Botany Lecture Ch8bmodified
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Botany Lecture Ch8bmodified

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Botany Lecture Ch8bmodified Botany Lecture Ch8bmodified Presentation Transcript

  • Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Rosids Michael G. Simpson
  • ROSIDS • Very large, monophyletic group of Eudicots • Linked by no clear non-molecular apomorphies • Ovules bitegmic (2 integuments) & crassinucellate [contrast with Asterids] • 13 orders
  • Myrtaceae - Myrtle family (myrtus, Gr. name for myrtle). 120 genera / 3850 species The Myrtaceae are distinctive in being trees and shrubs with glandular-punctate or pellucid leaves and usually epiperigynous flowers with numerous stamens. K 4-5 [3,6] C 4-5 [3,6] A ∞ G (2-5) [(-16)], inferior [rarelyhalf-inferior or superior], with hypanthium.
  • Myrtaceae - Myrtle family (myrtus, Gr. name for myrtle). 120 genera / 3850 species Economic importance includes important timber trees, especially Eucalyptus spp., edible fruits (e.g., Psidium guajava, guava), spices (e.g., Syzygium aromaticum, cloves, Pimenta dioica, allspice), oils (e.g., Eucalyptus spp.), and cultivated ornamentals such as Callistemon (bottlebrush), Chamelaucium (wax-flower), Eucalyptus spp., Leptospermum (tea tree), and Myrtus (myrtle).
  • Eucalyptus sideroxylon
  • Eucalyptus torquata
  • Leptospermum laevigatum
  • Actinodium cunninghamiana
  • Calothamnus sanguineus
  • Darwinia fascicularis
  • Darwinia oldfieldii
  • Tristania conferta Brisbane Box
  • Vertichordia grandiflora
  • Cucurbitaceae Cucumber / Gourd family (L. for gourd). 120 genera / 775 species. The Cucurbitaceae have largely worldwide distributions, but occur mostly in tropical regions. Economic importance includes important food crops such as Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo and other spp. (squashes, pumpkins) and a number of other taxa; the dried fruits of a number of species are used as gourds, those of Luffa (luffa) are used as a sponge; some taxa have medicinal or horticultural uses.
  • Cucurbitaceae Cucumber / Gourd family (L. for gourd). 120 genera / 775 species. The Cucurbitaceae are distinctive in being mostly monoecious or dioecious vines with simple, palmately veined &/or lobed leaves, usually with tendrils, the female flowers epiperigynous, with usually parietal placentation and three carpels, the fruit a berry, pepo, capsule, or samara. K 5 [3-6] C 5 [3-6] or (5) [(3-6)] A 3-5 or (3-5) G (3) [(2-5)], inferior, hypanthium present.
  • FABALES Fabaceae (Leguminosae) - Bean/Pea family (after faba, Latin name for broad bean). 643 genera / 18,000 species The Fabaceae are distinctive in being trees, shrubs, vines, or herbs, with stipulate, often compound leaves and typically pentamerous flowers usually with a single, unicarpellous pistil with marginal placentation, the fruit a legume (or modified legume). K 5 or (5) [(3-6)] C 5 or (5) [0,1-6, or (1-6)] A 10 or (10) to ∞ [variable] G 1 [2-16], superior, hypanthium sometimes present
  • Members of the Fabaceae are dominant species in some ecosystems (e.g., Acacia spp. in parts of Africa and Australia) and ecologically important for containing nitrogen-fixing rhizobial nodules. Economically, legumes are one of the important plant groups, being the source of numerous pulses (such as Arachis hypogaea; peanut; Glycine max, soybeans; Lens culinaris, lentil; Phaseolus spp., beans; Pisum sativum, peas); flavoring plants (such as Ceratonia siliqua, carob), fodder and soil rotation plants (such as Medicago sativa, alfalfa, or Trifolium spp., clovers) oils, timber trees, gums, dyes, and insecticides.
