From an Industrial Worker to a Digital Learner: Time for Students to Bring Their Own Technology into Schools Liz Kolb, Ph.D. University of Michigan firstname.lastname@example.org http://cellphonesinlearning.com http://tiny.cc/kolbliz (presentation) Twitter: lkolb Liz’s Mobile Business Card Send a new text: 50500 In message: kolb http://contxts.com
When was the last time you… Used a payphone? Met an adult (18-50) that did not have an email account? Adjusted the tracking on your VCR? Used a typewriter to fill out a job application? Sent film out to be developed? Used a walkman? Went to the library to do research? Got up to change the channel?
% of New Teachers who would like technology in their hands of the students
New Teachers List The Technologies They Use EVERYDAY outside of teaching Everyday Use Classroom Wish List TV-DVD-DVR Internet Online Courses Web Blogging Cell Phones Facebook or MySpace Wikipedia Video Games (Wii and Computer-Based) iPod/MP3 Players GPS Devices Google, Google Earth, Google Maps Twitter TV-DVD-DVR Internet LCD Projector Chalkboard/Dry Erase PowerPoint Teacher Laptop Word Excel Tape/CD Player Overhead Projector Educational Software SMARTboard Telephone
Why haven’t we seen long-term education technology change that reflects technology changes in society? In 1986 & 2001, Larry Cuban Found: Technology traditionally infused from “Top-Down” Teachers teach how they were taught Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.
Teachers Say Technology in Their school is introduced by…
BYOT: Bring Your Own technology What is in Your Backpack?
"Kids tell us they power down to come to school.”-Julie Evans, CEO of Project Tomorrow (2008)
Speak up 2010 Report 100,000+ students For the first time since 2003, when asked to identify the major obstacle to prevent use of technology in school, students in grades 6–12 said “I cannot use my own cell phone, smart phone or Mp3 player in school.”
Government Says: use them! http://tinyurl.com/yzvr944
Arguments for Using Students’ Everyday Tools
Access 76% of secondary students have their own cell phones 30% have Smartphone's 54% of 8 year olds will have their own cell phone (end of 2010)! 1 in 3 teens sends more than 100 text messages a day 85% of secondary students have MP3 players 84% of children between the ages of 8 to 10 have a video game player in their household 93% of teenagers use the Internet 70% have their own laptop or netbook 55% of 12-17 year olds have a profile on Facebook or Myspace
Millennials Rising (Neil Howe and William Strauss) How 21st Century Students learn best… Digital Age Learner Collaboratively Anytime, anyplace, anywhere, any pace Structured activities Relevancy with real world *They want to do this with the TECHNOLOGY of their generation
For Example… 1-800-2chacha Send text Query to 36266
Fundamental Shift in 21st Century Workforce Technological changes are displacing low-skilled workers and making room for more high-skilled creative and innovative workers. Employers are calling for schools to integrate new skills into education
Mobile Job Opportunities for Students
Search for “cell phone skills” on Monster.com
Search for “Social Media” Job Skills
Search for “video game” skills
Fundamental Shift in Citizenship Practices 74% of all 18-24 year olds were politically active on the Internet during the 2008 campaign During the 2008 campaign, 49% of younger voters (18-24) shared information via text message about the campaigns. http://www.visiblevote.us
Research on cell phones in learning says… "The proportions of textisms that kids used in their sentence translations was positively linked to verbal reasoning; the more textspeak kids used, the higher their test scores” 2) "The younger the age at which the kids had received mobile phones, the better their ability to read words and identify patterns of sound in speech.”
