Chapter 8 cold war (edsel jasmine sison's conflicted copy 2013 03-07)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Chapter 8 cold war (edsel jasmine sison's conflicted copy 2013 03-07)

on

  • 833 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
833
Views on SlideShare
833
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
23
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Chapter 8 cold war (edsel jasmine sison's conflicted copy 2013 03-07) Chapter 8 cold war (edsel jasmine sison's conflicted copy 2013 03-07) Presentation Transcript

  • Crisis and ConflictCrisis and ConflictChapter 8:Chapter 8:From a World War to aFrom a World War to aCold WarCold WarAn Enquiry Approach to Modern World HistoryAn Enquiry Approach to Modern World HistorySecondary 4Secondary 4
  • 2Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Was the post-World War II era aWas the post-World War II era aperiod of stability?period of stability?Why did the ColdWar break out?How did the Cold Waraffect Europe?How did the Cold Waraffect the rest of theworld?Factors leading to the ColdWar between the USA andthe USSR.Ways in which Europe wasaffected by the Cold War.Ways in which the rest ofthe world was affected by theCold War.
  • 3Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006In a NutshellIn a Nutshell A Cold War is defined as a situation of tense relationsA Cold War is defined as a situation of tense relationsand fierce competition between nations.and fierce competition between nations. There is however no direct confrontation as in an all-outThere is however no direct confrontation as in an all-outwar.war. Such a situation occurred between 1945 and 1991,Such a situation occurred between 1945 and 1991,involving the superpowers, the USA and the USSR.involving the superpowers, the USA and the USSR. The superpowers divided Europe into two.The superpowers divided Europe into two. Eastern Europe was led by Communist USSR whileEastern Europe was led by Communist USSR whiledemocratic USA controlled Western Europe.democratic USA controlled Western Europe.
  • 4Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006US Vice-President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev arguedUS Vice-President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev arguedabout who had a better lifeabout who had a better life — Americans living in a democratic society orAmericans living in a democratic society orRussians in a Communist society. The 1956 debate is called the Kitchen DebateRussians in a Communist society. The 1956 debate is called the Kitchen Debateas it took place in Moscow at a kitchen exhibition.as it took place in Moscow at a kitchen exhibition.
  • 5Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Why did the Cold WarWhy did the Cold Warbreak out?break out?CompetingCompetingideologiesideologiesFeelings ofFeelings ofmistrustmistrustWartime alliancesWartime alliancesbroke downbroke down
  • 6Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Competing ideologiesCompeting ideologies An ideology refers to a set of ideas about how a societyAn ideology refers to a set of ideas about how a societyshould be run.should be run. In many ways, the Cold War confrontation between theIn many ways, the Cold War confrontation between theUSA and the USSR was a clash between their opposingUSA and the USSR was a clash between their opposingideologies.ideologies.DemocracyDemocracy The USAThe USACommunismCommunism The USSRThe USSR
  • 7Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Communism VS DemocracyCommunism VS DemocracyCommunismThe Communist Party rules the people.Only the Communist Party members can bein the government. This government isconsidered a one-party dictatorship.DemocracyPeople choose their government byvoting for the leaders they want. Theleaders can belong to any party.Who controls the society?Who controls the society?
