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Applying Universal Design to Improve Reference & Instruction Services
 

Applying Universal Design to Improve Reference & Instruction Services

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  • Hi Diana,

    So glad the slides are helpful. By 'clickers' we mean the personal response systems that many teachers are starting to use. I think they are a great tool for engagement, but I would not recommend using them in a time sensitive manner (it's not a race). I hope this helps. And thanks for the questions. It will help us to clarify what we intended. Also, an article we wrote on this subject has recently been published. here is the citation:
    Chodock, T. & Dolinger, E. (2009). Applying universal design to information literacy: Teaching students who learn differently at Landmark College. RUSQ- Reference and User Services Quarterly, 49(1).

    I hope this clarifies the slide for you. Please contact me directly if you choose.

    ~Elizabeth Dolinger
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  • I like your slides, this is very useful and I want to incorporate some of your ideas into my own instruction. I have one question about this slide though, what do you mean by the term 'clickers'? Are you talking about user a cursor to click on links and other things in a database?
    many thanks,
    Diana
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  • Welcome! Thank you for coming to our presentation. I am… This is… We are from Landmark College, a college specifically for students who learn differently. Most of our students have AD/HD and/or dyslexia. All of our students have some type of learning disability, though like you, we never know which ones are represented in our classes. Our presentation is on Universal Design for Information Literacy & Reference services, which we use to assist Landmark College students in developing research skills and reducing library anxiety. You can download and read our PowerPoint at the URL listed on the board over here: http://www.landmark.edu/Library/about/bythestaff.cfm
  • First we will talk about who our “customers” are, focusing on students with learning disabilities, AD/HD, and library anxiety Then we’ll talk about Universal Design and how it has been applied in learning environments Next we’ll share our experiences applying Universal Design principles in our classes and reference interactions Finally we’ll ask you to share with us some of your experiences, and to brainstorm ideas on how you can hopefully start to apply Universal Design principles at your library OUTLINE for BOARD: 1. Our Customers? 2. Universal Design (UD) 3.Our experiences applying UD at Landmark Reference Services Information Literacy Instruction 4.How do you apply UD principles in your Library? ?
  • From 2006 – 2017 the National Center for Education Statistics projects a 19% rise in enrollments of people 25 and over About 1% of these students report some type of disability… “ disability” = does not include AD/HD (figure includes physical disabilities, specific LD such as dyslexia, speech disability, etc., does not include AD/HD)
  • 2003 – 2004 12.3% of undergraduates reported English was NOT the primary language spoken at home. Out of the approximately 60 people in this room, this translates to about 7 people for whom English is not the primary language spoken at home. 2003 – 2004 public 4 year institutions 10.6% reported English was NOT the primary language spoken at home compared to 2-year public institutions 13.2% reported English was NOT the primary language spoken at home.
  • 1999-2000 9.3% of undergraduates reported some type of disability Among those, 5% reported a specific learning disability, such as dyslexia. 6.4% reported ADD. 17% reported mental illness/depression. In 4 years: 50% or more increase in number of students who self identified as having a specific learning disability or ADD. 11.3% of students reporting some type of disability would translate to about 6 people in this room reporting some type of disability... These numbers are going to be lower than what one would find at the high school level, for example, because in college, a student must self-identify, and they may choose not to identify themselves (stigma attached). A 2005 report from the National Longitudinal transition Study-2 found that only “40% of postsecondary students with disabilities identify themselves as having a disability and have informed their postsecondary schools of that disability.” (Wagner, 2005). that would mean that it would be more like 12 or 13 people in this room with some type of disability…
  • The Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) defines a learning disability as…
  • We asked some of our students to tell us how they would define “learning disability” and here’s some of the response we received… disibility is an opportunity for someone to be more creative goes in a different direction to get there but reaches the same destination
  • One student sent me her concept map, a tool that students with dyslexia and visual learners frequently find helpful. She points out that a learning disability is not actually a disability but a difference, and that it has nothing to do with intelligence. This is important to recognize!
  • The definition I like (which comes from the Learning Disabilities Sourcebook)… In other words, a person with a learning disability has a different way of learning. At Landmark, we prefer to use the term learning differences. A learning disability isn’t about intelligence because students with LD’s learn differently than most and because curricula are typically designed for a fictional average student, students with LD’s haven’t had the opportunity to learn as much as they could have, given a different environment. They tend to have large gaps in their knowledge base. Although we are highlighting the impact of students who learn differently in our classrooms, As the statistics provided earlier show… college students are increasingly diverse in many ways, including age, primary language, socioeconomic, life experience, culture, and learning profiles. (McGuire & Scott, 2007, p 124).
