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  2. 2. DEFINITION Music is the art of combining sounds of varying pitch to produce a coherent composition that is melodious, harmonious, intelligible, and expressive of ideas and emotions.
  3. 3. ELEMENTS Pitch – pitch is the relative highness or lowness of a tone.
  4. 4. See Video Folder No. 1 on desktop…
  5. 5. Volume or Intensity – volume is the loudness or softness of a sound. It ranges from very soft (pianissimo) and soft (piano) to very loud (fortissimo) and loud (forte).
  6. 6. See Video Folder No. 2 on desktop…
  7. 7. Tempo or Rate – tempo is the speed of a composition or any of its sections. Terms such as allegro (fast), vivace (lively), moderato (moderate speed), andante (moderately slow), adagio (slower than andante), lento (slow), and largo (very slow) are related to tempo.
  8. 8. See Video Folder No. 3 on desktop…
  9. 9. Duration – duration is the length of time during which a sound is produced. Timbre or Tone Color – timbre is the quality of sounds that makes it distinct from other sounds.
  10. 10. See Video Folder No. 4 on desktop…
  11. 11. Rhythm – rhythm is the consistent pattern or succession of identical or similar sounds. Similar sounds in a song, as follows: introduction, stanza one, chorus, refrain, stanza two, chorus, refrain, coda, and conclusion. Melody – melody is the series of consecutive tones that vary in pitch and duration but form a line of individual significance and expressive value. It is an orderly succession of tones or musical sounds. Harmony – harmony is the simultaneous sounding of two or more tones.
  12. 12. See Video Folder No. 5 on desktop…
  13. 13. Texture – texture is the number of tones expected to be apprehended simultaneously. It is either monophonic (sounding of a single melodic line), polyphonic (simultaneous sounding of two or more melodic lines), or homophonic (sounding of one main melody supported by a subordinate one).
  14. 14. See Video Folder No. 6 on desktop…
  15. 15. Form – form is the overall organization of the composition. It is associated with shape, structure, and coherence.
  16. 16. See Video Folder No. 7 on desktop…
  17. 17. KINDS Vocal Music – vocal music is music produced by the voices of singers. Vocal music is rendered a cappella.
  18. 18. See Video Folder No. 8 on desktop…
  19. 19. Instrumental Music – instrumental music is music produced by musical instruments.
  20. 20. See Video Folder No. 9 on desktop…
  21. 21. Mixed Music or Mixed Ensemble - mixed music is a combination of vocal music and instrumental music. Mixed ensemble usually perform in Mass, Requiem Mass, opera,
  22. 22. See Video Folder No. 10 on desktop…
  23. 23. Ensembles - ensemble music is music rendered by a group of performers – singers and/or players of musical instruments.
  24. 24. See Video Folder No. 11 on desktop…
  25. 25. Orchestra – an orchestra is the most spectacular of the ensembles because of its large size. Usually performing under direction of a conductor, the musicians playing several instruments.
  26. 26. See Video Folder No. 12 on desktop…
  27. 27. Symphony Orchestra – a symphony orchestra is a large ensemble composed of about 100 players. It includes all the principal instrumental types divided into four sections or four basic ranges: soprano, alto, tenor, and bass.
  28. 28. See Video Folder No. 13 on desktop…
  29. 29. Concerto – the concerto is a form written for an orchestra in which one solo instruments, for example, a piano or a violin, is given prominence.
  30. 30. See Video Folder No. 14 on desktop…
  31. 31. Band – a band is an instrumental ensemble having the size of an orchestra but consisting mainly or exclusively of wind and percussion instruments. Nowadays, a band is used to mean a small group of performers, consisting of a soloist, drummer, guitarist/s, and keyboardist, or a small group of singers.
  32. 32. See Video Folder No. 15 on desktop…
  33. 33. Rondalla – A rondalla is a band usually composed of stringed instruments. It is the best-known instrumental group in the Philippines today.
  34. 34. See Video Folder No. 16 on desktop…
  35. 35. Chamber Orchestra – a chamber orchestra is an ensemble larger than a chamber ensemble and smaller than a full orchestra.
  36. 36. See Video Folder No. 17 on desktop…
  37. 37. Chamber Ensemble – a chamber ensemble is a small group of instrumental players. The number of musical instruments ranges from one to nine.