Research on Video Games in learning says… Games teach skills that employers want: analytical thinking, team building, multitasking and problem-solving under duress. Unlike humans, the games never lose patience. Simulation and adventure games - such as Sim City and RollerCoaster Tycoon, where players create societies or build theme parks, developed children's strategic thinking and planning skills. Doctors who spent at least three hours a week playing video games made about 37% fewer mistakes in laparoscopic surgery and performed the task 27% faster than their counterparts who did not play video games. At-Risk students have shown to benefit from building their own video games
Study Findings: Civics Civilization IV & Democracy More civic gaming experience=more civic engagement
Teen Gaming is Social 76% play games with others at least some of the time 65% play with other people in the room with them 27% play with others via the Internet 49% play with people they know offline 27% play with friends they have met online 23% play with both offline friends and online friends
Why Are We Reluctant? The elephant in the room
Cheating is a problem…
26% of teenagers admitted to using their cell phone to store information to look at during a test or a quiz.
25% have text messaged their friends about answers during a test or quiz.
20% have searched the Internet via their mobile phone during a test or quiz.
17% have taken pictures of a test or quiz with the cell phone in order to send the pictures to their friends.
Common Sense Media 09
Even MORE of a problem Most students do not envision these activities as cheating. More than half of the students surveyed did not think these acts were serious offenses of cheating, rather they think of it as just “helping out a friend.” Common Sense Media 09
70% of U.S. schools completely ban cell phones from campus 63% of students admitted to sneaking in cell phones and using them during class anyway. In a seven class a day, five day school week, the average student sends at least three text messages per class. Common Sense Media 09
Life Consequences Students are sometimes “sexting” to friends for their entertainment value, as a joke or for fun." Six teens face child porn (13 to 15) charges after being caught "sexting" each other. Criminal Charge! IN PA, 3 girls (12, 12, 16) charged with child pornography for sexing. Picture of them in bras. 15% of teenagers have risqué photos of themselves or their friends on their cell phones. 1 in 5 sext recipients report that they have passed the images along to someone else http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/bestoftv/2009/01/15/pn.sexting.teens.cnn
"If you take a picture, you can be accused of producing child pornography; if you send it to somebody, you can be accused of distributing child pornography; and if you keep a picture, you can be accused of possessing child pornography. Anywhere along this chain of transmission of the images, you can be charged as a registered sex offender." -Parry Aftab, an Internet privacy and security lawyer.
One in three (34%) texting teens ages 16-17 say they have texted while driving.
Social Network Bullying 33% of youth have been victimized by online bullying
Underage On Facebook 750,000 kids between the ages of 8 and 12 have set up a profile on the big social-networking sites http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/technology/article709704.ece
Student’s Lack of concern over privacy and permanent record Research shows that issues of privacy and safety are not at the forefront of younger users' minds. 41% of children aged 8 to 17 who had a visible profile had them set so they were open and accessible to anyone. (Office of Communications in GB) Younger adults and children are much more likely to share sensitive information After weeks of butting heads with his coaches, Taylor, 17, logged on to Facebook from home Jan. 3. He typed his frustrations for the online world to see: "I'ma kill em all. I'ma bust this (expletive) up from the inside like nobody's ever done before.” (USA Today, Jan 2010) Taylor's profile was public, so there were no restrictions on who could view it.
Parents need education too! Taylor’s family argued that students and parents aren't properly educated or warned that what they write online can have consequences in the classroom.
Facebook: Lower Grades? 2009 Ohio State Study found: Typically, Facebook users in the study had GPAs between 3.0 and 3.5, while non-users had GPAs between 3.5 and 4.0. Users said they averaged one to five hours a week studying, while non-users studied 11 to 15 hours per week.
Teens Encounter both pro-social & anti-social behavior while gaming 78% report they frequently see other players being kind or helpful to those who are gaming 63% report seeing or hearing “people being mean or overly aggressive while playing” 49% report seeing or hearing “people being hateful, racist, or sexist” while playing
Current Banning Structures are NOT working Students still “cheating”, “Off-task”, or “inappropriately” using cell phones in schools Students still bring them to schools and use them when told not to. Students still do not understand consequences of their social media use Students have no idea how to use mobile phones or social media in future job force!