  • In many places, such as the National Center for Education Statistics, dyslexia falls under the term “Specific Learning Disability” unlike AD/HD which is considered a psychological disorder, rather than a learning disability.
  • Students with dyslexia don’t really have typical behaviors. You can imagine what a call number looks like to a student with dyslexia. Think about having to skim read a list of article titles or abstracts in a database. These students are most likely to rely on screen readers, audio books, etc. Trouble with visual-verbal responding = think of the use of clickers in classes = they favor fast readers & cognitive processors… so if you use clickers, I recommend not having it be a time sensitive contest. Students with dyslexia often show a wide disparity between listening comprehension and reading comprehension.
  • AD/HD is considered a psychological disorder rather than a learning disability, and is defined as… Also called ADD, which is just an older term, before hyperactivity was included in the identification
  • Students with AD/HD actually have a heightened sense of attention, rather than a deficit. They pay attention to all the non-relevant stimuli placed into a task or their environment; this takes away from the attention needed for the relevant information. (Zentall, 2005).
  • As one enters adulthood, executive functions become more of a challenge. Executive Functions are Mental activities associated with self-control, attention, focus, or concentration that allow an individual to achieve specific goals. Related to 4 kinds of mental activities: working memory (problem solving process), internalized or private speech (using complex sets of rules in problem solving), control of emotions and impulses (allows focus and ability to return to tasks), reconstitution (ability to observe behaviors and synthesize into new combinations; essential to problem solving and extrapolation). Working memory has been described as a “scratch pad’ for maintaining chunks of information in immediate memory” so you can imagine the hurdle a student with the executive function challenges of working memory and reconstitution would have when trying to repeat the steps shown in a library instruction class on how to access and then search a library database. (Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). "Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines - Version 1.0.“) So, you could imagine how prone to Library anxiety these students may be….
  • Library anxiety is an uncomfortable feelings…experienced in a library…that impacts students’ thoughts, feelings, physical health, and behavior. Constance Mellon coined the term in the mid-1980’s to describe the experience of many of her students when they undertook their first college research project. Many others have built on her research, most notably Sharon Bostick who created the Library Anxiety Scale to measure the level of library anxiety library users experience and Qun Jiao and Anthony Onwuegbuzie, who have identified a variety of groups of individual who are at higher risk to experience library anxiety and who have made recommendations for how to reduce it.
  • How many times have you worked with a student panicking about an assignment, filled with tension and fear? Maybe it wasn’t just the assignment, maybe it was also about having to face doing library research. From this list of characteristics, library anxiety looks similar to an anxiety disorder, but there is an important difference. Jiao and Onwuegbuzie have shown Library Anxiety is situational: it lasts while a student has to use the library and then it’s gone (Jiao & Onwuegbuzie, 1999, 281). For librarians, the importance of this is that we can make changes to our services, instruction, and facilities that reduce or prevent library anxiety.
  • As Mellon indicates in the first quote, library anxiety often manifests in the first time an undergraduate needs to do a research paper. Over 20 years after Mellon did her initial research on library anxiety, ? Kwon had strikingly similar results. Regarding his? Experience initiating a library search, one student wrote, “When I first started my research, I felt like I was lost in a sea. I didn’t know where to start…For a few minutes I felt like my thinking abilities were gone.” Kwon (2008) p 24 See Kwon (2008) p 24 The second quote brings out the situational aspect of the library anxiety. In any situation in which a student has to confront the vast array of search options and tools available from the library, library anxiety may arise. This could be the first academic research paper or as a doctoral student needing to do research for a dissertation.