  38. 38. See Video Folder No. 18 on desktop…
  39. 39. Special Ensemble – a special ensemble is a grouping other than the ones earlier mentioned. The Pangkat Kawayan or Bandang Kawayan whose members play instruments made of bamboo is also considered a special ensemble.
  40. 40. See Video Folder No. 19 on desktop…
  41. 41. MEDIUMS Vocal Media – vocal media, as the term suggests, pertain to male and female voices. • Male voices – male voices have three registers: bass (lowest), baritone (middle), and tenor (highest). The lowest of the male local registers is the basso profundo.
  42. 42. See Video Folder No. 20 on desktop…
  43. 43. Female voices – female voices also have three registers: alto (lowest), mezzo soprano (middle), and soprano (highest). The highest of the female vocal registers is the coloratura soprano.
  44. 44. See Video Folder No. 21 on desktop…
  45. 45. Instrumental Media – instrumental media pertain to the different instruments played by musicians. Based on how their sounds are produced, they are classified into string or stringed, wind, percussion, and keyboard instruments. • String/Stringed Instruments – string or stringed instruments, as their name suggests, have strings which are either plucked or bowed. The plucked strings are guitar, ukuleles, etc. the bowed strings are violins, violas, etc.
  46. 46. Guitar
  47. 47. Ukeleles
  48. 48. Violas
  49. 49. Violina
  50. 50. See Video Folder No. 22 on desktop…
  51. 51. •Percussion Instruments – percussion instruments are beaten or struck. They come in a variety of forms. The drums, glockenspiels, xylophones, marimbas, gongs, cymbals, triangles, and chimes.
  52. 52. Chimes
  53. 53. Cymbals
  54. 54. Drums
  55. 55. Glockenspiel
  56. 56. Marimba
  57. 57. Triangle
  58. 58. Xylophone
  59. 59. See Video Folder No. 23 on desktop…
  60. 60. Keyboard Instruments – keyboard instruments, as their name suggests, have keys which are pressed to produced sounds. They include the piano, the organ, etc.
  61. 61. The Organ
  62. 62. Piano
  63. 63. See Video Folder No. 24 on desktop…
  64. 64. Wind Instruments
  65. 65. Contrabassoo
  66. 66. Saxophone
  67. 67. See Video Folder No. 25 on desktop…
  68. 68. HISTORY Prehistoric Period- prehistoric music dates back to 4,000 years ago when the “oldest known song” form Ur was written in cuneiform. It was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds and was written using a Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale.
  69. 69. Old Song
  70. 70. See Video Folder No. 26 on desktop…
  71. 71. Greek Period – music during this period is exemplified by the Epitaph of Seikelos (first century A.D.) engraved on a tombstone in Tralles, Asia Minor and the “Hymn to Apollo” (second century A.D.) by Mesomedes of Crete.
  72. 72. Epitaph
  73. 73. Hymn to Apollo
  74. 74. See Video Folder No. 27 on desktop…
  75. 75. Roman Period – vocal and instrumental music formed part of the daily lives of the early Romans. Songs and operas based on the literary works or renowned writers were among their entertainment fares.
  76. 76. See Video Folder No. 28 on desktop…
  77. 77. Medieval Period – the only repertory of medieval music which has survived from before 800 to the present is the plainsong liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church.
  78. 78. See Video Folder No. 29 on desktop…
  79. 79. Renaissance Period – the renaissance music did not take its roots in Italy, but in northern Europe with the establishment of the first generation of the Flanco- Flemish school that produced famous Burgundian composers.
  80. 80. See Video Folder No. 30 on desktop…
  81. 81. Baroque Period – during this period, instrumental music became dominant and most major music forms were defined.
  82. 82. See Video Folder No. 31 on desktop…
  83. 83. Classic Period – the music of the classical period is characterized by homophonic texture (an obvious melody with accompaniment). The popular instrumental music was dominated by several well-defined forms: the sonata, the symphony, and the concerto.
  84. 84. See Video Folder No. 32 on desktop…
  85. 85. Modern Period – music today is no longer limited to concerts and clubs inasmuch as the almost obsolete cassette tape, the CD, the VCD, the DVD, the MP3, the MP4, and the computer are media generating music.
