1. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN GERMANY
-is closely related with its economic conditions the type of economy has equally
affected the education institution within the country.
Types of Education
 Primary School (Grundschule)
 Secondary General School (Hauptschule)
 Intermediate School (Realschule)
 Grammer School (Gymnasium)
 Comprehensive School (Gesampt schule)
 Vocational Training
Kindergarten (literally translated: a garden or yard for kids) is not a part of the
regular public school system and is not required or free. Tuition is normally based
on income. Even though it’s not mandatory, over 67% of 3 to 6 years olds attend
them.Kindergartens are usually run by churches, organizations and private
Primary School (Grundschule)
From the age of 6 through 9 all children must attend Grundschule or primary
school. Here they one teacher that will teach them the basic skills like reading,
writing and math and religion.
grades (the “orientation” grades:) it is decided which track the student
will go to next.
Hauptschule (Secondary General School)
The lowest track in the German education system is the Hauptschule (General
school). It’s starts with 5th
grade and goes up through the 9th
A Hauptschule is a school where the students prepare for occupations that required
training. After a student graduates a Hauptschule they can go on to a vocational
school which lasts about 2 years.
Realschule (Intemediate School)
is a school that’s a little more advanced that the Hauptschule. Here students learn
the basic subjects which will prepare them for a mid level job in business. In a
Realschule it’s possible (if a student receives high enough grades) to transfer to a
Gymnasium (Grammer School)
The gymnasium is one of the tracks a student could go to after primary school.
This school prepares students to enter a university.
The gymnasium goes for eight years or from the 5th
students learn subjects like German, math, physics, chemistry, geography, biology,
art, PE, religion and history. They are also required to learn two foreign languages.
It is a crucial examinations that German students take this week long test at the
end of their 13th
If they pass the Abitur they receive a maturity certificate that let’s them into a
3. If they fail they only have a few more chances to pass or they won’t be allowed to
attend a University.
Germany Educational System
Advanced vocational training
Technical or Trade school
13 Vocational qualification
13th grade and Abitur prep
companies and part
Primary School (Grundschule)
Length of the school day/week/year
The school year comprises between 188 and 208 days in the period from August to
July. The length of the school day and week is determined by each of the Lander.
4. Schools open on five or six days a week (mostly mornings). Each week entails 19-
28 lessons at primary school, and 28-30 lessons at secondary level. A lesson lasts
Teachers in Germany
All pre-school staff (Grundschule) are trained at upper secondary level. Teachers
are trained at universities and colleges of art and music, and pass the first and
second (state examination) in usually two subjects and in educational science.
Primary teachers are generalists and secondary teachers are subject specialists.
Teachers are generally employed by the Land and have civil servant status.
Children with speech defects and children with behavioral problems are conceived
as transitional schools and their aim is to alleviate the speech and behavioral
problems to such an extent that the pupils can return to a mainstream school.
Special Education Requirements into the following categories:
 Visual impaired
 Hearing impaired
 Mental disabled
 Physically disabled
 Pupils with learning difficulties
 Students with behavioural problems
5.  Students with impaired speech
 Pupils with a disease
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN ENGLAND
INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION IN ENGLAND
Children are required by law to have an education until they are 16 years old.
Education is compulsory, but school is not, children are not required to attend
school. They could be educated at home.
Education is free for all children from 5 to 16
Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16
(inclusive) across England. This can be provided by state schools, independent
schools, or homeschooling.
About 94 percent of pupils in England, and the rest of the UK, receive free
education from public funds, while 6 per cent attend independent fee paying
schools or homeschooling.
All government-run schools, state schools, follow the same National Curriculum.
The School Year
The school year runs from September to July and is 39 weeks long.
For many areas the year is divided into six terms:
September to October
October to December
6. January to February
February to March
April to May
June to July
The main school holidays are:
Christmas- 2 weeks
Spring - 2 weeks
Summer - 6 weeks
There are also one week holidays:
end of October
end of May
Kids Start Schooling
Children normally start primary school at the age of four or five, but many schools
now have a reception year for four year olds.
Children normally leave at the age of 11, moving on to secondary school (High
Please note also:
Every three and four year old in England is entitled to 12.5 hours of free early
learning per week, in nurseries, playgroups, pre-schools or at their child minders
for 38 weeks of the year.
7. Education Stages
1. Nursery Schools
2. Primary Schools
5-11 years old
Foundation Stage - Nursery, Reception, (Infants)
Key Stage 1 - Years 1 and 2 (Infants)
Key Stage 2 -Years 3 - 6 (Juniors)
3. Secondary Schools
12-18 years old
Years 7-13 (Key Stage 3, 4 & 5)
Grade/ Year in England
Children are put into year groups (grades). The whole class moves up a year group
each year in September.
Age* England and Wales Scotland
1 Sept - 31 Aug 1 Sept - 29 Feb 1 Mar - 31 Aug
School Key Stage Year Year Year
Reception - Primary 1 (P1)
8. 5-6 " KS1 Year 1 Primary 2 (P2)
6-7 " " Year 2 Primary 3 (P3)
KS2 Year 3 Primary 4 (P4)
8-9 " " Year 4 Primary 5 (P5)
9-10 " " Year 5 Primary 6 (P6)
10-11 " " Year 6 Primary 7 (P7)
KS3 Year 7 Secondary 1
12-13 " " Year 8 Secondary 2 Secondary 1
13-14 " " Year 9 Secondary 3 Secondary 2
14-15 " KS4 Year 10 Secondary 3
15-16 " " Year 11
S4 Std Grade
16-17 6th Form at
A' Level Year 12
S4 Std Grade
9. School or
17-18 " " Year 13
S6 Adv Higher
Types of School in ENGLAND
Primary schools (5 - 11 year olds)
In the England, the first level of education is known as primary education. These
are almost always mixed sex, and usually located close to the child's home.
Children tend to be with the same group throughout the day, and one teacher has
responsibility for most of the work they do.
Parents are strongly encouraged to help their children, particularly with reading
and writing, and small amounts of homework are set to all children, even during
the early years at school.
Secondary schools (11 - 16 year olds)
Most children transfer at the age of 11 - usually to their nearest secondary school,
though the law allows parents in England and Wales to express preferences for
other schools too. A place has to be offered at the parents' preferred school unless
the school has more applicants than places; in that case it will admit the children
who have the highest priority under its published admission arrangements which
can vary a little in different places.
Most secondary schools cater for both sexes. They tend to be much larger than
10. Independent Schools
7% of the children in England go to independent schools. Independent schools are
known as private schools and public schools . Parents pay for their children to
attend these schools.
A public school is an independent secondary school. Public schools in England
are not run by the government. The entrance exams used by most public schools
are known as Common Entrance exams and are taken at the age of 11 (girls) or
The most famous public schools are Eton, Harrow and Winchester.
A preparatory school is a school to prepare pupils to go to a public school.
Around 30% of the 18 to 19 year olds enter full-time higher education. The formal
entry requirements to most degree courses are two A-levels at grade E or above. In
practice, most offers of places require qualifications in excess of this.
Harold Noah and Farooq Joubish, (2009) Comparative Education, Wikepedia
Clive Dimmrock and Allan Walker (1998) Journal Administration
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ELLEN E. ORQUEZA