  • Fabaceae: 3 subfamilies Caesalpinioideae Flowers zygomorphic; petals distinct; posterior petal inner to laterals; stamens distinct. Mimosoideae Flowers actinomorphic; petals distinct or connate; stamens often , showy∞ ; flowers often densely aggregated. Faboideae (=Papilionoideae) Flowers zygomorphic; perianth papilionaceous; posterior petal outer to laterals; stamens connate.
  • Caesalpinioideae Flowers zygomorphic Petals distinct Posterior petal inner to laterals Stamens distinct
  • Bauhinia variegata Orchid Tree posterior petal inner to laterals
  • Bauhinia variegata Orchid Tree stamens distinct
  • Bauhinia variegata Orchid Tree ovary style stipe
  • Cassia didymobotrya
  • Cassia didymobotrya ovary posterior petal inner to laterals stamens (trimorphic in this species)
  • posterior petal inner to laterals Caesalpinia spinosa [C. pectinata]
  • Ceratonia siliqua Carob
  • Caesalpinioideae in San Diego Co.
  • Amorpha fruticosa False Indigo
  • Senna armata Spiny Senna
  • Flowers actinomorphic, often densely aggregated Petals distinct or connate; hypanthium sometimes present Stamens often , showy∞ Mimosoideae
  • Acacia spp. heads
  • Acacia spp.: phyllodinous phyllode rachillae with leaflets phyllode
  • Acacia longifolia (native to Australia) spike ovary (removed) flowers actinomorphic, stamens ∞
  • Calliandra haematocephala
  • Mimosa sp.
  • Pithecellobium unquis-cati Cat Claw
  • Mimosoideae in San Diego Co.
  • Acacia greggii Cat Claw
  • Prosopis glandulosa Mesquite
  • Flowers zygomorphic Perianth papilionaceous Terminology: Posterior petal = banner or standard Lateral petals = wings Anterior petals = keel petals (basally distinct; distally connate; collectively called the keel) Posterior petal (banner) outer to laterals (wings) Stamens connate: monadelphous or diadelphous Faboideae (Papilionoideae)
  • Wisteria sinensis Wisteria
  • Wisteria sinensis Wisteria banner outer to laterals wing petals keel
  • Wisteria sinensis Wisteria keel petal stamens connate: diadelphous (9+1) in Wisteria
  • Wisteria sinensis Wisteria style (ovary hidden)
  • Erythrina caffra banner wing petals stamens calyx
  • Erythrina caffra stamens connate: diadelphous (9+1) style pistil removedstipe ovary style
  • Erythrina caffra pistil unicarpellous placentation marginal (l.s.) (c.s.)
  • Strophostyles umbellata Flower asymmetric bannerkeel twisted
  • Clitoria mariana -a resupinate papilionoid
  • Faboideae in San Diego Co.
  • Astragalus trichopodus var. lonchus Ocean Locoweed
  • Lathyrus vestitus var. alefeldii San Diego Sweet Pea
  • Lotus hamatus Grab Lotus
  • Lotus purshianus Spanish-Clover
  • Lotus rigidus Broom Lotus
  • Lotus scoparius var. scoparius Coast Deer Weed
  • Lotus strigosus Calf Lotus
  • Lupinus arizonicus Lupinus excubitus
  • Lupinus bicolor Minature Lupine
  • Lupinus concinnus Bajada Lupine
  • Lupinus succulentus Collar Lupine
  • Medicago polymorpha California Burclover
  • Melilotus alba White Sweetclover
  • Melilotus indica Indian Sweetclover
  • Trifolium wildenowii Valley Clover
  • Vicia ludoviciana var. l. Deer Pea Vetch
  • Dalea mollissima
  • Psorothamnus emoryi White Dalea
  • Psorothamnus schottii Indigo Bush
  • Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family (after Euphorbus, physician to the king of Mauritania, 1st century). 313 genera / 8,100 species The Euphorbiaceae are distinctive in having unisexual flowers with a superior, usually 3-carpellate ovary with 1 ovule per carpel, apical-axile in placentation; Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae have a red, yellow, or usually white (“milky”) latex and the Euphorbioideae alone have a characteristic cyathium inflorescence. K 5 [0] C 5 [0] A 1-∞ G (3) [(2–∞)], superior.
