Ch7b (Botany Lecture)

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Ch7b (Botany Lecture)

  1. 1. Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Monocots Michael G. Simpson
  2. 2. Monocotyledons (Monocotyledonae, Monocots) • Monophyletic group • Comprise 22% of all angiosperms • Relationships to other “basal” angiosperms unclear at present
  3. 3. Apomorphies of the Monocots • sieve tube plastids with cuneate (wedge- shaped) proteinaceous inclusions • atactostele stem vasculature • parallel leaf venation • single cotyledon • NOTE: a trimerous flower merosity is not a Monocot apomorphy
  4. 4. Apomorphies of the Monocots • sieve tube plastids with cuneate (wedge-shaped) proteinaceous inclusions
  5. 5. Apomorphies of the Monocots • atactostele stem vasculature
  6. 6. Apomorphies of the Monocots • parallel leaf venation (penni-parallel in some)
  7. 7. Apomorphies of the Monocots • single cotyledon
  8. 8. ACORALES Acoraceae - Sweet Flag family (Acorus, meaning "without pupil," originally in reference to a species of Iris used to treat cataracts). 1 genus/2-3 species - marsh plants - spadix and spathe (resembling Araceae) - distichous, ensiform, unifacial leaves - perispermous, endospermous seeds - ethereal oil cells - raphide crystals absent P 3+3 A 3+3 G (2–3) superior.
  9. 9. Acoraceae - Sweet Flag family Economic importance includes Acorus calamus used medicinally (e.g., as “calamus oil”), in religious rituals, as an insecticide, and as a perfume and flavoring plant (e.g., in liqueurs). Stevens, P. 2001, onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb
  10. 10. Acorus calamus Acoraceae
  11. 11. ALISMATALES Alismataceae (incl. Limnocharitaceae) Aponogetonaceae Araceae (including Lemnaceae) Butomaceae Cymodoceaceae Hydrocharitaceae Juncaginaceae Posidoniaceae Potamogetonaceae Ruppiaceae Scheuchzeriaceae Tofieldiaceae Zosteraceae
  12. 12. ALISMATALES Alismataceae - Water-Plantain family (Alisma, a name used by Dioscorides for plantain-leaved aquatic plant). 15 genera / 88 species - aquatic or marsh herbs - flowers solitary or often whorled - flowers dichlamydeous - gynoecium apocarpous - placentation basal - fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles K 3 C 3 A 6,9– [3]∞ G 3– , superior∞
  13. 13. Alismataceae - Water-Plantain family Economic importance includes taxa used as food by indigenous people, others used as aquatic, cultivated ornamentals. Stevens, P. 2001, onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb
  14. 14. Sagittaria sp.
  15. 15. Sagittaria montevidensis
  16. 16. Echinodorus berteroi
  17. 17. ALISMATALES Araceae - Arum family (Arum, a name used by Theophrastus). 111 genera / 2980 species - leaves bifacial - venation parallel or netted - inflorescence a spadix of numerous, small flowers with a subtending spathe - seeds endospermous - raphide crystals present P 2+2,3+3,(2+2),(3+3) or 0 [4+4,(4+4)] A 4,6,8 or (4,6,8) [1–12] G (3) [1–( )] superior.∞
  18. 18. Araceae - Arum family Members of the family have a worldwide distribution in mostly tropical and subtropical regions. Economic importance includes many taxa important food sources (rootstocks, leaves, or fruits) in the tropics, e.g., Alocasia, Colocasia esculenta (taro), Monstera; some species are cultivated ornamentals, e.g., Aglaonema, Anthurium, Caladium (elephant’s ear), Dieffenbachia (dumb cane), Epipremnum, Monstera, Philodendron, Spathiphyllum, Syngonium, and Zantedeschia (calla-lily). Amorphophallus titanum is unique in having the largest inflorescences of any flowering plant. Wolffia spp. are unique in having the smallest flowers.
  19. 19. Aglaonema modestum
  20. 20. Amorphophallus titanum Largest inflorescence in world
  21. 21. Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-pulpit
  22. 22. Lemna minuscula Duckweed
  23. 23. Wolffia sp. Watermeal Smallest flower in world
  24. 24. Pistia stratiotes Water-lettuce
  25. 25. Monstera deliciosa
  26. 26. Monstera deliciosa
  27. 27. Monstera deliciosa
  28. 28. Pothos sp.
  29. 29. Symplocarpus foetidus Skunkweed
  30. 30. Xanthosoma sagittifolium
  31. 31. Xanthosoma sagittifolium
  32. 32. Zantedeschia aethiopica Calla-lily
  33. 33. Zantedeschia aethiopica Calla-lily
  34. 34. LILIALES Alstroemeriaceae (incl. Luzuriagaceae) Campynemaceae Colchicaceae Corsiaceae Liliaceae Luzuriagaceae Melanthiacaeae Philesiaceae Ripogonaceae Smilacaceae
  35. 35. Liliaceae - Lily family (after Lilium, a name used in Virgil's writings). ca. 16 genera / ca. 600 species. - plants perennial, usually bulbous herbs - lack an onion-like odor - leaves basal or cauline - inflorescence a raceme, umbel or of solitary fls. - ovary superior P 3+3 A 3 G (3), superior
