From Toys to Tools: Technology in the Classroom Liz Kolb, Ph.D. University of Michigan firstname.lastname@example.org http://cellphonesinlearning.com http://tiny.cc/appleton(presentation) Twitter: lkolb Liz’s Mobile Business Card Send a new text: 50500 In message: kolb http://contxts.com
Classroom Technology requested by new teachers
% of New Teachers who would like technology in their hands of the students
New Teachers List The Technologies They Use EVERYDAY outside of teaching Everyday Use Classroom Wish List TV-DVD-DVR Internet Online Courses Web Blogging Cell Phones Facebook or MySpace Wikipedia Video Games (Wii and Computer-Based) iPod/MP3 Players GPS Devices Google, Google Earth, Google Maps Twitter TV-DVD-DVR Internet LCD Projector Chalkboard/Dry Erase PowerPoint Teacher Laptop Word Excel Tape/CD Player Overhead Projector Educational Software SMARTboard Telephone
10 years ago…”We” thought we succeeded with technology integration in schools. K–12 schools, state and federal governments have spent around $6.9 billion on computer hardware, Internet access, wiring, software, servers, and other digital equipment to make today’s technology available to students and teachers Kleiman, G.M. (2000). Myths and Realities about Technology in K-12 Schools. Leadership and the New Technologies. Retrieved April 7, 2004, from http://www2.edc.org/LNT/news/Issue14/featurecontents.htm
2001 Findings Access to educational software and hardware did not lead to its widespread use in classroom learning. Cuban, L., Kirkpatrick, H., and Peck, C. (2001). High Access and Low Use of Technologies in High School Classrooms: Explaining an Apparent Paradox.American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 813-834.
Recommendations have not changed much since 1983 1. Improve access, connectivity, and requisite infrastructure; 2. Create more, high-quality content and software; 3. Provide more, sustained, high-quality professional development and overall support for teachers seeking to innovate and grow in this domain; 4. Increase funding from multiple sources for a range of relevant activities 5. Define and promote the roles of multiple stakeholders, including the public and private sectors; 6. Increase and diversify research, evaluation, and assessment; and 7. Review, revise and update regulations and policy that affect in-school use of technology, particularly regarding privacy, and security. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:gz5N4W_2Me4J:www.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/20years.pdf+technology&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShqjm9L7nD6WzVm2hupHuwmkqumO4KV71hNv1cZ-KlI4dMoYQMvKkw1ZVcjDcddwk9u-KmpEjyKhxJN0b10_WfPMzMmu4AnIRB6MrssOT_lvlrCOvgvRjk2MW6jnT-vT68gde3k&sig=AHIEtbRKyUjaQEHshOGjxBk1_t-KDN49aA
9years later… “Still a digital disconnect”
Between students and adults
No dramatic evidence that technology integration in schools has improved learning in the long term (sustainable)
Between school technology and student’s everyday technology use.
Speak Up 2007 Report. Retrieved: http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/speakup_your_data.html
Why haven’t we seen long-term education technology change that reflects technology changes in society? In 1986, Larry Cuban Found: Technology Traditionally infused from Top-Down Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.
Teachers Say Technology in Their school is introduced by…
“Some of the most crucial steps in mental growth are based not simply on acquiring new skills, but on acquiring new administrative ways to use what one already knows.” -Seymour Papert
Bottom-Up What is in Your Backpack?
"Kids tell us they power down to come to school.”-Julie Evans, CEO of Project Tomorrow (2008)
Secretary of Education http://tinyurl.com/yzvr944
How many of your schools use cell phones for learning?
How many of your schools use the Internet for learning?
Internet v. Mobile 73% of U.S. household’s have Internet access 57% have broadband 43% have dial-up 30% of U.S. citizens do not use the Internet at all 63% of people with a household income of <49K have no Internet 87% of U.S. Citizens own Cell phones. 13% of U.S. citizens do not own a cell phone 94% of U.S. Citizens 18-45 own a cell phone 18% of U.S. Citizens with an income of <50K do not have a cell phone Park Associates and CTIA wireless association, both 2007
By the end of 2010 it is estimated that… 54% of 8 year olds will have their own cell phone! Over 90% of Secondary Students will have cell phones Amoroso, (2006). Tween Market has the potential to double by 2010. Yankee Group Retrieved from www.yankeegroup.com/researchdocument.dorid=14058
Arguments for Using Students’ Everyday Tools
Access 76% of secondary students have their own cell phones 80% of secondary students have MP3 players (Project Tomorrow, 2008, Apr. 8). 84% of children between the ages of 8 to 10 have a video game player in their household (Rideout et al, 2005). 93% of teenagers use the Internet 55% of 12-17 year olds have a profile on Facebook or Myspace (Lenhart et al, 2007).
