Asian Bitumen Conference , Nov 2011 Singapore , Presentation by Benzene International Pte Ltd, on Modified Bitumen and the trends
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Asian Bitumen Conference , Nov 2011 Singapore , Presentation by Benzene International Pte Ltd, on Modified Bitumen and the trends

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Asian Bitumen Conference , Nov 2011 Singapore , Presentation by Benzene International Pte Ltd, on Modified Bitumen and the trends

Asian Bitumen Conference , Nov 2011 Singapore , Presentation by Benzene International Pte Ltd, on Modified Bitumen and the trends

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  • Tiki Tar Industries is India's largest private sector asphalt & bitumen manufacturing company operating since 1964. We manufacture & supply top grade bitumen membranes & emulsions, providing waterproofing solutions to some of the premier global infrastructure projects. Web: http://www.tikitar.com/
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  • 1. By NARAYANAN ELLANGO B.Eng, M.Sc (Eng) www.benzeneinternational.comARGUS ASIAN BITUMEN 2011SINGAPORE Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 2. POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN AN INTRODUCTION:SIMPLY BITUMEN + MODIFIER = MODIFIED BITUMENDevelopments in the manufacturing process of Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) are constantly increasingthe end performance of road and asphalt surfaces. Modified Bitumen has been used for over 30 years andwas introduced in the 80’s. Manufactures are continually striving to improve the performance throughtighter quality controls and advanced manufacturing processes employed. Many local authorities nowrecommend the use of a minimum of 10% modified bitumen which results in longer lasting roads with betterperformance.A well-engineered binder can be the determining whether a bitumen product will perform under the rigoursof modern day traffic conditions.Through research and calculated statistics of increased overall traffic volumes, tire pressures, heavy axleloadings, speed of traffic, environmental and climate changes and concerns, have demanded innovative roadconstruction designs and materials to be utilised.Polymers were introduced to bitumen to modify its original behaviour. They type and quantity of polymeradded, the based bitumen binder used and the production technique used will greatly influence the endperformance characteristics of the modified bitumen produced. A balance between the viscosity and elasticsproperties of a binder, can be found, controlled and achieved by using the correct base bitumen andpolymer. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 3. WHAT ARE POLYMERS?DEFINITION: Any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds of usually highmolecular weight consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units, each a relativelylight and simple molecule.•Very large molecules•Made up of smaller monomers•Common both in nature and everyday life•First synthetic polymers created around 1910•Varying molecules and lengths Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 4. KRATON POLYMERSThe main grades used in bitumen applications are:Kraton D1184 polymer and KRATON D 1186 polymer are the industry benchmark polymersKraton D1101 polymer for exceptional low temperature performanceKraton G1650 polymer for those applications that require outstanding heat and oxidationresistance such as hot mopping asphalt binders.Kraton D1118 polymer for improved flow of self-adhesive productsKraton D polymer based on isoprene for increased tack in self-adhesive products, also at lowtemperatures.HIGH SHEAR MIXERSHigh shear mixers grind the polymer while immersed in the bitumen. The polymer is mixedinto the bitumen and passed through the high shear mixer, to cut the particles into smallpieces. The size of the pieces is influenced by the gap width between the stator and therotor. Decreasing size, increases the specific surface area, speeding up the absorption ofthe oily components in the bitumen.The absorption of oily components softens the polymer particles, and allows shear forcesin the high shear mixer to tear and stretch these particles, further increasing the specificsurface area. Eventually this should result in a homogeneous dispersion of the polymerthroughout the bitumen. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 5. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 6. ADVANTAGES OF USING MODIFIED BITUMEN:•Higher Resistance to Deformation at High Temperature•Enhanced Deformation Resistance to Low Temperature Cracking•Improved Temperature Susceptibility•Improved Aging Resistance•Improved Adhesion between Aggregate and Binder•Higher Fatigue Life of Mixes•Delay in Thermal / Reflective Cracking•Over all Extended Pavement Surface Life•Savings in Total Road Life Costing.•Improved Binder Film Thickness•Improved Cohesion•Improved Workability•Improved Fuel Resistance•Improved Water Resistance•Not detrimental to basic properties of Bitumen and Enhances them. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 7. EFFECT OF POLYMERS 1.00E+08 1.00E+07 1.00E+06 1.00E+05MODULUS 1.00E+04 1.00E+03 50 pen bitumen 1.00E+02 Plastomer Modified bitumen 1.00E+01 Elastomer Modified bitumen 1.00E+00 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 TEMPERATURE °C Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 8. EFFECTS OF POLYMERS 1E+04 Unmodified Plastomer Modified Elastomer ModifiedMICRO STRAIN 1E+03 1E+02 1E+02 1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 CYCLES TO FAILURE Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 9. ADVANTAGES OF USING MODIFIED BITUMEN Fig 1.0.Severe rutting on a road built with Unmodified Bitumen, after just two years since completion. Fig 2.0. Roads built with Modified Bitumen can have a lifespan of over 6 years. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 10. UNMODIFIED BITUMEN BINDER USED FOR ROAD SURFACEMODIFIED BITUMEN USED FOR THINNER ROAD SURFACE Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 11. TYPES OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERSThe Performance Graded (PG) System is a method of measuring asphalt binder performance. This systemwas introduced in the USA and originally developed during the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP)in the early 90’s. The Superpave™ performance grading (PG) specification classifies asphalt binders intoperformance grades that change at 6°C intervals according to the service climate. Examples of PolymerModified Bitumen are High Impact Performance Grade Bitumen PG 76-10 and PG 82-10, both canwithstand the toughest conditions and is created with a high resistance to strong shearing forces. This typeof modified bitumen is commonly used on race tracks, railway tracks and airstrips due to increasedresistance to fuel spillage. This specialist grade of bitumen is often considered as much more expensive, butin the long run will offer significant cost savings due to lower maintenance costs.When Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) is combined with mineral aggregates it provides higher cohesionand better adhesion compared to conventional and paving bitumen grades. PMB also offers great elasticrecovery after relief. Additional advantages and benefits of using PMB include the following: Lowersusceptibility to temperature variations, higher resistance to deformation wear and tear and Increase infatigue life.In colder climatic conditions and winter months the PMB stops cracking that occurs when the road surfacecontracts. On the other side of the spectrum, in extreme hot climatic conditions and summer months thePMB stops the asphalt from softening, when road surface temperatures may exceed 65°C. Commonly usedin the Gulf, The Americas, Canada and through Africa. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 12. HIGH IMPACT PERFORMANCE GRADE PG 76-10 SPECIFICATIONS TEST SPECIFICATIONFlash Point Temperature (°C), T48 230 MinViscosity, ASTM D4402: Maximum, 3 Pa·s Test 135Temperature (°C)Dynamic Shear, TP5; G*/sin δ, Minimum, 1.00 kPa 76Temperature (°C) at 10 rad/sROLLING THIN FILM OVEN (T240) OR THIN FILM OVEN (T179) RESIDUEMass loss, Maximum 1%Dynamic Shear, TP5; G*/sin δ, Minimum, 2.20 kPa 76Temperature (°C) at 10 rad/sPRESSURE AGING VESSEL RESIDUEP.A.V. Aging Temperature (°C) 110Dynamic Shear, TP5; G*/sin δ, Minimum, 5000 kPa 37Temperature (°C) at 10 rad/sPHYSICAL HARDENING REPORTCreep Stiffness, TP1 Stiffness, Maximum, 300.0 0MPa at 60 seconds m-value, Minimum, 0.300 at 60seconds Test Temperature (°C)Direct Tension, TP3 Failure Strain, Minimum, 1.0% 0(loading rate of 1.0 mm/min)Test Temperature (°C) Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 13. HIGH IMPACT PERFORMANCE GRADE PG 82-10 SPECIFICATIONS TEST SPECIFICATIONFlash Point Temperature (°C), T48 230 MinViscosity, ASTM D4402: Maximum, 3 Pa·s Test 135Temperature (°C)Dynamic Shear, TP5; G*/sin δ, Minimum, 1.00 kPa 82Temperature (°C) at 10 rad/sROLLING THIN FILM OVEN (T240) OR THIN FILM OVEN (T179) RESIDUEMass loss, Maximum 1%Dynamic Shear, TP5; G*/sin δ, Minimum, 2.20 kPa 82Temperature (°C) at 10 rad/sPRESSURE AGING VESSEL RESIDUEP.A.V. Aging Temperature (°C) 110Dynamic Shear, TP5; G*/sin δ, Minimum, 5000 kPa 40Temperature (°C) at 10 rad/sPHYSICAL HARDENING REPORTCreep Stiffness, TP1 Stiffness, Maximum, 300.0 MPa 0at 60 seconds m-value, Minimum, 0.300 at 60seconds Test Temperature (°C)Direct Tension, TP3 Failure Strain, Minimum, 1.0% 0(loading rate of 1.0 mm/min)Test Temperature (°C) Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 14. TYPES OF MODIFIED BITUMEN1.Plastomeric Thermo Plastic Based Type-A(PMB 120, 70, 40) –Penetration Based Polymer used PE, EVA, EBA,EMA etc.2. Elastomeric Thermoplastic Based Type-B(PMB 120, 70, 40)–Penetration Based Polymer used SIS, SBS, ETP etc.3. Natural Rubber Based Type-C (NRMB 120, 70, 40) –Penetration Based Latex or Rubber powder4. Crumb Rubber Based Type-D (CRMB 50, 55, 60) –SofteningPoint Based Crumb Rubber powder from discarded truck tires( High Viscosity Bitumen – Class 170 & 320 deserves a mention here) Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 15. A. SPECIFICATION OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN, PMB(P) ASTM Standards Requirements S.NO Characteristic PMB(P)-120 PMB(P)-70 PMB(P)-40 D5 1 Penetration at 25°C, 1/10mm, 100g, 5 sec 90-150 50-90 30-50 D 36 2 Softening Point, (R&B),°C, Min 50 55 60 - 3 Fraass Breaking Point # °C, Min -20 -16 -12 D 6084 4 Elastic Recovery at 15°C, %, Min or 50 40 30 G*/sin?, min1.0 kpa, 25 mm plate, 10rad/s at a temp °C 52 58 72 D 92 5 Flash Point, COC, °C, Min 220 220 220 - Separation, Difference in Softening Point, (R&B),°C, 6 Max 3 3 3 D 2170/D4402 7 Viscosity at 150°C, Poises 1-3 2-6 3-9 D 2872 8 Thin Film Oven Test & Tests on Residue - - - D6 8a Loss in Mass, %, Max 1.0 1.0 1.0 - Reduction in Penetration of residue at 25°C, 8b 1/10mm, 100g, 5 sec, %, Max 35 35 35 - 8c Increase in Softening Point, °C, Max 7 6 5 D 6085 8d Elastic Recovery at 25°C, %, Min or 35 30 20 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 16. B.SPECIFICATION OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN, PMB(E) Requirement ASTM Standards S. NO Characteristic PMB(E)120 PMB(E)70 PMB(E)40 D5 1 Penetration at 25°C, 1/10mm, 100g, 5 sec 90-150 50-90 30-50 D36 2 Softening Point, (R&B),°C, Min 50 55 60 - 3 Fraass Breaking Point # °C, Min -20 -16 -12 D6084 4 Elastic Recovery at 15°C, %, Min 70 70 70 D92 5 Flash Point, COC, °C, Min 220 220 220 - Separation, Difference in Softening Point, 6 (R&B),°C, Max 3 3 3 D2176 7 Viscosity at 150°C, Poises 1-3 2-6 3-9 D2872 8 Thin Film Oven Test & Tests on Residue - - - D6 8a Loss in Mass, %, Max 1.0 1.0 1.0 - Reduction in Penetration of residue at 25°C, 8b 100g, 5 s, %, Max 35 35 35 - 8c Increase in Softening Point, °C, Max 7 6 5 D6085 8d Elastic Recovery at 25°C, %, Min 50 50 50 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 17. C.SPECIFICATION OF NATURAL RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN, NRMB Requirement ASTM Standards S.NO Characteristic NRMB 120 NRMB 70 NRMB40 