  • Research indicates that certain groups of people are more prone to Library anxiety than others. Some of these groups share characteristics with students with dyslexia or AD/HD. Interestingly, the way these groups experience library anxiety is different. Students with difficulty reading experience library anxiety in their lack of familiarity with the library but not at all in communicating with library staff or in the feelings they have when using the library. In other words, the anxiety is directly related to the the vast sea of information communicated though words and books, which reinforces the difficulties they have with reading. Visual learners and procrastinators, on the other hand, share experiencing library anxiety in their feelings about the library and being uncomfortable doing work there. Perhaps the lack of visuals used in reference interactions and the pressure of doing work at the last minute lead to those reactions. Finally non-native English speakers experience library anxiety when working with library staff, in their feelings about the library, and in using library computers, and they are the only group for whom information literacy classes do not reduce library anxiety. Library classes may reinforce the difficulties and foreignness of the library research. Information literacy classes for international students must pay special attention to the particular challenges they experience doing library research. “ Even the simple library setting can involve lots of environmental cues that have to be encoded, deciphered, and processed by the user before they can become meaningful.” (Onwuegbuzie, Jiao, Bostick, 2004, p 239). “ Students who prefer to receive information via the visual mode tend to have high levels of library anxiety.” (Jiao & Onwuegbuzie , 2003, p 166). “… library anxiety and procrastination are intricately intertwined” ( Onwuegbuzie & Jiao, 2000, p 51). “ ...it can be seen that overall academic procrastination was related positively to affective barriers, comfort with the library, and mechanical barriers.” ( Onwuegbuzie & Jiao. 2000, p 49). Visual learners experience library anxiety in barriers with staff, affective barriers, and comfort in the library ( Cleveland, 2004, p 180). “ Students who prefer to receive information via the visual mode tend to have high levels of library anxiety.” ( Jiao & Onwuegbuzie , 2003, p 166). “ Having taken library instruction courses is associated with lower anxiety except for students who do not speak English as a native language.” ( Cleveland, 2004, p 182). “ Interestingly, students whose native language is not English, on average, had taken significantly more library instruction courses than their English-speaking counterparts, which suggests that these courses were unsuccessful in reducing levels of library anxiety. Thus, library instruction courses designed for these students should provide affective support.” ( Jiao, Onwuegbuzie, & Lichtenstein, 1996, p 158).
  • DRAW BELL CURVE ON BOARD Recognizing that we have customers that include non-traditional students, non-native speakers, students with dyslexia or AD/HD, and many students experiencing library anxiety, how many of them are we willing to accept that our information literacy instruction won’t reach? Traditionally, curricula have been designed for the average student , with a certain percentage of students expected to excel and a certain percentage expected to fail. Universal Design is an an approach to instruction that says the average student is fictional and we need to rethink how we teach so that students with a variety of learning styles and learning challenges have the opportunity to succeed. And to do this, we do not need to dumb down materials or the content of the instruction. By contrast… the basis for curricular and instructional design is the assumption that a wide variety of learning styles and processing capabilities will be present in the classroom and that effective design will maximize the likelihood of achievement and success for all of these different individuals as they master content and work toward the learning outcomes of the course” (Gander, & Shmulsky, 2008).
  • In the early 1970’s, Ron Mace, a wheelchair user and a pioneer in developing accessible building design, coined the term “universal design” as a way to describe the process of removing barriers to full access in built environments. One of the most important UD ideas is that accessibility should be built into the design instead of the structure being retrofitted after the fact. Another idea is that when you remove a barrier for one group of people it often benefits many others at the same time . One of the best examples of this is the curb cut. A curb cut may be absolutely necessary for a wheelchair user, but it also benefits many other people, including anyone riding a bicycle or pushing a stroller.
  • Inspired by the what UD was able to accomplish in built environments, some educators began to look at how to apply UD in the classroom. In the late 1980’s, the Center for Assistive Technology (CAST) created Universal Design for Learning or UDL. Just as a wheelchair user is not the problem, but the lack of an elevator or a ramp is, so CAST began to see that it is a curriculum that is disabled when it can’t reach all the students. A student who learns differently is not responsible for a one size fits all approach to teaching.
  • These principles are grounded in educational theory and more recent research in Neuropsychology. These fit into learning differences is that, for the first principle, multiple means of representation , students with dyslexia, or language or cultural differences, require different ways of approaching the content , using Audio, and visual, for example. Multiple means of expression: those who struggle with organization-those who have, executive function issues approach learning tasks very differently and may prefer to show what they’ve learned using visuals in a PowerPoint format. Multiple means of engagement: “Some students are highly engaged by spontaneity or variety, such as students with AD/HD, but others can be frightened by those aspects in a learning environment (e.g., students with Asperger’s Syndrome or Nonverbal learning disorder need very structured, predictable forms of engagement) (Rose, Harbour, Johnston, Daley & Abarbanell, 2006, p 137). The bottom line is all three of the principles in the importance of making learning relevant to all students. UDL was developed primarily to address inequities in primary and secondary education. The adoption of UDL principles is facilitated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which mandates that primary and secondary schools provide access for students with disabilities to the general curriculum (McGuire & Scott, 2007, 126 ). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ And therefore “They (disabled students) are to aspire to the same standards and expectations as their peers.” (Hitchcock, Jackson, Meyer & Rose, 2002). “ Examples of tools and resources developed by CAST include eReader, a literacy support software package that can combine electronic text from any source with reading supports (such as spoken text and visual highlighting) to make information accessible to users of all abilities…teaching handbooks, guides to integrate UDL tools and strategies into the curriculum” (McGuire, Scott & Shaw, 2006).