Case Study: School Change with student Cell phones
2007: Middle School Principal’s Journey “Last year the school ran out of calculators needed for a math exam, So I let a student use the calculator function on his cell phone. The student was excited to use a phone instead of a calculator. I found 19 of my 22 students had phones.” -Kipp Rogers, Principal at Passages Middle School in Virginia
Mary Passage Middle School Cell Phone Policy
1. Students will talk on their cell phone only to complete assignments that are related to the instructional lesson. 2. Students will keep cell phones turned off or left in lockers when they are not being used for instructional purposes in class. 3. Students will only send text- messages, pictures or video- messages to others outside of the classroom with permission and directions from the teacher. 4. Students will not record still or moving images or voices of students or the teacher without permission from the teacher. 5. Students will not post recordings of still or moving images or voice recordings of students or the teacher to online websites without their permission. 6. Students will practice internet safety with online resources. 7. Students will post only appropriate text, audio and visual media to on-line websites.
I _____________________ understand that violation of our class acceptable cell phone use policy may result in my not being able to participate in additional class activities that involve using the cell phone. I also understand that I may receive disciplinary consequences for violating school board policies regarding cyber-bullying.
I _______________________ have gone over the Cell Phones in Class Acceptable Use Policy with my child and agree to allow my child to participate.
Passages Middle School Cell Phone Book http://passage.nn.k12.va.us
Avatar Project: Spanish Oral Exams High School Spanish 2 & 3 Students Developed an Avatar to take oral exams Used http://voki.com Focus: Engagement in oral speaking, oral speaking exams, culture representation with images
5 Rules for Cell Phones in Schools Set rules based on business regulations for cell phone use (look at business contracts) Social contract with students
Must be on vibrate at all times
Keep them in the front of the room until you are going to use them.
All messages/media sent or published must be related to lesson.
If you are referencing someone else in class, you must have their approval before posting or publishing.
Create a permission form (in addition to the School’s AUP)
EXAMPLE: Mobile Podcasting Project: Field Trips High School Chemistry Students on a field trip at Cranbrook Science Museum in MI. Cell Phones pictures documented chemical elements. Used: Camera on cell phone and sent to drop.io at http://drop.io/CKCHEM4
Example Mobile Podcasting Project: Summer Activity Community Group Careers with Critters Middle School Children Interviews of observations and daily experience http://careerswithcritters.blogspot.com/
CPS Project: Brainstorming http://wiffiti.com
Text Message Alerts! Sending out mass text messages to large or small groups of people. http://textmarks.com http://txtblaster.com
Summer Text Program Norwich Free Academy (Connecticut) Text of the week! Monday is vocabulary day Tuesday is science facts Wednesday is mathematics Thursday is history Friday covers a variety of topics including general knowledge and cultural literacy Each day is a theme Parents and Students Opt in
Text Message Project: Text Homework Alerts Jimbo Lamb High School Math Teacher Pennsylvania Text for Homework Uses: http://textmarks.com http://mrlambmath.wikispaces.com/
Mobile Novel Project: Cell Phone Bestseller Popular in Asia to Read Novels Via Cell. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/20/world/asia/20japan.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1&th&emc=th&oref=slogin
Use a cell phone to write a private or collaborative novel, poem, chapter review, or short story to “publish” on a cell phone. Mobile Novels http://textnovel.com
Web 2.0 Voicemail A cell phone that couples with a website in order to create MP3 files of voicemails, transcripts of voicemails, smart greeting for individual or groups of callers, and stores all calling information. http://google.com/voice (734) 408-4495
Elementary Spanish 3rd-6th graders use Google Voice to call in oral language assignments http://elementaryspanish.wikispaces.com/Google+Voice
Create Your Own Mobile Scavenger Hunt http://www.scvngr.com
SCVNGR Example High School History Class Scavenger Hunt on Constitution http://vimeo.com/9348372
SCVNGR Example High School English Class Scavenger Hunt on Shakespeare “One of the challenges that they had to do read “Stand up as a group and, with your right arm in the air, repeat the Shakespeare’s motto in Latin. It was a kick to watch them do this. Honestly I was surprised that not a single student refused to do the challenges.”
