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  • 1. Media Timeline.•Ellen Brooking•A2 Media Studies
  • 2. History of Music Videos.1902-1917: The phonoscène eraThe phonoscène was a forerunner of sound film. It combined a chronophone sound recording with achronograph film shot with actors lip-synching to the sound recording. The recording and film weresynchronized by a mechanism patented by Leon Gaumont in 1902. The first phonoscènes werepresented by Gaumont in 1902 in France.1926-1959: Talkies, soundies, and shortsIn 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shortsfeatured many bands, vocalists and dancers. Spooney Melodies in 1930 was the first true musicalvideo series.Shorts were typically six minutes in duration, and featured Art Deco-style animations andbackgrounds combined with film of the performer singing.1960–1967: Visual innovationIn 1961, for Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio,went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching, then edited the audio andvideo together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, and the location shoot "videos"were to add variety. In 1963, singer Kyu Sakamoto is featured on the Japanese television programShall We Meet At Seven? singing eight of his best-known songs, including his international hitSukiyak. Sakamoto is shown singing the latter as he walks through an alley past barrels.One of the earliest Videos of a Top 40 hit, was Jan & Deans "Surf City", produced in Summer 1963,contemporaneous with the single release reaching Number One nationally in July 1963 (ref:Wikipedia). Filmed on location on Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, its a period-piece, capturingmuch of the atmosphere and vibe of the Southern California early 1960s beach scene. This video isreadily available for download and viewing on YouTube.com.Another early performance clip was The Animalss 1964 hit “House of the Rising Sun".This high-quality colour clip was filmed in a studio on a specially-built set; with the group lip-synching.1974–1980 – Beginnings of music televisionUnited KingdomIn 1975, The Who released their all-music feature film Tommy, directed by Ken Russell, based upontheir 1969 rock opera of the same name. Also in 1975, the band Queen ordered Bruce Growers tomake a promo video for their new single "Bohemian Rhapsody" to show it in Top of The Pops; this isalso notable for being entirely shot and edited on videotape.
  • 3. History of Music Videos.The Alan Parker film adaptation of Pink Floyd The Wall transformed the groups 1979 concept double-LP of the same title into aconfrontational and apocalyptic audio-visual labyrinth of stylised, expressionistic images, sounds, melodies and lyrics.The long-running British Rock music show "The Old produced a number of pioneering videos made especially for the programthroughout the 1970s and early 1980s. These included a video of Frank Zappas "City of Tiny Lights" made using claymation andvideos made for performers such as Television, Led Zeppelin, Genesis, Pink Floyd and Mike Oldfield. The executive producer ofThe Old Grey Whistle Test was Mike Appleton. Derek Burbidge and Kate Humphreys directed and videoed many of the artists.The audio was always of prime importance. Gregg Baily was the recordist for the show on location. Although many assumed thebands were playing live, due to technical issues and the need to ensure performances were controlled, the bands often recordedthe performance on the day of shooting prior to taping, and then mimed to this "live" track. Other directors and camera operatorswere Martin Pitts in the USA, and for England, John Metcalfe and Tim Pope and many others. Location shoots all over the worldwere an essential part of the program. Martin Pitts Directed clips for the Bee Gees that aired on the show.United StatesAmerican alternative punk rock group Devo created many self-produced music videos, which were included in the pioneeringcompilation "The Truth About Devolution", directed by Chuck Statler. Devos video cassette releases were arguably among thefirst true long-form video productions. Also, one of their music videos "The Day My Baby Gave Me a Surprise" was the first touse computer and traditional animation.Shock-rocker Alice Cooper took a video of his Welcome To My Nightmare concertshowcasing the intense visual performance it gave.Alice Cooper himself makes reference to making one of the first music videoson the promotional videos for his album Along Came A Spider.1981–1991: Music videos go mainstreamIn 1981, the U.S. video channel MTV launched, airing "Video Killed The Radio Star" and beginning an era of 24-hour-a-daymusic on television. With this new outlet for material, the music video would, by the mid-1980s, grow to play a central role inpopular music marketing. Many important acts of this period, most notably Adam and The Ants, Duran Duran and Madonna,owed a great deal of their success to the skilful construction and seductive appeal of their videos.