  • 8Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006How should people live?How should people live?CommunismThe community is more important thanthe individual. So the individual shouldput the needs of the community beforehis own.DemocracyThe individual has more rights and someof these rights are more important thanthe needs of the community. Such rightsinclude freedom of speech and the press.Communism VS DemocracyCommunism VS Democracy
  • 9Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006How should the wealth of the society beHow should the wealth of the society becreated and shared?created and shared? The country’s wealth is ownedThe country’s wealth is ownedcollectively by the society.collectively by the society. The Communist Party createsThe Communist Party createswealth by deciding what towealth by deciding what toproduce. This is called a centrallyproduce. This is called a centrallyplanned economy.planned economy. Everyone should work and shouldEveryone should work and shouldget an equal share of the benefitsget an equal share of the benefitsof the society.of the society.CommunismCommunism VS DemocracyCommunism VS Democracy
  • 10Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006How should the wealth of the society beHow should the wealth of the society becreated and shared?created and shared? The country’s wealth is created byThe country’s wealth is created byprivate enterprise and trade.private enterprise and trade. Businessmen and entrepreneursBusinessmen and entrepreneurscreate wealth by deciding what tocreate wealth by deciding what toproduce. This is called marketproduce. This is called marketeconomy.economy. Some individuals may becomeSome individuals may becomewealthier than others. How wealthywealthier than others. How wealthyone becomes depends on theone becomes depends on theindividual’s skills as an entrepreneurindividual’s skills as an entrepreneuror how well he invests his resources.or how well he invests his resources.DemocracyCommunism VS DemocracyCommunism VS Democracy
  • 11Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006DemocracyDemocracy• For supporters of DemocracyFor supporters of Democracychoosing betweenchoosing betweenDemocracy and CommunismDemocracy and Communismfelt like choosing betweenfelt like choosing betweenfreedom and slavery.freedom and slavery.• They believed that CommunistsThey believed that Communistshad to accept the control ofhad to accept the control ofthe Communist Party and givethe Communist Party and giveup all their freedom.up all their freedom.CommunismCommunism• Communists, on the otherCommunists, on the otherhand believed that thehand believed that theworkers were not free inworkers were not free indemocratic societies.democratic societies.• To them the workers in aTo them the workers in ademocratic society, weredemocratic society, werethe slaves of the richthe slaves of the richlandowners, factory ownerslandowners, factory ownersand industrialists.and industrialists.BackBackCommunism VS DemocracyCommunism VS Democracy
  • 12Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 When the Communists came to power in the 1917 OctoberWhen the Communists came to power in the 1917 OctoberRevolution in Russia, they lost the trust of the USA andRevolution in Russia, they lost the trust of the USA andother Western nations. This was because the Communistother Western nations. This was because the Communistgovernment called for a world revolution.government called for a world revolution. Could this mean the end of Capitalism and Democracy?Could this mean the end of Capitalism and Democracy?The West begin to question the actions of the Communists.The West begin to question the actions of the Communists. Poor relations existed also because of the involvement ofPoor relations existed also because of the involvement ofthe West in the Russian Civil War. They provided aid to thethe West in the Russian Civil War. They provided aid to theanti-Bolshevik White armies.anti-Bolshevik White armies. Since then, there had always been tension between theSince then, there had always been tension between theCommunists and supporters of Democracy.Communists and supporters of Democracy. The USA and the USSR had more power to spread theirThe USA and the USSR had more power to spread theirideologies around after they became superpowers at theideologies around after they became superpowers at theend of World War II.end of World War II. BackBackFeelings of mistrustFeelings of mistrust
  • 13Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Wartime alliances broke downWartime alliances broke down The Soviet Union joined the USA and Britain as one of theThe Soviet Union joined the USA and Britain as one of theAllied Powers and joined in the fight against Japan, Italy andAllied Powers and joined in the fight against Japan, Italy andGermany.Germany. This alliance was only temporary.This alliance was only temporary. The feud was resumed after the war ended and when theyThe feud was resumed after the war ended and when theyfound no common enemy to unite them against.found no common enemy to unite them against. The leaders of the USSR, the USA and Britain met at Yalta toThe leaders of the USSR, the USA and Britain met at Yalta todiscuss what to do with Germany once the war was over.discuss what to do with Germany once the war was over. It was decided that Germany was to be divided into fourIt was decided that Germany was to be divided into fourdifferent zones.different zones. After the war ended, they met at Potsdam to resume theAfter the war ended, they met at Potsdam to resume thediscussion that was stopped.discussion that was stopped. Several misunderstandings arose out of the conferencesSeveral misunderstandings arose out of the conferenceswhich contributed to hostile relations.which contributed to hostile relations.
