PHYSICAL FITNESSFOR SPECIAL GROUPSBY:APRIL ELAINE B. METRAN
A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these.Disabilities is an umbrella term, coveringimpairments, activity limitations, andparticipation restrictions. An impairment is aproblem in body function or structure;an activity limitation is a difficulty encounteredby an individual in executing a task or action;while a participation restriction is a problemexperienced by an individual in involvement inlife situations. Thus disability is a complexphenomenon, reflecting an interactionbetween features of a person’s body andfeatures of the society in which he or she lives.
Any impairment which limits the physicalfunction of limbs or fine or gross motor abilityis a physical disability. Other physicaldisabilities include impairments which limitother facets of daily living, such assevere sleep apnea.
Those disabilities that are acquiredbefore birth. These may be due to diseases that haveharmed the mother during pregnancy, or geneticincompatibilities between the parents.Those disabilities that are acquiredduring birth. This could be due to prolonged lack ofoxygen or the obstruction of the respiratory tract,damage to the brain during birth (due to the accidentalmisuse of forceps, for example) or the baby beingborn prematurely.Those disabilities gained after birth.They can be due to accidents, infection orother illnesses.
Mobility impairment is a category of disability thatincludes people with varying types of physicaldisabilities. This type of disability includes upper limbdisability, manual dexterity and disability in co-ordination with different organs of the body. Disabilityin mobility can either be a congenital or acquired withage problem. This problem could also be theconsequence of some disease. People who have abroken skeletal structure also fall into this category ofdisability..
Impairment of the sense of smell and taste arecommonly associated with aging but can also occur in youngerpeople due to a wide variety of causes.There are various olfactory disorders:Anosmia – inability to smellDysosmia – things smell different than they shouldHyperosmia – an abnormally acute sense of smell.Hyposmia – decreased ability to smellOlfactory Reference Syndrome – psychological disorder whichcauses the patient to imagine he has strong body odorParosmia – things smell worse than they shouldPhantosmia – "hallucinated smell," often unpleasant in natureFurther information:Taste#Disorders of tasteComplete loss of the sense of taste is known as ageusia,while dysgeusia is persistent abnormal sense of taste,
is an inability to speak causedby a speech disorder. The term originates fromthe Latin word mutus, meaning "silent"Those who are physically mute may have problems with theparts of the human body required for speech (the throat, vocalcords, lungs, mouth, or tongue, etc.). Being mute is often associatedwithdeafness as people who have been unable to hear from birthmay not be able to articulate words correctly (see Deaf-mute). Aperson can be born mute, or become mute later in life as a result ofinjury or disease.Trauma or injury to the Brocas Area of the brain can causemuteness.
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is visionloss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additionalsupport need through a significant limitationof visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, orcongenital or degenerative conditions that cannot becorrected by conventional means, such as refractivecorrection, medication, or surgery. This functional loss of visionis typically defined to manifest withbest corrected visual acuity of less than 20/60, or significantcentral field defect,significant peripheral field defect including homonymous orheteronymous bilateral visual, field defect or generalizedcontraction or constriction of field, orreduced peak contrast sensitivity with either of the aboveconditions.
Hearing impairment or hard of hearing ordeafness refers to conditions in which individualsare fully or partially unable to detect or perceiveat least some frequencies of sound which cantypically be heard by most people. Mild hearingloss may sometimes not be considered adisability.
Intellectual disability is a broad conceptthat ranges from mental retardation tocognitive deficits too mild or too specific (asin specific learning disability) to qualify asmental retardation. Intellectual disabilities mayappear at any age. Mental retardation is asubtype of intellectual disability, and theterm intellectual disability is now preferred bymany advocates in most English-speakingcountries as a euphemism for mentalretardation.
Mental retardation is a generalized disorder characterized by significantlyimpaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptivebehaviors that appears before adulthood. It has historically been defined asan Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score under 70, but the definition now includesboth a component relating to mental functioning and one relating toindividuals functional skills in their environment, so IQ is not the only factor.Although the clinical term[note 1] mental retardation is a subtype of intellectualdisability the latter is now preferred by most advocates in most English-speaking countries as a euphemism for mental retardation and is replacing itin United States official documents following the passing of Rosas Law onOctober 6, 2010. Some bodies are using developmental disability whichalso has an established wider meaning.By contrast, people with cognitive impairment have, or had, normal IQ, butshow confusion, forgetfulness and difficulty concentrating; cognitiveimpairment is typical of brain injuries, side effects from medications,and dementia.
Specific learning disability is a classification including severaldisorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typicalmanner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. This isnot indicative of intelligence level. Rather, people with a learningdisability have trouble performing specific types of skills orcompleting tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or iftaught in conventional ways. A learning disability cannot becured or fixed. Individuals with learning disabilities can faceunique challenges that are often pervasive throughout thelifespan. Social support can be a crucial component for studentswith learning disabilities in the school system. With the rightsupport and intervention, people with learning disabilities cansucceed in school and be successful later in life.
An acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused byevents after birth, rather than as part ofa genetic or congenital disorder. It usually affects cognitive,physical, emotional, social or independent functioning and canresult from either traumatic brain injury ornontraumatic injury such as stroke, infection or substance abuse.Most definitions of ABI exclude neurodegenerative disorders.People with a brain injury may have difficulty controlling,coordinating and communicating their thoughts and actions, butthey retain their intellectual abilities. However, the intellectualabilities of a person with a brain injury are likely to be interferedwith by the resulting thought coordination and communicationdifficulties, which can make it difficult for them to expressthemselves in a manner intelligible to others. This may give theimpression of a damaged intelligence, even though such is notthe case.
A mental disorder or mental illness is apsychological or behavioral pattern generallyassociated with subjective distress or disability thatoccurs in an individual, and perceived by the majorityof society as being outside of normal development orcultural expectations. The recognition andunderstanding of mental health conditions haschanged over time and across cultures, and there arestill variations in the definition, assessment,and classification of mental disorders, althoughstandard guideline criteria are widely accepted.
- Instruction in a Least Restricted Environment(LRE) refers to adapting or modifying the physicaleducation curriculum and/or instruction to address theindividualized abilities of each child. Adaptations aremade to ensure that each student will experiencesuccess in a safe environment. Placement is outlined inthe IEP and may include one or more of the followingoptions:The general physical education settingThe general physical education setting with a teachingassistant or peersA separate class setting with peersA separate class setting with assistantsA one-to-one setting between students and theinstructor
For all practical purposes, Adapted Physical Education ISdevelopmentally appropriate physical education at its finest. Itinvolves differentiating instruction so the physical activity is asappropriate for the person with a disability as it is for a person withouta disability. The emphasis of adapted physical education is to facilitateparticipation of students with disabilities with typically developingpeers in age-appropriate activities.The APE teacher is a direct service provider, as contrasted withphysical or occupational therapists. These therapies are consideredrelated services and are provided to the child with disabilities only ifhe/she needs them to benefit from instruction. Special physicaleducation (APE) is a federally mandated component of specialeducation services [U.S.C.A. 1402 (25)] and ensures that physicaleducation is provided to the student with a disability as part of thechilds special education services. Change the word "adapted" to"differentiated" and you have the idea of Adapted Physical Education.It is GOOD teaching which differentiates the curriculum, task,equipment, and/or environment as appropriate for each child, so ALLstudents can successfully learn and participate in physical education.
Differentiating Instruction forStudents with Disabilities Quality adapted physical education involves thephysical educator differentiating instruction to meetthe needs, interests, and abilities of each individualstudent.That differentiation might involve theteacher adapting/ modifying the content, process,environment, and/or student assessment. Below wehave provided numerous ways that some sports andactivities can be modified and/or changed to meetthe needs of each student.The goal is to havestudents participate in activities where all studentscan learn and be successful. Check out this greatBest Practice called: Disability Awareness in PhysicalActivity Best Practice Idea.
Larger/lighter batUse of velcroLarger goal/targetMark positions on playing fieldLower goal/targetScoops for catchingVary balls (size, weight, color,texture)
Decrease distanceUse well-defined boundariesSimplify patternsAdapt playing area (smaller, obstaclesremoved)
Vary the tempoSlow the activity paceLengthen the timeShorten the timeProvide frequent rest periods
Demonstrate/model activityPartner assistedDisregard time limitsOral promptMore space between studentsEliminate outs/strike-outsAllow ball to remain stationaryAllow batter to sit in chairPlace student with disability near teacher
Change locomotor patternsModify graspsModify body positionsReduce number of actionsUse different body parts
Use various size balls (size, weight, texture, color)Allow travellingAllow two hand dribbleDisregard three second lane violationUse larger/lower goalSlow the pace, especially when first learningIf student uses wheelchair, allow him to hold ballon his lap while pushing wheelchairUse beeper ball, radio under basket for individualwith visual impairment
Use walking instead of runningHave well defined boundariesReduce playing areaPlay six-a-side soccerIf student uses a wheelchair, allow himto hold ball on his lap while pushing thewheelchairUse a deflated ball, nerf ball, beeperball, brightly colored ballUse a target that makes noise when hit
Use larger, lighter, softer, bright colored ballsAllow players to catch ball instead ofvolleyingAllow student to self toss and set ballLower the netReduce the playing courtStand closer to net on serveAllow ball to bounce firstHold ball and have student hit it
Use larger, lighter ballsUse shorter, lighter racquetsUse larger head racquetsSlow down the ballLower the net or do not use a netUse brightly colored ballsHit ball off teeAllow a drop serveStand closer to net on serveDo not use service courtUse a peer for assistance
Use velcro balls and mittsUse larger or smaller batsUse a batting teeReduce the base distancesUse IncrediballsShorten the pitching distanceIf individual is in wheelchair, allow them to push balloff ramp, off lap, or from teeUse beeper ballsProvide a peer to assistPlayers without disabilities play regular depth defenseStudents without disabilities count to ten beforetagging out person with disability
Use a club with a larger headUse shorter/lighter clubUse colored/larger ballsPractice without a ballUse tee for all shotsShorten distance to hole
Simplify/reduce the number of stepsUse two hands instead of oneRemain in stationary positionUse a rampUse a partnerGive continuous verbal cues