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Week three, crisis of 1890s


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  • 1. The Crisis of the 1890s Dr. John Holmes U.S. History After 1877, History 121, Diablo Valley College San Ramon Summer 2013
  • 2. The Farm Crisis and Populism America a rural nation--small farmer as backbone of America Tremendous expansion of farming after Civil War Homestead Act and Indian removal Populism largest social movement in American history in 19th century Jeffersonian values vs. values of Gilded Age
  • 3. Economic roots of Populism Farmers not peasants-landowners Credit basis of agriculture Dependence on bankers and railroads Drastic decline in crop prices wheat bushels: 63 to 36 cents cotton: 11 to 4.6 cents a pound Causes: overproduction; erosion; overseas competition Farmers’ Alliance in West and South
  • 4. Populist program Platform, doc. 20-1 Opposition to monopoly Lloyd and George documents Return to American values before the Gilded Age Railroads: nationalization or regulation Bankers: expand currency to reduce interest rates
  • 5. The Populist Movement The Farmers’ Alliance Alliance with labor “Producerism” and Knights of Labor Alliance of black and white farmers in South
  • 6. Populism in California The Octopus, Frank Norris
  • 7. The Mussel Slough Tragedy Deadliest gunfight in California history Conflict between farmers and railroad The checkerboard Prison photo, Arrested farmers, 1880
  • 8. California Populism Different, because California different Alliance between anti-railroad farmers and urban workers State legislator Marion Cannon, prosperous farmer Calls for nationalizing “the Octopus” Adolph Sutro, mayor of San Francisco Wants to municipalize streetcars
  • 9. The South: Populism and the Rise of Jim Crow Black-white economic alliance Breakdown on race lines Colored Farmers’ Alliance and 1891 cotton picker’s strike North Carolina: Populist- Republican alliance Reader document 20-2 Disenfranchisement of blacks Jim Crow Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 10. Industrial Crisis in the North The Great Depression of 1890s Overproduction then and now Reader 18-3 and 18-5: Lloyd and George on overproduction collapse, housing collapse Conditions of urban workers: Reader Chapter 19 Industrial warfare of 1890s Document 20-4: “Conflicting Views about Labor Unions”
  • 11. Homestead: Industrial War Reader document 20-1
  • 12. Coxey’s Army Army starts marching in Ohio Few contingents reach Washington William Hogan contingent commandeers train, apprehended in Montana
  • 13. The Pullman Strike Train wreck in California Strike leader Eugene Victor Debs becomes leader of American Socialism
  • 14. Political Crisis of 1890s Grover Cleveland and Democratic Party blamed for Great Depression Labor does not join Populists Populism and food prices Populism vs. immigration Populists merge with Democrats William Jennings Bryan “Critical election” of 1896 Republican Party dominance And then, the war…