  • 14Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006The Potsdam Agreement What was agreed?What was agreed? Details of the zones of occupation of Germany wereDetails of the zones of occupation of Germany werefinalised.finalised. Reparations were to be collected in the form of industrialReparations were to be collected in the form of industrialequipment from own zone. The USSR was to receiveequipment from own zone. The USSR was to receiveadditional money from other zones as its zone wasadditional money from other zones as its zone wasmainly agricultural and it had suffered the most duringmainly agricultural and it had suffered the most duringthe war.the war. The new borders of Poland were confirmed.The new borders of Poland were confirmed.
  • 15Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006The Potsdam AgreementThe Potsdam AgreementStalinStalin TrumanTrumanWhat to do withWhat to do withGermany?Germany?We should crippleWe should crippleGermany completely.Germany completely.We do not want to repeatWe do not want to repeatthe mistakes of thethe mistakes of theTreaty of Versailles.Treaty of Versailles.Should Germany payShould Germany payfor the reparations?for the reparations?Yes. 20 million RussiansYes. 20 million Russianswere killed in the war.were killed in the war.We do not want to repeatWe do not want to repeatthe mistakes of thethe mistakes of theTreaty of Versailles.Treaty of Versailles.What to do withWhat to do withEastern Europe?Eastern Europe?We agreed at Yalta thatWe agreed at Yalta thatthese would be under thethese would be under theSoviet sphere ofSoviet sphere ofinfluence; with unitedinfluence; with unitedEastern Europe, no oneEastern Europe, no onewill dare to move a fingerwill dare to move a fingeragainst them.against them.We have to cultivate aWe have to cultivate a‘get tough’ attitude‘get tough’ attitudetowards Stalin.towards Stalin.
  • 16Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 SignificanceSignificanceThe USSR was suspicious of the West. StalinThe USSR was suspicious of the West. Stalinimprisoned non-Communist Polish leaders andimprisoned non-Communist Polish leaders andplaced Communist leaders in the Polishplaced Communist leaders in the Polishgovernment. Buffer zones were created to makegovernment. Buffer zones were created to makeCommunism more powerful.Communism more powerful.The poor relations between the two superpowersThe poor relations between the two superpowersat the Potsdam Conference were a sign that theirat the Potsdam Conference were a sign that theirwartime alliance had come to an end and that thewartime alliance had come to an end and that theCold War had begun.Cold War had begun.BackBackThe Potsdam AgreementThe Potsdam Agreement
  • 17Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Europe was dividedEurope was dividedGermany was dividedGermany was dividedNato and Warsaw PactNato and Warsaw Pactwere set upwere set upMarshall Plan was putMarshall Plan was putinto actioninto actionTruman Doctrine wasTruman Doctrine wasannouncedannouncedHow did theHow did theCold WarCold Waraffect Europe?affect Europe?
  • 18Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Europe was dividedEurope was divided Europe was divided into two blocs between 1945 andEurope was divided into two blocs between 1945 and1948.1948. The East comprised mainly of Communist governmentsThe East comprised mainly of Communist governmentsand the West consisted of democratic countries.and the West consisted of democratic countries. The USSR expanded its control over Eastern Europe byThe USSR expanded its control over Eastern Europe bysetting up Communist governments in these countries.setting up Communist governments in these countries. The USSR could then influence these CommunistThe USSR could then influence these Communistgovernments to follow policies that were non-threateninggovernments to follow policies that were non-threateningto it.to it. The countries with Communist governments were knownThe countries with Communist governments were knownas satellite states.as satellite states. The West criticised the USSR for setting up suchThe West criticised the USSR for setting up suchgovernments without holding free elections and for theirgovernments without holding free elections and for theirharsh tactics.harsh tactics. Such actions further contributed to the bad blood betweenSuch actions further contributed to the bad blood betweenthe two superpowers.the two superpowers.
