research paper because the validity of findings has not scientific basis.This is a conceptual design and could be use by researcher as a real project on design innovation. 7 myths about paper prototyping. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/ paperprototyping.html Artefact - Technology Product Design for the 21st Century. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www. artefactgroup.com/#/content/designing-the-business-strategy-the-secret-to-sustainable- product-innovation Association for Consumer Research (n.d.). A Cultural Approach to the Study of Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations by Bernard Dubois. Retrieved from http://www.acrwebsite.org/ search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=12053 Card Sorting for Information design | OptimalSort. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www. optimalworkshop.com/optimalsort-demo Henry, S. (n.d.). Example Personas | Accessibility in User-Centered Design | Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design. Retrieved from http://www.uiaccess.com/accessucd/ personas_eg.html Koupon Media (n.d.). Koupon Media | Mobile Coupons, Digital Offers, Digital Campaign Management. Retrieved from http://kouponmedia.com/ The Logo C (n.d.). The Psychology Of Color In Logo Design. Retrieved from http://thelogocompany. net/blog/infographics/psychology-color-logo-design/ Methods of Qualitative Data Analysis - Qualitative Data Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http:// www.qualitative-data-analysis.com/methods-of-qualitative-data-analysis.html Myth #31: UX design is a step in a project - UX Myths. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://uxmyths.com/ post/3897350094/myth-31-ux-design-is-a-step-in-a-project Nielsen, J. (2000). Designing Web usability. Indianapolis, Ind: New Riders. Nielsen, L. (n.d.). Ten Steps to User Persona By Dr. Lene Nielsen. Retrieved from http://www.hceye. org/HCInsight-Nielsen.htm NOVA | The History of Money. (1996, October 26). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ ancient/history-money.html Preece, J., Rogers, Y., & Sharp, H. (2002). Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction. New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. SAP (n.d.). SAP Design Guild -- The SAP User-Centered Design Process. Retrieved from http:// www.sapdesignguild.org/editions/edition10/print_ucd_overview.asp UsabilityNet: Paper prototyping methods. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.usabilitynet.org/ tools/prototyping.htm References
  26. 26. 50

×