  36. 36. ASPARAGALES Very large order! Apomorphy for all but Orchidaceae: phytomelan in seed coat (lost in some taxa)
  37. 37. ASPARAGALES Agapanthaceae* [Amaryllidaceae] Agavaceae* [Asparagaceae] (incl. Hesperocallidaceae) Alliaceae* [Amaryllidaceae] Amaryllidaceae* Aphyllanthaceae* [Asparagaceae] Asparagaceae* Asphodelaceae* [Xanthorrhoeaceae] Asteliaceae Blandfordiaceae Boryaceae Doryanthaceae Hemerocallidaceae* [Xanthorrhoeaceae] Hyacinthaceae* [Asparagaceae] Hypoxidaceae Iridaceae Ixioliriaceae Lanariaceae Laxmanniaceae* [Asparagaceae] Orchidaceae Ruscaceae* [Asparagaceae] (incl. Convallariaceae) Tecophilaeaceae Themidaceae* [Asparagaceae] Xanthorrhoeaceae* Xeronemataceae
  38. 38. ASPARAGALES
  39. 39. Agavaceae - Agave family (after Agave, meaning "admired one"). 8 genera / 300 species The Agavaceae are distinctive in being perrenial subshrubs to branched trees with spiral, xeromorphic, generally fibrous leaves, trimerous hypogynous to perigynous flowers, and characteristic chromosomes (base number with 5 long and 25 short chromosomes). P 3+3 A 6 G (3) superior or inferior, hypanthium present in some.
  40. 40. Agave deserti
  41. 41. Agave deserti
  42. 42. Yucca schidigera Mohave Yucca
  43. 43. Yucca schidigera Mohave Yucca
  44. 44. Yucca brevifolia Joshua Tree
  45. 45. Hesperoyucca whipplei
  46. 46. Alliaceae [Amaryllidaceae] Onion family (Latin name for garlic). 7 genera / >600 species The Alliaceae are distributed world-wide. Economic importance includes onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), and other species as important food and flavoring plants. Several taxa are used as ornamental cultivars. The Alliaceae are distinctive in being perennial, bulbous herbs with an onion-like odor (caused by allyl sulfides), basal, narrow leaves, and an umbel for an inflorescence. P 3+3 A 3+3 G (3), superior, hypanthium absent.
  47. 47. BULB
  48. 48. Allium peninsulare
  49. 49. Allium praecox
  50. 50. Tulbaghia violacea Society Garlic South Africa
  51. 51. Asphodelaceae [Xanthorrhoeaceae s.l.] Asphodel or Alöe family 15 genera/780 species - plants herbs or pachycaulous trees - leaves usually succulent - flowers trimerous - ovary superior ovary - seeds arillate P 3+3 or (3+3) A 3+3 G (3), superior
  52. 52. Asphodelaceae - Asphodel or Alöe family Economic importance includes Aloe spp. (esp. A. vera and A. ferox, from which aloin is derived), which have important uses medicinally (e.g., as laxatives and treatment of burns) as well as in skin, hair, and health products; many family members are important as cultivated ornamentals, e.g., Aloe, Asphodelus, Gasteria, Haworthia, Kniphofia. Stevens, P. 2001, onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb
  53. 53. Aloe aristata
  54. 54. Aloe marlothii
  55. 55. Aloe sp.
  56. 56. Asphodelus fistulosus
  57. 57. Bulbine aloifolia
  58. 58. Bulbine sp.
  59. 59. Gasteria trigona
  60. 60. Haworthia cooperi
  61. 61. Haworthia linifolia Haworthia truncata
  62. 62. Kniphofia uvaria Red Hot Poker
  63. 63. Iridaceae - Iris family (after Iris, mythical goddess of the rainbow). 70 genera / 1750 species The Iridaceae are distinguished from related families in consisting of perennial herbs with ensiform, unifacial leaves, bracteate to spathaceous rhapidia or spikes (sometimes solitary), and flowers with three stamens opposite outer tepals. P/(P) 3+3 A/(A) 3 (G) 3, inferior (superior in Isophysis).
  64. 64. Iris sp.
  65. 65. Crocus sp.
  66. 66. Chasmanthe aethiopica (South Africa)
  67. 67. Iris sp.
  68. 68. Iris sp.
  69. 69. Sisyrhinchium bellum
  70. 70. Sisyrhinchium bellum
  71. 71. Orchidaceae - Orchid family (orchis, testicle, from the shape of the root tubers). 700-800 genera / ca. 20,000 species Roots mycorrhizal Plants mostly perrennial, terrestrial or epiphytic herbs Flowers often resupinate Inner median tepal often modified as showy labellum Androecium and gynoecium adnate = column, gynostegium, or gynostemium Pollen grains often fused, 1-∞ pollinia, with sticky-tipped stalk, pollinia and stalk termed a pollinarium (unit of pollen dispersal) P (3+3) A 1-3, when 1 a pollinarium G (3), inferior, with gynostemium
  72. 72. Caladenia longiclavata Australia
  73. 73. Calopogon - a non-resupinate orchid labellum column
  74. 74. Cattleya sp.
  75. 75. Cymbidium sp.
  76. 76. Cypripedium sp. Lady’s Slipper
  77. 77. Dendrobium phalaenopsis
  78. 78. Dracula chimaera Dracula vampira
  79. 79. Encyclia sp. Cockleshell Orchid
  80. 80. Epidendrum sp.
  81. 81. Ludisia sp.
  82. 82. Oncidium lanceanum
  83. 83. Orchis spectabilis
  84. 84. Paphiopedilum sp.
  85. 85. Pseudobulb
  86. 86. Stanhopea trigrinum
  87. 87. Thelymitra antennifera Australia
  88. 88. Vanilla planifolia Vanilla Orchid

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