  • 19Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Europe was dividedBackBack
  • 20Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Germany was dividedGermany was divided A crisis ensued among Britain, France, the USA and theA crisis ensued among Britain, France, the USA and theUSSR over how to administer Germany in 1948.USSR over how to administer Germany in 1948. Germany was to be divided into four parts and Berlin intoGermany was to be divided into four parts and Berlin intofour zones, according to peace talks in Britain.four zones, according to peace talks in Britain. In 1948, Britain, France and the USA decided to join theirIn 1948, Britain, France and the USA decided to join theirseparate zones in Germany. In order to help the Westseparate zones in Germany. In order to help the WestGerman economy recover, they agreed to create a newGerman economy recover, they agreed to create a newcurrency.currency. Afraid that Germany would grow strong and threaten theAfraid that Germany would grow strong and threaten theUSSR, Stalin planned to seize control of West Berlin throughUSSR, Stalin planned to seize control of West Berlin througha blockade.a blockade. He had hoped to force the Western powers to leave the cityHe had hoped to force the Western powers to leave the cityby blocking all supplies of food to West Berlin.by blocking all supplies of food to West Berlin.
  • 21Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006The Berlin Blockade 1948
  • 22Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Germany was dividedGermany was divided The USA was determined to support West Berlin as itThe USA was determined to support West Berlin as itrepresented the democratic system.represented the democratic system. It was afraid that if it did so, the USSR would becomeIt was afraid that if it did so, the USSR would becomebolder and invade West Germany.bolder and invade West Germany. However keen to avoid war, President Truman orderedHowever keen to avoid war, President Truman orderedan airlift of food and other supplies into West Berlin.an airlift of food and other supplies into West Berlin.This lasted for ten months.This lasted for ten months. Realising that the West was determined to support WestRealising that the West was determined to support WestBerlin, the USSR ended the Berlin Blockade after tenBerlin, the USSR ended the Berlin Blockade after tenmonths.months. The blockade was important in helping us understandThe blockade was important in helping us understandwhy Germany became two separate countries.why Germany became two separate countries.
  • 23Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006In August 1949, the West set up the German Federal Republic in West Germany.In October, the USSR set up the German Democratic Republic in East Germany.BackBack
  • 24Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Truman Doctrine wasTruman Doctrine wasannouncedannounced Following Soviet expansion in Europe, President TrumanFollowing Soviet expansion in Europe, President Trumandecided that the USA must stop Communism fromdecided that the USA must stop Communism fromspreading.spreading. On 12 March 1947, he announced the Truman Doctrine.On 12 March 1947, he announced the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine provided American aid to GreeceThe Truman Doctrine provided American aid to Greeceand Turkey in order to prevent the spread ofand Turkey in order to prevent the spread ofCommunism.Communism. Turkey controlled the Dardanelles and the GreekTurkey controlled the Dardanelles and the Greekgovernment was fighting against Communism.government was fighting against Communism. Agreeing with Truman’s sentiments, Congress soonAgreeing with Truman’s sentiments, Congress soonvoted $400 million of aid to Greece and Turkey.voted $400 million of aid to Greece and Turkey.BackBack
  • 25Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006The Marshall Plan was put intoThe Marshall Plan was put intoaction on 5 June 1947action on 5 June 1947 Following the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan wasFollowing the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan wasintroduced.introduced. The Plan sought to make Europe rich and strong againThe Plan sought to make Europe rich and strong againand prosperous enough to resist Communism, byand prosperous enough to resist Communism, byproviding financial help.providing financial help. Between 1948 and 1952, 16 countries in Western EuropeBetween 1948 and 1952, 16 countries in Western Europereceived a total of US$13 billion in aid, loans and goods.received a total of US$13 billion in aid, loans and goods. Soviet satellites were forbidden from accepting AmericanSoviet satellites were forbidden from accepting Americanfinancial aid. Stalin felt that the West was using this tofinancial aid. Stalin felt that the West was using this toexpand its influence over Europe.expand its influence over Europe.BackBack
  • 26Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006NATO and Warsaw Pact were set upNATO and Warsaw Pact were set up The division of Europe into two spheres of influenceThe division of Europe into two spheres of influenceforced both sides to set up military alliances.forced both sides to set up military alliances. In April 1949, the USA set up the North Atlantic TreatyIn April 1949, the USA set up the North Atlantic TreatyOrganisation (NATO) for collective security against anyOrganisation (NATO) for collective security against anySoviet attack.Soviet attack. Similarly, the USSR set up an alliance known as theSimilarly, the USSR set up an alliance known as theWarsaw Pact in 1955, uniting all Communist countries inWarsaw Pact in 1955, uniting all Communist countries inEastern Europe except Yugoslavia.Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia.