QRcodes Bar codes for cell phones. Take a picture of a bar code and receive information on your phone. Need to download a free reader on your phone http://kaywa.com http://www.i-nigma.com/CreateBarcodes.html http://zxing.appspot.com/generator/
Organization Send text, audio, or email to mass groups at one time. Schedule messages Get Feedback http://www.sendgm.com/
What about Facebook?
Facebook FanPages in Social Studies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj-XCUIbbcE
Facebook FanPages in Social Studies Student’s Reactionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRf3AcX0PB8&feature=related
Examples of Use 11th Grade English Facebook Everyday Life Connects with Classroom Concepts
Authors on Facebook
Applications on FB for Learning Polling Connect with Native Speakers in Languages or Language Exchange with Other FL Students Manage Books that students read Create Flash Cards Citation help Organize class work or Study group Organization Learn about Middle Ages with Knighthood Math challenge Conduct online courses Homework Help Group Calendars Record Class Lectures and Post to FB Make a Quiz
Getting Started: Hints and tips Set up a special class Facebook Group (separate from your personal space), Fan Pages are also a good option Let them know how having a positive FB profile can help them in the future (digital footprints) Tell students that you are required by law to report them. Ask them to clean up profiles Take down inappropriate picts or videos or posts Focus on positive posts and images (ie church groups, volunteer activities, after school jobs) Profile pict should be clean (okay for Grandma to see) Avoid “friends” they don’t know in person Ask friends to de-tag them in inappropriate pictures Ask students to “Friend” your profile You can also have students set up a separate account (Fan Pages) just for class
What about Video Games?
Guitar Hero Virtual Battle of the Bands Collaboration Project http://olliebray.typepad.com/olliebraycom/2008/06/mgs-guitar-hero.html
2009: the Sacred Heart Senior National School in Ireland decided to use Nintendo DS gaming devices as and aid to teaching math. 3 classes spent 15 minutes a day using two games, Math Training and Brain Training. In 6th grade, relative to their peers, the Nintendo group scored substantially better. Gains were “obvious and significant”. In 5th grade, the average gain in the experimental group was 6 percentile points higher than in the control group. In 4th grade, almost every pupil in the Nintendo group improved their score in comparison with last year – the average increase was more than 10 percentile points. The children who made the greatest gains were those who had been using the game both in school and at home.
Wii in physics class "Project Surf.” Use: Wii Homerun Derby (from Wii Sports) First, a video clip from "Science of Summer" is shown in which we discuss the force of a pitch as it hits the catcher's glove. The Wii is used to have students try to hit pitches (using homerun derby game) The purpose is to show just how fast pitches come in and how a batter's timing needs to be perfect. Students take data in the excel-to-go program on our palm pilots. Students record the time of each pitch and then deduce how to find the velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and work of the pitch. The unit culminates in May when they attend an Atlantic City Surf game. Students time pitches and enter data in the palm pilots for a pitch-by-pitch analysis of a few innings of the game.
Scratch: Build your own video games http://scratch.mit.edu/
What about Twitter?
Twitter in 2nd grade http://www.wcsh6.com/news/local/story.aspx?storyid=101781
Twitter in Higher Ed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WPVWDkF7U8
More Examples of TWITTER in Education Twitter Stories by Elementary Students http://twitter.com/manyvoices High School English Teacher’s Office Hours http://twitter.com/MrWilsonBDHS Social Studies: Follow members of Congress https://valtsvirtual.wikispaces.com/American+Government English Twitter Assignment: http://classblogmeister.com/blog.php?blogger_id=22572 Gater Radio on Twitter: http://gatorradio.blogspot.com/
Social Networking/Cell Phones/and Video Games Digital Footprints
Discuss Mobile Safety & Appropriate Use Part of digital footprint Your digital dossier that includes Internet activity such as social networking, email, chat rooms, YOU can’t erase this!!! Permanent record EVERYTHING you send via text message (pictures, videos, text, audio…etc) is PUBLIC!!! Example: Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Mobile “bullying” and “sexting” is public MTV Special on Sextingand Quiz Students should know their plans Bring in their cell phone plan and a bill Discuss what is charged and how much Give Students a Survey Learn more specific safety tips at Connectsafely
Movie: Digital Dossier http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79IYZVYIVLA
In Cyberspace… Don’t assume anything you send or post is going to remain private. There is no changing your mind in cyberspace—anything you send or post will never truly go away. Don’t give in to the pressure to do something that makes you uncomfortable, even in cyberspace. Consider the recipient’s reaction. Nothing is truly anonymous.