Millennials Rising (Neil Howe and William Strauss) How 21st Century Students learn best… Collaboratively Anytime, anyplace, anywhere, any pace Structured activities Relevancy with real world *They want to do this with the TECHNOLOGY of their generation
WELCOME To The Era of the…Free Agent Learner Technology enabled bottom up learner ANYTIME ANYWHERE ANYPLACE ANY PACE
For Example… 1-800-2chacha 1-800-2chacha
Fundamental Shift in 21st Century Workforce Technological changes are displacing low-skilled workers and making room for more high-skilled creative and innovative workers. Employers are calling for schools to integrate new skills into education
Partnership for 21st Century Skills 12% of U.S. adult population believe that students are being prepared for the 21st century workforce
Mobile Job Opportunities for Students
Companies Go Mobile Mobile Coupons SMS & MMS http://www.cellfire.com http://www.attractionsbook.com/text-coupons http://www.xtracoupons.com/ Mobile Advertising
Latest News on Mobile Marketing
SMS & QRcodes & Call Ins
Where are we going?
Search for “cell phone skills” on Monster.com
Fundamental Shift in Citizenship Practices 74% of all 18-24 year olds were politically active on the Internet during the 2008 campaign During the 2008 campaign, 49% of younger voters (18-24) shared information via text message about the campaigns.
Research says… "The proportions of textisms that kids used in their sentence translations was positively linked to verbal reasoning; the more textspeak kids used, the higher their test scores” 2) "The younger the age at which the kids had received mobile phones, the better their ability to read words and identify patterns of sound in speech.” http://www.britac.ac.uk/news/news.cfm/newsid/14
How 21st century student’s view their cell phones NPR: Three Generations' View of Cell Phones http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17603266
Why cell phones should NOT be integrated in learning. http://wiffiti.com/clouds/1685
Cheating is a problem…
26% of teenagers admitted to using their cell phone to store information to look at during a test or a quiz.
25% have text messaged their friends about answers during a test or quiz.
20% have searched the Internet via their mobile phone during a test or quiz.
17% have taken pictures of a test or quiz with the cell phone in order to send the pictures to their friends.
Common Sense Media 09
Even MORE of a problem Most students do not envision these activities as cheating. More than half of the students surveyed did not think these acts were serious offenses of cheating, rather they think of it as just “helping out a friend.” Common Sense Media 09
70% of U.S. schools completely ban cell phones from campus 63% of students admitted to sneaking in cell phones and using them during class anyway. In a seven class a day, five day school week, the average student sends at least three text messages per class. Common Sense Media 09
Life Consequences Students are sometimes “sexting” “to friends for their entertainment value, as a joke or for fun." Six teens face child porn (13 to 15) charges after being caught "sexting" each other. Criminal Charge! IN PA, 3 girls (12, 12, 16) charged with child pornography for sexing. Picture of them in bras. 15% of teenagers have risque photos of themselves or their friends on their cell phones. 1in5sext recipients report that they have passed the images along to someone else http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/bestoftv/2009/01/15/pn.sexting.teens.cnn
"If you take a picture, you can be accused of producing child pornography; if you send it to somebody, you can be accused of distributing child pornography; and if you keep a picture, you can be accused of possessing child pornography. Anywhere along this chain of transmission of the images, you can be charged as a registered sex offender." -Parry Aftab, an Internet privacy and security lawyer.
Current Banning and Structures are NOT working Students still “cheating”, “Off-task”, or “inappropriately” using cell phones in schools Students still bring them to schools and use them when told not to. Students still do not understand consequences of their use Students have no idea how to use them in future job force!
Why Are We Reluctant? Is it in our history?
History of Ed Tech The history of educational technology has not been glowing, and it is difficult to point to particular advances in the effectiveness of schools that are related to technology (Cuban, Kilpatrick, & Peck, 2001).
Teacher’s Conference, 1703 “Student’s today can’t prepare bark to calculate their problems. They depend on their slates, which are more expensive. What will they do when the slate is dropped and it breaks? They will not be able to write.”
Principal’s Assocation, 1815 “Students today depend upon paper too much. They don’t know how to write on slate without getting chalk dust all over themselves. They can’t clean a slate properly. What will they do when they run out of paper?”
1999 Michael Mowe (1999) wrote in The Montgomery County Heard “The Internet is not a great tool for teaching...People think that children can think of any topic and pull up a wealth of information on it, but that is not the case. The information in the library is what people seem to expect, but nobody has the time to transcribe entire libraries onto computers. There is nothing on the Internet that is incredibly beneficial to education.”
Mayor bloomberg, 2007 “We are not going to allow iPods and BlackBerrys and cell phones and things that are disruptive in the classroom. Classrooms are for learning. Teachers cannot be expected to look under every kid’s desk at what they’re doing.”
How do we change?