  • Three subfamilies: Acalyphoideae Crotonoideae -colored latex Euphorbioideae - milky (white) latex - inflorescence a cyathium
  • cyathium An inflorescence bearing small, unisexual flowers and subtended by an involucre (frequently with petaloid glands), the entire inflorescence resembling a single flower.
  • Economic importance includes Ricinus communis, the source of castor bean oil and the deadly poison ricin; Hevea brasiliensis, the major source of natural rubber; Manihot esculentus, cassava/manioc, a very important food crop and the source of tapioca; and various oil, timber, medicinal, dye, and ornamental plants. Succulent Euphorbia species are major components of plant communities
  • Euphorbia grandicornis
  • Euphorbia millii
  • Euphorbia shoenlandii Euphorbia obesa
  • Euphorbia spp.
  • Manihot esculenta Manioc
  • Moraceae — Mulberry family (Latin name for mulberry). ca. 40 genera / 1100 species The Moraceae are distinctive in being monoecious or dioecious trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs with a milky latex, stipulate, simple leaves, and unisexual flowers, the female with a usually 2- carpellate (2 styled) pistil and a single, apical to subapical ovule, the fruit a multiple of achenes, in some taxa with an enlarged compound receptacle or syconium. P (0-10) A 1-6 G (2) [(3)], superior or inferior.
  • Economic importance includes fruit trees, such as Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Ficus carica (edible fig), and Morus spp. (mulberry); paper, rubber, and timber trees; and some cultivated ornamentals, especially Ficus spp., figs; the leaves of Morus alba are the food source of silkworm moth larvae.
  • Rosaceae - Rose family (Latin for various roses). 95 genera / 2,800 species The Rosaceae are distinctive in having usually stipulate leaves (often adnate to petiole) and an actinomorphic, generally pentamerous flower with hypathium present, variable in gynoecial fusion, ovary position, and fruit type. K 5[3-10] C 5[0,3-10] A 20-∞[1,5] G 1-∞, superior or inferior, hypanthium present.
  • The Rosaceae is traditionally classified into four subfamilies (some of which are likely paraphyletic): Spiraeoideae, with an apocarpous gynoecium forming a follicetum; Rosoideae, with an apocarpous gynoecium forming an achenecetum or drupecetum, the receptacle varying from expanded and fleshy (e.g., Fragaria) to sunken (e.g., the hips of Rosa); Prunoideae, with a single, superior ovaried pistil bearing one ovule, the fruit a drupe; and Maloideae, with an inferior ovary, forming a pome.
  • The Rose Family The rose is a rose, And was always a rose. But the theory now goes That the apple's a rose, And the pear is, and so's The plum, I suppose. The dear only knows What will next prove a rose. You, of course, are a rose-- But were always a rose. Robert Forst (1874-1963)
  • Rosaceae The family is very economically important as the source of many cultivated fruits, including Fragaria (strawberry), Malus (apples), Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum), Pyrus (pear), and Rubus (blackberry, raspberry), as well as essential oils (e.g., Rosa), and numerous ornamental cultivars, such as Cotoneaster, Photinia, Prunus (cherries), Pyracantha, Rosa (roses), and Spiraea.
  • Fragaria vesca Strawberry
  • Malus pumila Apple hypanthium inferior ovary
  • Prunus spp. Cherries, Peaches, Plums
  • Rosa spp.
  • Spiraea spp.
  • Brassicales Glucosinolates - major plant secondary products in the Brassicaceae and close relatives. - deter herbivory and parasitism - flavoring agents in the commercially important members of the Brassicaceae, such brocolli, cauliflower, and mustard.
  • Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) — Mustard family (name used by Pliny for cabbagelike plants). 365 genera / 3250 species. The Brassicaceae as treated here are distinctive in being herbs, rarely shrubs, with glucosinolates (mustard oil glucosides), the perianth cruciate (petals usually clawed), the androecium with usually 2+4, tetradynamous stamens, the gynoecium with a superior, 2- carpellate/loculate ovary, with axile-parietal placentation and a usually 2- valved, dehiscent fruit with a replum (silique or silicle). K 2+2 C 4 A 2+4 [2,4-16] G (2), superior.
  • Economic importance includes numerous vegetable plants (notably the crucifers or mustard plants), including broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, collards, kale (all cultivars of Brassica oleracea), rutabaga and canola oil (B. napus), mustard (B. nigra), turnip (B. rapa), and many more, plus numerous cultivated ornamentals, dye plants (Isatis tinctoria, woad), and some noxious weeds; Arabidopsis thalliana is noted as a model for detailed molecular studies.
  • Brassica nigra
  • Cakile maritima
  • Cardamine californicum
  • Raphanus sativus
  • Thysanocarpus laciniatus
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Armoracia rusticana HORSERADISH (L. armoracia, "horseradish" + pertaining to the country) Part used: ROOT (more as a flavoring than a vegetable)
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica campestris [=B. rapa] ("of the fields") TURNIP Part used: ROOT (+ Hypocotyl) [2000 BC (India); held in low esteme; turnip from English name "to turn," appear to be turned on a lathe; First Jack O'Lantern (Irish) for All Saints' of All Hallow's Day; Americans first used pumpkins.] top of root somewhat flat
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica napus RUTABAGA [RAPE, SWEDISH TURNIP] (with little turnip-like root)
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica napus RUTABAGA [RAPE, SWEDISH TURNIP Part used: ROOT (+Hypocotyl) Pointed at upper end (but often cut off) Cultivars selected for rape or canola oil [Hybridization/polyploidy (2n=38) bet. cabbage (2n=18) & turnip (2n=20)] top of root more pointed seeds source of Canola oil
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica oleracea ("resembling garden cooking herbs"): cultivated by Greeks by 650 BC; active artificial selection, many varieties that look very different today!
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica oleracea v. acephala (“no head”) KALE, COLLARD Part used: LEAVES (or entire shoot)
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica oleracea v. botrytis BROCCOLI [= B. o. v. italica] ("cluster of grapes") Part used: FLOWERING SHOOT (flowers fertile, can turn into inflorescence) [Bred in Europe, mid-17th century]
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica oleracea v. cauliflora CAULIFLOWER (B. o. v. botrytis) (Gr. kaulos, "stem" + flora, flower) Part used: FLOWERING SHOOT (Flowers abortive or immature) [Bred by Arabians in 12th century; leaves gathered and tied around flowers to prevent exposure to sun and therefore green color.]
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica oleracea v. capitata (“head”) CABBAGE Part used: LEAVES (and stem of shoot) [Bred in Germany 1160 AD; both red & white (green) vars. grown. Sauerkraut =shredded leaves & salt in earthenware crock to preserve]
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Brassica oleracea v. gemmifera BRUSSELS SPROUTS ("jewels, buds" + "bearing") Part used: Bud-like SHOOT arising from aerial stem
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Raphanus sativus RADISH ("Greek raphanos for "quick-appearing" + "cultivated") Part used: ROOT In orient, long white or black-skinned forms = “DAIKONS” [Found in Egyptian tombs, 4000 years BP]
  • BRASSICACEAE - Mustard family Raphanus sativus RADISH Long white or black-skinned forms = DAIKONS Daikons
  • Raphanus sativus Radish
  • Capparaceae Locule 1, parietal placentation Isomeris arborea
  • Cleomaceae Locule 1, parietal placentation Cleome bassleriana
  • Malvaceae, s.s. - Mallow family (name used by Pliny, meaning "soft"). 111 genera / 1,800 species • The Malvaceae s. l. are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, or trees, often with stellate trichomes, typically with an epicalyx, the calyx valvate, the corolla often convolute [sometimes valvate or imbricate] the stamens connate into tube or 5-∞ bundles, with monothecal or bithecal anthers, gynoecium syncarpous [rarely apocarpous], ovary superior [rarely inferior], ovules axile or marginal, the fruit a capsule, schizocarp of mericarps, berry, or samara. • K 3-5 or (3-5) C 5 [3- or 0] A 5-∞ G 2-∞ [1], superior [rarely inferior].