Your Media is NEVER deleted! Cambridge researchers posted pictures to sixteen websites, noting the direct URL to the image, and then deleted the original. They reopened the URLs over a period of 1 year to see whether the pictures were accessible and found that images were still visible on five sites at the end of that month. This is possible because the files remain in photo server caches of the underlying content delivery network (CDN) after they have been cleared from indices that provide data for dynamic pages (such as profiles) and search results. The terms of service for these sites indicate that deletion may not be immediate, with Facebook likening the process to putting a file in the Recycle Bin. http://emergingtechnologies.becta.org.uk/index.php?section=etn&rid=14632
Way Back Machine Social networks have been used to post content to embarrass or intimidate students, so it is important for learners to understand that the consequences of such actions may last even longer than they expected. Not only may content remain in caches and backups, but it can be copied to third party sites or be captured in archives without your knowledge or permission, such as the Wayback Machine.
53% of Employers Screen job candidates via Social Networks
Of those hiring managers who have screened job candidates via social networking profiles, one-third (34%) reported they found content that caused them to dismiss the candidate from consideration.
Specific Reasons for NOT hiring based on Digital Footprint found 40% - candidate posted provocative or inappropriate photographs or information 29% - candidate had poor communication skills 28% - candidate bad-mouthed their previous company or fellow employee 22% - candidate’s screen name was unprofessional
The POSTIVE side of Digital Footprints! On the other hand, social networking profiles gave some job seekers an edge over the competition. 24% of hiring managers who researched job candidates via social networking sites said they found content that helped to solidify their decision to hire the candidate.
Check the Fine PRINT: Who Owns your work online? YouTube
What is YOUR digital footprint? http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/koppel/interactive/interactive.html
Clean Up Social Networking Site 1. Take control of your photos. Your personal and professional life are becoming one, largely due to Facebook. Go through what you have on your social network & untag yourself in photos that an employer might find inappropriate. 2. Set privacy settings. You have less reason to worry if employers can’t access your digital life. 3. Post photos that promote you as a professional. If you have photos from volunteering, studying abroad, working a job, giving a presentation, or any other semi-professional event, post them. They go a long way to help counteract other photos that might negatively impact your image. 4. Put up a clean profile photo of yourself. Even if you got a lot of compliments on your stripper Halloween costume, a profile picture that isn’t associated raucous college partying means a lot to people in hiring positions. 5) Stay active online. By commenting on blogs and forums, updating your profiles, and even creating your own site you can become much more visible and credible online. This gives the people who search you a much more comprehensive picture of who you are and allows you to highlight the good and bury the bad 6. Be mindful of who you accept as a “Friend.” Poor choices could reflect badly on you as a professional. Make sure to monitor their comments on your sites as well.
Set up an Alert to Monitor Yourself Google Alerts http://google.com/alerts Google Profile http://google.com/profile Vanish http://vanish.cs.washington.edu/index.html
1993 AT&T Future Predication
Where are we going?
Student’s Say… "The whole having to hide the cell phone is really why so many students are not able to pay attention. If we were allowed our cell phones as we work, we would pay a lot more attention, since we don't have to keep glancing down at the cell phone we are currently hiding under a table. I am able to avoid the whole messaging thing during school, but if they allowed it I have the feeling my grades would go higher, and my learning would improve” -Thomas, high school student