2007 Craik Middle School in Canada: Began Using Cell Phones 8th Grade 40% have cell phones Using them for…
Text Messaging Activities
Recording Group Conversations
Sending assignments to the teacher
2007: Middle School Principal’s Journey “Last year the school ran out of calculators needed for a math exam, So I let a student use the calculator function on his cell phone. The student was excited to use a phone instead of a calculator. I found 19 of my 22 students had phones.” -Kipp Rogers, Principal at Passages Middle School in Virginia
Mary Passage Middle School Cell Phone Policy
1. Students will talk on their cell phone only to complete assignments that are related to the instructional lesson. 2. Students will keep cell phones turned off or left in lockers when they are not being used for instructional purposes in class. 3. Students will only send text- messages, pictures or video- messages to others outside of the classroom with permission and directions from the teacher. 4. Students will not record still or moving images or voices of students or the teacher without permission from the teacher. 5. Students will not post recordings of still or moving images or voice recordings of students or the teacher to online websites without their permission. 6. Students will practice internet safety with online resources. 7. Students will post only appropriate text, audio and visual media to on-line websites.
I _____________________ understand that violation of our class acceptable cell phone use policy may result in my not being able to participate in additional class activities that involve using the cell phone. I also understand that I may receive disciplinary consequences for violating school board policies regarding cyber-bullying.
I _______________________ have gone over the Cell Phones in Class Acceptable Use Policy with my child and agree to allow my child to participate.
Addressing: Safety & Access Dr. Kipp Rogers Says… "For the most part, the kids respect the rules. I never had any problems with kids using them inappropriately in my class. We spent a lot of time talking about their digital footprint and that what they do can be tracked.” He said he initially worried about "the haves and have nots," but students work in teams for most assignments requiring cell phones, so there is always at least one phone among the group.
Teacher’s Reactions Teachers said participation is up and discipline problems are down in classes using cell phones. Rogers is looking for ways to expand the phones' uses. "It's fighting a losing battle to ask them to leave them at home.” Learn more from Dr. Rogers: http://passage.nn.k12.va.us/
Student’s Reaction Sixth-grader Cassie Garn said her English teacher uses cell phones for several exercises. "This is more interesting and people pay attention," she said. "It's fun. It beats writing stuff down and everybody likes to try to be first." “My teacher roams the room to make sure students are sending answers and not texts to friends.” "It's all related to work," Garn said. "We're not texting other people."
5 Rules for Cell Phones in Schools Set rules based on business regulations for cell phone use (look at business contracts) Social contract with students
Must be on vibrate at all times
Keep them in the front of the room until you are going to use them.
All messages/media sent or published must be related to lesson.
If you are referencing someone else in class, you must have their approval before posting or publishing.
Create a permission form (in addition to the School’s AUP)
Discuss Mobile Safety & Appropriate Use Part of digital footprint Your digital dossier that includes Internet activity such as social networking, email, chat rooms, YOU can’t erase this!!! Permanent record EVERYTHING you send via text message (pictures, videos, text, audio…etc) is PUBLIC!!! Example: Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Mobile “bullying” and “sexting” is public MTV Special on Sextingand Quiz Students should know their plans Bring in their cell phone plan and a bill Discuss what is charged and how much Give Students a Survey Learn more specific safety tips at Connectsafely
EXAMPLE: Mobile Podcasting Project: Field Trips High School Chemistry Students on a field trip at Cranbrook Science Museum in MI. Cell Phones pictures documented chemical elements. Used: Camera on cell phone and sent to drop.io at http://drop.io/CKCHEM4
CPS Project: Brainstorming http://wiffiti.com
Text Message Alerts! Sending out mass text messages to large or small groups of people. http://textmarks.com
Text Message Project: Text Homework Alerts Jimbo Lamb High School Math Teacher Pennsylvania Text for Homework Uses: http://textmarks.com http://mrlambmath.wikispaces.com/
Mobile Novel Project: Cell Phone Bestseller Popular in Asia to Read Novels Via Cell. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/20/world/asia/20japan.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1&th&emc=th&oref=slogin
Use a cell phone to write a private or collaborative novel, poem, chapter review, or short story to “publish” on a cell phone. Mobile Novels http://textnovel.com
Web 2.0 Voicemail A cell phone that couples with a website in order to create MP3 files of voicemails, transcripts of voicemails, smart greeting for individual or groups of callers, and stores all calling information. http://google.com/voice (734) 408-4495
Google Voice in Foreign Language http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/CellPhonesintheLanguageClassro/192995
Create Your Own Mobile Scavenger Hunt http://www.scvngr.com
QRcodes Bar codes for cell phones. Take a picture of a bar code and receive information on your phone. http://kaywa.com
Avatar Project: Spanish Oral Exams High School Spanish 2 & 3 Students Developed an Avatar to take oral exams Used http://voki.com Focus: Engagement in oral speaking, oral speaking exams, culture representation with images
Social Networking/Cell Phones/and Video Games Digital Footprints
Movie: Digital Dossier http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79IYZVYIVLA
In Cyberspace… Don’t assume anything you send or post is going to remain private. There is no changing your mind in cyberspace—anything you send or post will never truly go away. Don’t give in to the pressure to do something that makes you uncomfortable, even in cyberspace. Consider the recipient’s reaction. Nothing is truly anonymous.