  • 4. Examples of Music Videos.The Animals - House of The Rising Sun: www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwAw9ThDQmkQueen - Bohemian Rhapsody: www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJ9rUzIMcZQJan & Dean - Surf City: www.youtube.com/watch?v=nNwqa-QzAecThe Buggles - Video Killed The Radio City: www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8r-tXRLazsMichael Jackson - Thriller: www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQ_ExkfcBao
  • 5. History of Rock.Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in 1950s America and developed into a range of different styles inthe 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavilyinfluenced by rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as blues and folk, andincorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical sources.Blues Based Rock – 1963-1970The rock revolution of the 1960s seen through the life and music of Jimi Hendrix. The first doomed icon of rock, Hendrix was thesynthesis of everything that had gone before him and all that was to come. The Birth Of Rock also explores the influence of rhythm & blueson a generation of British musicians such as The Rolling Stones, Cream and The Who, and how the song-writing of Bob Dylan and studiodevelopments of The Beatles transformed the possibilities and ambitions of rock.Art Rock – 1966-1980The story of how artistic and conceptual expression permeated rock. From the pop-art multi-media experiments of Andy Warhol and theVelvet Underground to the sinister gentility of Peter Gabriels Genesis, White Light, White Heat traces how rock became a vehicle for artisticideas and theatrical performance. We follow Pink Floyd from the fated art school genius of Syd Barrett through the global success of DarkSide of the Moon to the ultimate rock theatre show, The Wall. Along the way, the film explores the retro-futurism of Roxy Music and theprotean world of David Bowie.Punk- 1973-1980A tale of two cities, London and New York and the birth of punk. Each city created a bastard child that marked the biggest andfundamental shift in popular music since Elvis walked into Sun Studios. Blank Generation unpicks the relationship between the bankruptNew York and the class and race-riven London of the mid-1970s and explores the music of The Sex Pistols, The Clash, Ramones, Television,Patti Smith, The Damned and Buzzcocks.Heavy Metal- 1970-1991The story of the longest surviving and certainly the loudest genre of rock, heavy metal. With no sign of disappearing, metal has been themost controversial and misunderstood of all rock genres. Emerging at the tail end of the hippy dream from the rust belt of industrial England,heavy metal would go on to secure the most loyal fan base of all. With Black Sabbath as the undisputed Godfathers, we follow their highs andlows, and, along the journey, meet Deep Purple, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden and Metallica.
  • 6. History of rock.Stadium Rock – 1965 - 1993We Are The Champions follows the development of some the biggest names in Rock, among them Queen, BruceSpringsteen, The Police and Dire Straits and shows how, through events such as Live Aid and the rise of MTV, rockachieved a global influence on culture and politics. The film concludes in the early 90s, as U2 effectively brought the erato a close by reinventing the big rock show so completely, that fifteen years later most major rock tours are still palefacsimiles.Alternative Rock – 1980-1994The rise of alternative rock in the USA. From its early underground days where bands like Black Flag drew inspirationfrom the DIY ethos of punk, Left Of The Dial traces the history of the network of fans, clubs and fanzines that sustainedthe scene and launched the careers of bands like REM, The Pixies and Hüsker Dü. The film takes a fresh look at theexplosion of the Seattle scene, culminating in the success of Nirvanas Nevermind and the tragic loss of Kurt Cobain, anartist whose triumph and tragedy continues to cast an inescapable shadow.Indie – 1980-2007The story of British indie, beginning with The Smiths, the archetypal indie group. The film follows The Stone Rosesas the heirs to the indie crown, Suedes dark sexuality and the media saturation of Brit-pops Blur v Oasis. What TheWorld Is Waiting For explores how indie ultimately lost its once cherished intimacy and integrity in front of 250,000 fansat Oasiss Knebworth spectacle in 1996 and how, by returning to its roots in clubs and bars (and even front rooms) withbands such as Franz Ferdinand, The Libertines and The Arctic Monkeys, indie became respectable again.