  • 27Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Military alliancesBackBack
  • 28Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006The Korean WarThe Korean WarChina joined theChina joined theCold WarCold WarThe Cuban MissileThe Cuban MissileCrisisCrisisHow did the Cold WarHow did the Cold Waraffect the rest of the world?affect the rest of the world?
  • 29Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006China joined the Cold WarChina joined the Cold War When China turned Communist in 1949, it becameWhen China turned Communist in 1949, it becameinvolved in the Cold War.involved in the Cold War. The USA felt threatened by the Communist allianceThe USA felt threatened by the Communist alliancebetween China and the USSR.between China and the USSR. The USA feared that the USSR might give China theThe USA feared that the USSR might give China thetechnology to produce its own nuclear weapons.technology to produce its own nuclear weapons.
  • 30Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Japan became the USA’s mainJapan became the USA’s mainanti-Communist allyanti-Communist ally Due to the threat of Communism in China, the USADue to the threat of Communism in China, the USAstrengthened Japan’s economy and introducedstrengthened Japan’s economy and introduceddemocratic reforms.democratic reforms. Through this, the USA hoped to turn Japan into its mainThrough this, the USA hoped to turn Japan into its mainanti-Communist ally in the region.anti-Communist ally in the region. Other than strengthening Japan by providing economicOther than strengthening Japan by providing economicaid, new technology and new industrial equipment, theaid, new technology and new industrial equipment, theUSA also managed to get Japan to allow it to station itsUSA also managed to get Japan to allow it to station itstroops in Japan.troops in Japan.
  • 31Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006USA‘s One China PolicyUSA‘s One China Policy Due to unfriendly relations between the USA andDue to unfriendly relations between the USA andCommunist China, the USA adopted a One China PolicyCommunist China, the USA adopted a One China Policybetween 1945 and 1972.between 1945 and 1972. The USA refused to recognise the People’s Republic ofThe USA refused to recognise the People’s Republic ofChina’s (PRC) Communist government.China’s (PRC) Communist government. Instead, it recognised Taiwan (Republic of China) as theInstead, it recognised Taiwan (Republic of China) as thelegitimate government of China.legitimate government of China.