D5 1 Penetration at 25°C, 1/10mm, 100g, 5 sec 90-150 50-90 30-50 D 36 2 Softening Point, (R&B),°C, Min 45 50 55 - 3 Fraass Breaking Point # °C, Min -20 -16 -12 D 6084 4 Elastic Recovery at 15°C, %, Min 50 40 30 D 92 5 Flash Point, COC, °C, Min 220 220 220 - Separation, Difference in Softening Point, 6 (R&B),°C, Max 3 3 3 D 2170/D4402 7 Viscosity at 150°C, Poises 1-3 2-6 3-9 D 2872 8 Thin Film Oven Test & Tests on Residue - - - D6 8a Loss in Mass, %, Max 1.0 1.0 1.0 - Reduction in Penetration of residue at 25°C, 100g, 8b 5 s, %, Max 35 35 35 - 8c Increase in Softening Point, °C, Max 7 6 5 D 6085 8d Elastic Recovery at 25°C, %, Min 35 25 20 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 18. D. SPECIFICATION OF CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN, CRMB S.NO PROPERTIES CRMB CRMB CRMB ASTM STANDARDS 50 55 60 D5 1 Penetration at 25°C, 1/10mm, 100g, 5 sec < 70 < 60 < 50 D36 2 Softening Point, (R&B),°C, Min 50 55 60 D6084 3 Elastic Recovery at 15°C, %, Min 50 50 50 D92 4 Flash Point, COC, °C, Min 220 220 220 - Separation, Difference in Softening Point, (R&B),°C, 5 Max 4 4 4 D2170/D4402 6 Viscosity at 150°C, Poises 1-3 2-6 3-9 D2872 7 Thin Film Oven Test & Tests on Residue - - - 7a Loss in Mass, %, Max 1.0 1.0 1.0 D6 - Reduction in Penetration of residue at 25°C, 100g, 5s, 7b %,Max 40 40 40 - 7c Increase in Softening Point, °C, Max 7 6 5 D6085 7d Elastic Recovery at 25°C, %, Min 35 35 35 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 19. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR GRADES OF MODIFIED BITUMEN Lowest Mean Air Temperature °C Highest Air Mean Temperature °C Less than 20°C 20°C to 30°C More than 30°C More than -10°C PMB / NRMB 55 PMB / NRMB 45 PMB / NRMB 50 CRMB 50 CRMB 55 CRMB 60 -10°C or lower PMB / NRMB 55 PMB / NRMB 120 PMB / NRMB 45 CRMB 50 CRMB 50 CRMB 55 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 20. WORKING TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT FOR MODIFIED BITUMEN STAGE OF WORK INDICATED TEMPERATURE °C BITUMEN AT MIXING TEMPERATURE 165 - 185 AGGREGATE AT MIXING 165 - 185 MIX AT MIXING PLANT 150 - 170 MIX AT LAYING 130 - 160 ROLLING AT LAYING SITE 115 - 145 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 21. REQUIREMENTS OF MIX PREPARED WITH MODIFIED BITUMEN S.No Properties Requirement Hot Cold High Climate Climate Rainfall 1 Marshall Stability (75 12 10 12 blows) at 60oC, kN, Max - - - 2 Marshall Flow at 60oC, mm 2.5-4.0 3.5-5.0 3.0-4.5 3 Marshall Quotient, kg/mm - 250-500 - 4 Voids in Compacted Mix, % - 3.0-5.0 - 5.4% - 5.6% 4.7% - 5.2% 5 Modified Binder Content by weight of mix-min* 4.3% - 4.7% Retained stability after 24 hrs. in 6 water at 60oC %, min 90 95 100 7 Coating with aggregate, % 95 95 100 Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 22. ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF USING PMBEconomic growth and changing consumption and production patterns are resulting into rapid increase in generation ofwaste plastics in the world. The world’s annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 milliontonnes in the 1950s to nearly 100 million tonnes; thus, 20 times more plastic is produced today than 50 years ago. Thisimplies that on one hand, more resources are being used to meet the increased demand of plastic, and on the otherhand, more plastic waste is being generated. In Asia and the Pacific, as well as many other developing regions, plasticconsumption has increased much more than the world average due to rapid urbanization andeconomic development.Many of these plastics could be and are used in the manufacture of high quality modified bitumen such as:There is a large amount of plastic waste being generated from household and agricultural waste, e.g. plastic bottles andpoly tunnels. It is quite feasible for some of this material to be incorporated in to bituminous mixtures, both as an"aggregate" bulking material, and as a modifier/improver of existing bituminous mixtures.The plastics/polymers with the most obvious potential are low and high density polyethylenes, (LDPE and HDPE).As collection and sorting of these materials becomes more established and mechanised it is possible that "mountains" ofreclaimed material will reduce cost to the point where the inclusion of these materials in bituminous mixtures will becommercially driven.Considerable research work, worldwide, is being performed on the inclusion of "rubber crumb" from old tyres to find anenvironmental answer to disposing of used tyres, whilst improving the properties of the bituminous mixtures that containthis rubber. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 23. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 24. Which Is Approximately $2400 / Km of Road, in Savings Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 25. http://bitumenexporter.blogspot.com Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 26. Sadhan Ghosh is president of the International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW), India and professor of Mechanical Engineering at Jadavpur University, Kolkata. e-mail: sadhankghosh@gmail.com Co-authors include Sannidhya Ghosh, a day scholar at the university and Asit Aich, executive engineer, department of municipal affairs, Government of West Bengal, Kharagpur.http://www.waste-management-world.com/index/display/article-display/6652396623/articles/waste-management-world/volume-12/issue-5/features/rebuilding-c-d-waste-recycling-efforts-in-india.html Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 27. Prof. Vasudavan responded to this blog entry that it was a Project by a finalYear Student and it never take up after the trial run. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 28. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 29. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 30. POLYMERS USED IN TONERS – THE KIWI WAYhttp://bitumenexporter.blogspot.com/2011/03/used-toners-on-road.html Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 31. http://bitumenexporter.blogspot.com/2010/03/recycling-of-roads-in-singapore-lta-way.html Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 32. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 33. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 34. Russia’s Gazprom and SIBUR is implementing TPE ( Thermo PlasticElastomers ) in Road Construction.. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 35. UCO- Used Cooking Oil with Bitumen… What about Bio-Diesel ? Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 36. PMB- Using Netherlands’ technology in India, thanks to Col. Tiwarihttp://bitumenexporter.blogspot.com/2009/05/pmb-saviour-for-mumbai-roads.html Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 37. It’s German Technology for the bleeding Bridge- Excessive Traffic movesthe bitumen Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 38. SBS for High Stress Surfaces ( Race Track ) Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 39. NR –Cheaper , More resistant to Brittleness, fatigue and less rutting Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 40. CONCLUSIONS1. The High Cost of Polymers is still a cause for concern.2. Bitumen prices are on the rise.3. Natural Disasters like flooding which erode roads is another factor taken into consideration.4. CRMB AND NRMB Should be more actively specified.5. Advance Economies are still the major users of PMB. Local Road Authorities in Developing Countries should be better informed of the benefits of using Modified Bitumen over standard grades.6. Increased traffic conditions will and are reducing the life span of roads. Modified bitumen is a means of prevention, and ultimately will be the cure. It will save millions of dollars in the future and reduce the amount of the resources used for construction.7. Using recycled Polymers and Rubber to make Modified Bitumen helps to Save the Earth and benefit the Environment. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 41. THANK YOU FOR LISTENINGANY QUESTIONS ? Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • 42. Benzene International Pte Ltd, Singapore