  • 7. Examples of rock music.Oasis – Don’t Look Back In Anger: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-ysg62GmFoBill Haley & The Comets: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F5fsqYctXgMThe Clash – London Calling: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EfK-WX2pa8cR.E.M. – Losing My Religion: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=if-UzXIQ5vwIron Maiden – Run To The Hills: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geHLdg_VNww
  • 8. Summary of Rock Music Videos.Rock music videos initially began by showing pre recorded shows then relayingthem to other TV shows and to other channels. The change into what we knowmusic video’s happened during the late 60s early 70s where bands began to createvideo that showed the band creating a visual experience for the audience howeverthis plan then transcended in to full feature length films such as HELP! By theBeatles. One of the first video’s that used new technologies to create an interactionwith the audience is the video to Bohemian Rhapsody to create the light and themultiple imagery within the video. Rock music has an ever changing conventionsas the genre has moved on so much that it allows ever expanding conventions to becreated. Rock music video’s used to be based around the idea of viewing the bandplaying music to the idea that drugs, sex and rock and roll was the most importantpart to now where storylines are an extremely important part of what is ‘normal’within music videos.
  • 9. Influences.All of the work I have done looking at the development of rock music and the musicvideo industry have influenced the way that I want my video to be filmed and what Iwant it to look like after the editing process. I want my music video to have a funand summery vibe which has been influenced by the cross section of videos I havelooked at. I want my music film to have a storyline which has been influenced by theappearance of storylines in video’s in the 70s and the 80s. My video ideas have beeninfluenced by video’s from David Bowies to Madonna and this is what I will try andrecreate in my video. I really way my video to have a indie film look to it so I shalluse a variety of different shot types that change at a rapid pace as well as using a lotof point of view shots which will allow me to create a more intimate feel to thevideo. Foster The Peoples video really helped me to envisage what I want myvideo’s to look like.
  • 10. Digipak.Digipaks typically consist of a gatefold paperboard or card stockouter binding, with one or more plastic trays capable of holding aCD or DVD attached to the inside. Digipaks were created toincrease the content of a normal CD which is used to increaseinterest and sales as it is not just purely a CD. They tend to featurea CD/DVD both and exclusive information such as pictures.IMPAC Group, Inc. originally owned the Digipak trademark. Thatcompany was acquired by MeadWestvaco (MWV) in 2000 andfolded into its AGI Media division. Following this acquisition, theDigipak name and designs were licensed to manufacturers aroundthe world. MWV sold AGI Media to Atlas Holdings in 2010. In2012, Atlas purchased Shorewood Packaging from InternationalPaper and merged the two companies to create AGI-Shorewood.Although less vulnerable to cracking than a jewel case, the disctray inside the package (particularly the "teeth" of the hub whichsecure the disc in place) remains rather brittle and is prone tocracking if the package is crushed. Digipak-style cases grew inpopularity among record labels and recording artists in the early2000s.
  • 11. Magazine Advertisement.Advertising is integral to the music industry asrevenue can be created from the sales ofadvertisement as well as the attraction and gaining ofan audience that a chosen advert can bring to amagazine. By placing an advert in a magazine a wideraudience can be reached which ultimately may helpyour product with increased sales from an audiencethat may have not have been reached without theadvert.Adverts can contain a theme of house style developedby the artist which allows the product to attract a newaudience as well as identifying with an already formedaudience. Images of the artist and text that relates tothe audience will help the advert to catch the attentionof the reader.Magazine adverts are often placed in magazine thatcontain similar ideals and looks so that there is aconnection between the reader and the advert ensuringmaximum sales and attraction which is the ultimateaim for the product.
  • 12. Bibliography of References.www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_videowww.youtube.comhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/music/sevenages/

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