  • 32Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Increased US support forIncreased US support foranti-Communists in Asiaanti-Communists in Asia Due to the rise of Communist China, the USA was eagerDue to the rise of Communist China, the USA was eagerto form allies in Asia.to form allies in Asia. Other than Taiwan, the USA also sent troops to supportOther than Taiwan, the USA also sent troops to supportanti-Communist governments in other countries such asanti-Communist governments in other countries such asSouth Korea and South Vietnam.South Korea and South Vietnam. Besides, it also formed an anti-Communist alliance inBesides, it also formed an anti-Communist alliance inSoutheast Asia (SEATO) in 1954 to oppose CommunistSoutheast Asia (SEATO) in 1954 to oppose Communistgains in Southeast Asia.gains in Southeast Asia. In the name of giving aid, sometimes cruel and corruptedIn the name of giving aid, sometimes cruel and corruptedgovernments were supported and maintained.governments were supported and maintained.BackBack
  • 33Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 Korea was divided at the 38th parallelKorea was divided at the 38th parallelafter World War II.after World War II.The USSR North: The People’sThe USSR North: The People’sDemocratic RepublicDemocratic RepublicThe USA South: The Republic ofThe USA South: The Republic ofKoreaKorea This division was supposed to beThis division was supposed to betemporary.temporary. In June 1950, the North KoreansIn June 1950, the North Koreanslaunched a surprise attack against thelaunched a surprise attack against theSouth and the capital Seoul fell in justSouth and the capital Seoul fell in justthree days.three days.Case Study 1:Case Study 1:The Korean WarThe Korean War
  • 34Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 The UN decided to send troops to theThe UN decided to send troops to theregion under its UN flag. The huge bulkregion under its UN flag. The huge bulkof the troops sent were American andof the troops sent were American andcommand of them was given tocommand of them was given toGeneral Douglas MacArthur.General Douglas MacArthur. By the end of August 1950 only PusanBy the end of August 1950 only Pusanin the south-east corner of South Koreain the south-east corner of South Koreahad not fallen to the North.had not fallen to the North. In September, MacArthur took theIn September, MacArthur took thehuge risk of launching an amphibioushuge risk of launching an amphibiouslanding at Inchon 200 miles behindlanding at Inchon 200 miles behindenemy lines and from here heenemy lines and from here helaunched an attack against the Northlaunched an attack against the NorthKoreans.Koreans.Case Study 1:Case Study 1:The Korean WarThe Korean War
  • 35Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 MacArthur later chose to advanceMacArthur later chose to advancenorth towards the Chinese border atnorth towards the Chinese border atthe Yalu River.the Yalu River. This provoked the Chinese to launchThis provoked the Chinese to launcha massive attack against the UNa massive attack against the UNforces and South Korea.forces and South Korea. The war became static warfare asThe war became static warfare asboth sides were entrenched in theirboth sides were entrenched in theirpositions. Peace talks started atpositions. Peace talks started atPanmunjom and lasted for two years.Panmunjom and lasted for two years. An armistice was signed in 1953. TheAn armistice was signed in 1953. Thefighting ended but no peace treatyfighting ended but no peace treatywas signed.was signed.Case Study 1:Case Study 1:The Korean WarThe Korean War
  • 36Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Impact of theImpact of theKorean WarKorean WarKoreaKoreaThe war cost the lives ofabout 2.5 million Koreans.Many families wereseparated because of thedivision at the 38th parallel.Global impactGlobal impactThe war also showedthat smaller countrieswere not always controlledby superpowers. In thecase of Korea, both theNorth and South used thesuperpowers to achievetheir aim of uniting KoreaChinaChinaChina showed that it wasa major military power withits entry into the war.China grew confident anddemanded a seat in the UNin 1971.JapanJapanJapan became a key USpartner in Asia and a modelof US democracy. The KoreanWar also helped Japan’seconomy as it was the mainsupplier of South Korea.TaiwanTaiwanFearing China might use theKorean War as a chanceto attack Taiwan, the USAsent military support toTaiwan.USAUSAFollowing the Korean War,the USA was eager to formalliances in Asia. Thisincluded ANZUS (withAustralia and New Zealand)and SEATO in SoutheastAsia.BackBack
  • 37Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 Trouble began in 1962 when the USA found out that theTrouble began in 1962 when the USA found out that theUSSR had missiles in Cuba which could hit most of theUSSR had missiles in Cuba which could hit most of themajor American cities.major American cities. Furthermore, the Soviets had 40,000 troops in Cuba.Furthermore, the Soviets had 40,000 troops in Cuba. More than 100,000 US soldiers were stationed atMore than 100,000 US soldiers were stationed atFlorida, the American state closest to Cuba.Florida, the American state closest to Cuba. The US forces around the world were also placed onThe US forces around the world were also placed onhigh alert.high alert. Soviet submarines that were armed with nuclearSoviet submarines that were armed with nuclearweapons were also on their way to Cuba.weapons were also on their way to Cuba.Case Study 2:Case Study 2:The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 38Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Case Study 2 :Case Study 2 :The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile CrisisTrouble began in 1962 when theTrouble began in 1962 when theUSA found out that the USSR hadUSA found out that the USSR hadmissiles in Cuba which could hitmissiles in Cuba which could hitmost of the major American cities.most of the major American cities.Following that, the USA sent moreFollowing that, the USA sent morethan 100,000 soldiers to Floridathan 100,000 soldiers to Floridaprepared for a possible invasion.prepared for a possible invasion.President Kennedy ordered a USPresident Kennedy ordered a USnaval blockade of Cuba to stopnaval blockade of Cuba to stopsupplies from reaching Cuba.supplies from reaching Cuba.The whole crisis was finally avertedThe whole crisis was finally avertedwhen Soviet ships decided to sail back.when Soviet ships decided to sail back.Following that, the USSR announced ItFollowing that, the USSR announced Itwould also remove the missiles fromwould also remove the missiles fromCuba.Cuba.