  • A.P.G.: Malvaceae, s.l. formerly 4 families: Malvaceae, s.s. Bombacaceae Sterculiaceae Tiliaceae
  • Economic importance includes medicinal plants; several fiber plants, especially Gossypium spp. (cotton, the world’s most important fiber plant) and Ceiba pentandra (kapok), in both of which the seed trichomes are utilized, and Corchorus spp. (jute), a bast fiber plant and source of burlap; food and flavoring plants, such as Theobroma cacao (cacao, the source of chocolate), Cola nitida (cola), Abelmoschus (okra), and Durio zibethinus (durian); wood, such as Ochroma pyramidale (balsa) and Pachira aquatica; numerous ornamental cultivars, such as Brachychiton, Chorisia (floss- silk tree), Dombeya, Fremontodendron, Hibiscus (mallows), and Tilia (linden tree). Many others, such as Adansonia digitata (baobab, tropical Africa) are of great local economic or ecological importance.
  • COTTON Gossypium spp. Malvaceae Morphology - tropical/subtrop., perennial shrub (often grown as an annual) w/ simple, cordate leaves. Fruit is a capsule, which splits open at maturity, bearing seeds. [Boll = mass of trichome covered seeds.] Seeds covered with very long trichomes (plant hair), each a single cell (1,000 - 6,000 x longer than wide), w/ thick primary cell wall, narrow lumen. Trichome (known as a "surface fiber") is 90% cellulose, naturally twisted, ideal for spinning.
  • Old World diploids (2n=26) Gossypium arboreum G. herbaceum G. hirsutum G. barbadense } New World tetraploids (4n=52) } Gossypium hirsutum (Upland Cotton) - 95% of world’s crop Taxonomy - both Old World and New World spp.
  • Apomorphies of Malvaceae Inflorescence with “bicolor unit” (after Theobroma bicolor), consisting of a modified, 3-bracted cyme, the trimerous epicalyx of family memberspossibly derived from these 3 bracts. Other apomorphies: valvate calyx stellate or lepidote trichomes, dilated secondary tissue rays
  • Hibiscus sp. Kosteletskia virginica
  • Bombax glabrum
  • Chorisia speciosa
  • Chorisia speciosa
  • Chorisia speciosa
  • Durio
  • Brachychiton discolor
  • Dombeya burgessiae
  • Dombeya sp.
  • Guichenotia ledifolia
  • Theobroma cacao Cacao, source of chocolate
  • Tilia sp. Grewia occidentalis
  • Anacardiaceae Cashew family (Gr. for heart-shaped, after swollen, red pedicel in cashew fruit). 70 genera / 875 species. The Anacardiaceae have a broad distribution in tropical to temperate regions. Economic importance includes ornamental cultivars (e.g., Schinus spp.), fruit and seed trees, such as Pistacia vera (pistachio), Rhus spp. (sumacs), Anacardium occidentale (cashew), and Mangifera indica (mango), plus several dye, timber, and lacquer trees. Toxicodendron spp. (poison-oak, poison-ivy) and related taxa cause contact-dermatitis, and fruits/seeds can be allergenic in sensitive individuals. See Pell & Urbatsch (2001) for a recent analysis of the family.
  • Anacardiaceae Cashew family The Anacardiaceae are distinctive in being trees, shrubs, lianas, or perennial herbs with resin ducts or laticifers (some species causing allergenic responses), flowers generally 5-merous, with a nectariferous disk and single ovule per carpel, the fruit a drupe with a resinous mesocarp. K usu. 5 or (5) C usu. 5 [0] A 5-10 [1, ∞] G (1-3,5) [(12)], superior, rarely inferior.
  • Anacardiaceae
  • Anacardiaceae
  • Anacardiaceae