  86. 86. See Video Folder No. 33 on desktop…
  87. 87. CHAPTER EXERCISES 5 A. Definition. Define the following musical terms. 1. String instruments 2. Wind instruments 3. Percussion instruments 4. Keyboard instruments 5. Musica instrumentalis 6. Musica mundana 7. Musica humanis 8. Ensemble 9. Chorale 10. Quartet 11. Orchestra 12. Overture 13. Aria 14. Monophony 15. Polyphony
  88. 88. __0. musicians a. John Lesaca b. Luciano Pavarotti c. Cecile Licad d. Tadao Hayashi e. Cj da Silva __1. a. Rey Valera b. Basil Valdez c. Freddie Aguilar d. Ogie Alcasid e. Jose Mari Chan __2. a. Jose Palma b. Ryan Cayabyab c. Julian Felipe d. George Canseco e. Willy Cruz __3. a. Tina Turner b. Janet Jackson c. Whitney Houston d. Gloria Gaynor e. Donna Summer B. Classification. Identify which of the items given per number does not belong to the group and write its corresponding letter on the blank before the number. On the space after the number, write the class to which the remaining items belong. Refers to the example below.
  89. 89. __4. a. Westlife b. A-1 c. N’Sync d. Take Five e. Culture Club __5. a. classical b. jazz c. folk song d. art work e. opera __6. a. violin b. ukulele c. cello d. bassoon e. bass __7. a. glockenspiel b. xylophone c. gong d. lyre e. harp __8. a. piccolo b. flute c. French horn d. English horn e. oboe __9. a. clarinet b. trumpet c. trombone d. tuba e. cornet
  90. 90. __10. a. “You are Messiah to Me” b. “You are my Song” c. “Shout for Joy” d. Lift up your Hands” e. You Raise me Up” __11. a. “Besame Mucho” b. “Dandansoy” c. “Pamulinawen” d. “Sarung Banggi” e. “Matud Nila” __12. a. “Love me Tender” b. “Love’s Labour Lost” c. “Love Hurts” d. “Love Story” e. “Love of my Life” __13. a. NU Rock Awards b. MTV Awards c. Grammy Awards d. Tony Awards e. Aliw Awards __14. a. “Love Boat” b. “Hold On” c. “Maybe It’s You” d. “So It’s You” e. “In the name of Love” __15. a. “Borderline” b. “Karma Chameleon” c. “She Bangs” d. “Ready or Not” e. “Without Me”
  91. 91. ________1. King of Rock and Roll ________2. King of Pop ________3. Concert King of the Philippines ________4. Concert Queen of the Philippines ________5. RNB Prince of the Philippines ________6. RNB Princess of the Philippines ________7. Asia’s Songbird ________8. Asian Queen of Songs ________9. Male RP Pop Icon ________10. Female RP Pop Icon ________11. Master Rapper of the Philippines ________12. Elvis Presley of the Philippines ________13. Michael Jackson of the Philippines ________14. Ballad King of the Philippines ________15. RP’s Soul Diva C. Identification. Identify the items referred to in the following phrases.
  92. 92. ________1. Because of tempo, we can distinguish the voice of Faith Cuneta from another singer’s voice. ________2. The lyricist of the Philippine National Anthem is Jose Palmera. ________3. Yoyoy Villame and Fred Panopio are known for their rap songs. ________4. The music of Pangkat Kawayan is categorized as mixed music. ________5. Most member of a band who plays in funeral and fluvial processions use percussion instruments. ________6. An ensemble consisting of six instruments is called a septet. ________7. The music which emanates from animals and plants is known as musica humana ________8. Music is a performing art because the composer is a performer. ________9. Music is an audio-visual art because it is either seen or heard. ________10. When we talk of slow-beat and fast-paced, we refer to dynamics. ________11. When we speak of piano and forte, we refer to percussion instruments. ________12. Danceable songs are always past-paced. ________13. The first song were done by ancient men and women primarily to entertain the spectators. ________14. A piano quartet has four musicians playing stringed instruments and a pianist. ________15. The title of the Philippine TV singing talent search show patterned D. Enumeration. Enumerate the following items.