  • 39Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Causes of the Cuban Missile CrisisCauses of the Cuban Missile Crisis The USSR had been worried about US missiles inThe USSR had been worried about US missiles inTurkey (an ally of the USA) due to its proximity to someTurkey (an ally of the USA) due to its proximity to someof the Soviet cities.of the Soviet cities. Soviet leader Khrushchev felt he should also find alliesSoviet leader Khrushchev felt he should also find alliesand build nuclear missile sites near the USA.and build nuclear missile sites near the USA. In 1960, the USSR offered to protect Cuba by placingIn 1960, the USSR offered to protect Cuba by placingnuclear missiles in Cuba.nuclear missiles in Cuba. Cuban leader Castro accepted the USSR’s offer andCuban leader Castro accepted the USSR’s offer andformed an alliance with it.formed an alliance with it. In 1962, following reconnaissance reports of missilesIn 1962, following reconnaissance reports of missilesbelonging to the USSR in Cuba, US president Kennedybelonging to the USSR in Cuba, US president Kennedyordered a naval and air blockade of Cuba.ordered a naval and air blockade of Cuba.
  • 40Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006 Putting its army on high alert, the USA warned that itPutting its army on high alert, the USA warned that itwould attack the USSR if the missiles were notwould attack the USSR if the missiles were notremoved from Cuba.removed from Cuba. The crisis was resolved when the USSR promised toThe crisis was resolved when the USSR promised toremove all its missiles.remove all its missiles. The blockade on Cuba was also ended.The blockade on Cuba was also ended. In 1963, US nuclear missiles were removed fromIn 1963, US nuclear missiles were removed fromTurkey.Turkey.Causes of the Cuban Missile CrisisCauses of the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 41Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006Impact of theImpact of theCuban MissileCuban MissileCrisisCrisisBetter US-Soviet relationsBoth sides realised thatthey should not risk anothernuclear war. Both alsosupported disarmament.In 1963, the USA, the USSRand Britain signed a NuclearTest Ban TreatyLed to more stablesuperpower relationsBoth parties did not start anuclear war because theyrealised no one could win one.Due to a possible MutuallyAssured Destruction situation,both tried to solve problemswithout using nuclearweapons.Cuba remained CommunistAlthough the USSR removed itsmissiles, it promised to helpCuba if it was attacked.The USSR also made the USApromise that it would notattack Cuba.Khrushchevs fall frompowerThe incident led toKhrushchevs fall from power.His decision to remove themissiles was criticised byby other Soviet leaders.In 1964, he was removedfrom his post.Tense Soviet-ChineserelationsThe crisis made Soviet-Chinese relations tense.China accused the Sovietsfor being weak. The quarrelbetween China and theUSSR divided theinternational Communistmovement into two groups.BackBack
  • 42Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006The Cold WarThe Cold WarImpact on EuropeImpact outsideEuropeIncreasingIncreasingmistrustmistrustKoreaEuropedividedNATOWarsaw PactMarshall PlanTruman DoctrineSummarySummaryGermanydividedCubaAllianceAlliancebreakdownbreakdownCompetingCompetingideologiesideologies