Your Media is NEVER deleted! Cambridge researchers posted pictures to sixteen websites, noting the direct URL to the image, and then deleted the original. They reopened the URLs over a period of 30 days to see whether the pictures were accessible and found that images were still visible on five sites at the end of that month. This is possible because the files remain in photo server caches of the underlying content delivery network (CDN) after they have been cleared from indices that provide data for dynamic pages (such as profiles) and search results. The terms of service for these sites indicate that deletion may not be immediate, with Facebook likening the process to putting a file in the Recycle Bin. http://emergingtechnologies.becta.org.uk/index.php?section=etn&rid=14632
Way Back Machine Social networks have been used to post content to embarrass or intimidate students, so it is important for learners to understand that the consequences of such actions may last even longer than they expected. Not only may content remain in caches and backups, but it can be copied to third party sites or be captured in archives without your knowledge or permission, such as the Wayback Machine.
53% of Employers Screen job candidates via Social Networks
Of those hiring managers who have screened job candidates via social networking profiles, one-third (34%) reported they found content that caused them to dismiss the candidate from consideration.
Specific Reasons for NOT hiring based on Digital Footprint found 40% - candidate posted provocative or inappropriate photographs or information 29% - candidate had poor communication skills 28% - candidate bad-mouthed their previous company or fellow employee 22% - candidate’s screen name was unprofessional
The POSTIVE side of Digital Footprints! On the other hand, social networking profiles gave some job seekers an edge over the competition. 24% of hiring managers who researched job candidates via social networking sites said they found content that helped to solidify their decision to hire the candidate.
Student or teacher Facebook Post? You Decide… “"Teaching in DCPS -- Lesson #1: Don't smoke crack while pregnant." "you're a retard, but i love you.” "I only have two feelings: hunger and lust. Also, I slept with a hooker. Be jealous. I like to go onto Jdate and get straight guys to agree to sleep with me." "rocking out with some deaf kids. it. is. AWESOME."
Should Teacher be Fired? "teaching chitlins in the ghetto of Charlotte” "I am teaching in the most ghetto school in Charlotte” http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/LTQ0OTcxMTYzNw
Prosecutors Search Social Networking Sites! Prosecutors use Facebook, MySpace photos Students who made light of drinking received jail sentences for DUI Defense attorneys also use social networking sites to dig up dirt on witnesses PROVIDENCE, Rhode Island (AP) -- Two weeks after Joshua Lipton was charged in a drunken driving crash that seriously injured a woman, the 20-year-old college junior attended a Halloween party dressed as a prisoner. Pictures from the party showed him in a black-and-white striped shirt and an orange jumpsuit labeled "Jail Bird.” http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:SgDbAA0gzEoJ:freedom-school.com/reading-room/unrepentant-on-facebook-expect-jail-time.pdf+Unrepentent+on+Facebook&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a
Check the Fine PRINT: Who Owns your work online? YouTube TeacherTube
What Are Your Digital Footprints? Survey Social Networking Sites: Facebook, MySpace Email Twitter Webpages Snapfish, Kodak, Flick YouTube Google Yourself
What is YOUR digital footprint? http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/koppel/interactive/interactive.html
Clean Up Social Networking Site 1. Take control of your photos. Your personal and professional life are becoming one, largely due to Facebook. Go through what you have on your social network & untag yourself in photos that an employer might find inappropriate. 2. Set privacy settings. You have less reason to worry if employers can’t access your digital life. 3. Post photos that promote you as a professional. If you have photos from volunteering, studying abroad, working a job, giving a presentation, or any other semi-professional event, post them. They go a long way to help counteract other photos that might negatively impact your image. 4. Put up a clean profile photo of yourself. Even if you got a lot of compliments on your stripper Halloween costume, a profile picture that isn’t associated raucous college partying means a lot to people in hiring positions. 5) Stay active online. By commenting on blogs and forums, updating your profiles, and even creating your own site you can become much more visible and credible online. This gives the people who search you a much more comprehensive picture of who you are and allows you to highlight the good and bury the bad 6. Be mindful of who you accept as a “Friend.” Poor choices could reflect badly on you as a professional. Make sure to monitor their comments on your sites as well.
Set up an Alert to Monitor Yourself Google Alerts http://google.com/alerts Google Profile http://google.com/profile Vanish http://vanish.cs.washington.edu/index.html