Urbanization and immigration

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Urbanization and immigration

  1. 1. Urbanization and Immigration Dr. John Holmes History 121, Diablo Valley College San Ramon, Summer 2013
  2. 2. Urbanization Main subject of reader Chapter 19 Tremendous growth of cities 1870: none over million NY 1910: 4.7 million Transformation from transport nodes to multi-purpose cities District specialization: residential center, industry at outskirts Technology makes it possible the skyscraper and the streetcar
  3. 3. Illnesses of Urbanization Overpopulation. New York and Calcutta. Doc. 19-3 The tenement Lack of necessary infrastructure Utilities private-for-profit water, gas, electricity, paved streets, sewers Corruption in urban government Tammany Hall the classic model (Doc. 19-5) Why most machines Democratic Irish in particular, immigrants in general as basis of machines
  4. 4. Immigration Largest wave in American history Ellis Island; the Statue of Liberty "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Emma Lazarus
  5. 5. Causes of Immigration Pull factors: Industrialization, govt. policy US reputation for political freedom and religious toleration Push factors: Population growth and economic transformation in Europe Displacement of peasants (and Jews) Persecution Transportation revolution Immigration fever, chain migration
  6. 6. Who were the immigrants? “Old” and “new” immigrants Not Western Europe vs. South and East, but a ripple effect Change not in nature but in opportunities Closing of frontier means no more immigrant farmers “Birds of Passage” The Italian experience, doc. 19-4 Italians least likely to stay in America, Jews the most
  7. 7. The Jewish Immigrant Story Most immigrants factory workers Jews and the garment industry Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Jews and garment unionism Assimilation Israel Zangwill, The Melting Pot Jewish upward social mobility Business before WWI Education after WWI Jews, socialism and radicalism
  8. 8. Strike vote, “Uprising of the 20,000 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
  9. 9. Anti-immigrant sentiment Tolerance of immigration changes in 1890s Growth of legal restrictions Reasons: anti-Catholicism anti-Semitism Economic competition; labor anti- immigrant sentiment Racism. Are “new immigrants” “white”? Anti-radicalism
  10. 10. Anti-immigrant sentiment Tolerance of immigration changes in 1890s Growth of legal restrictions Reasons: anti-Catholicism anti-Semitism Economic competition; labor anti- immigrant sentiment Racism. Are “new immigrants” “white”? Anti-radicalism

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