  • At the postsecondary level the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act, require postsecondary institutions to accommodate students with learning disabilities, which is generally accomplished through making available professional note takers, extended test time, tutors, or assistive technology. (Bowe, 2000). There is no clarity, however, regarding how individual schools interpret the ADA or Rehabilitation Act with respect to their instruction. (Shaw, Scott & McGuire, 2001). Moreover, postsecondary faculty are usually trained to be experts in their discipline, not in pedagogy. (McGuire & Scott, 2007, 124-134). How to encourage faculty to develop inclusive curricula inspired the Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability (CPED) at the University of Connecticut to develop 9 Principles of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), an adaptation of the principles of universal design to college instruction. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Quote: “ change will be fueled by thoughtful approaches that are responsive to the culture of faculty ” (McGuire & Scott, 2007). This is also true for us, for instruction librarians. A 1998 article by Silver, Bourke & Strehorn first explored the idea of applying UD to higher education. CPED’s initial articulation of the UDI principles followed an extensive literature review on UD and educational theory with regard to creating accessible, barrier-free postsecondary classes (McGuire & Scott, 2007).
  • A lot of what UD is, is already a part of what we do/ what we should be doing based on the ACRL standards, RUSA Behavioral Guidelines, Americans with Disabilities Act, etc… a lot of thought has already gone into how we can reach all of our students You have likely integrated UD principles, just not as consciously, as hopefully, you might now…
  • Library literature describes a variety of UD applications, including improving the accessibility of physical and website architecture, For example, University of Washington, “ Equal Access: Universal Design of Libraries, ” University of Washington: Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking & Technology (DO-IT), http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Academics/equal_access_lib.html (accessed August 1, 2008).
  • Any good website design will take into consideration usability factors. These factors are helpful for everyone but even more important for those with disabilities. See work by Jakob Nielson: http://www.useit.com/ or you may have seen the “bobby approved” label on some websites… also the governments usability website: http://www.usability.gov/
  • A few ACRL standards that UDI really ties into are: 6.6 Designs instruction to best meet the common learning characteristics of learners 6.7 Integrates appropriate technology into instruction (web sources, web tutorials, print handouts, use of computers,
  • 9.2 Presents instructional content in diverse ways 12.2 Modifies teaching methods and delivery to address different learning styles, language abilities… ACRL Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate best Practices: A Guideline Category 2: Goals and Objectives for an information literacy program apply to all learners, regardless of delivery system or location Category 7: Pedagogy for an information literacy program responds to multiple learning styles category 10: Assessment/evaluation acknowledges differences in learning and teaching styles by using a variety of outcome measures
  • Similar to the ACRL instruction guidelines, the RUSA behavioral guidelines should already be best practices. Te ones selected here reflect behaviors that have been shown to reduce library anxiety and are helpful for all students to make the library welcoming, comfortable, and navigable. 1.1 Library users feel comfortable talking with a reference librarian 1.4 Positive body language to show that we are interested and supportive 1.7 Roving to the point of need instead of waiting to be approached
  • Librarians should be able both help library users find what they need and reduce their anxiety while doing it. A challenging combination
  • We all hear a lot about active learning methods of instruction, not only is Active learning essential, but the principles of UDI demand the use of Active Learning methods. By consciously applying UDI principles while planning information literacy sessions, the purpose of using active learning methods broadens from simply engaging students and breaking up lecture to a way to reach the variety of learners in the classroom. Some active learning methods that we may all have heard of include: problem based learning, constructivist learning, hands on instruction, cooperative learning, discovery learning, experiential learning,
  • Ideas about universal design are finding their way to the library world and even to college-level library instruction Debbie Creamer, the director of the Ira J. Taylor Library at the Iliff School of Theology in Denver, CO wrote this: Barriers exist in the instruction, not in the user, and thus it is the instruction that must change . This change in mindset alone improves interactions between the non-disabled and people with disabilities, as they become potential partners in addressing the common problem of shortcomings in instructional design rather than exhibiting an inequitable power relationship where one person is the problem and the other the problem solver. – to be inclusive and partner with people who learn differently What we’ve done is try to apply the UDI principles to our instruction and reference interactions. Just like I said about UDI, these are not set in stone, they are just ideas to consider and ways to reflect on how to create more accessible, barrier-free Library services.
  • Equitable use- Instruction should be accessible to people with diverse abilities ( Shaw, Scott & McGuire , 2001) Create web-based course guides : web and print versions, allow use of screen readers, can take notes in class, visual reminder and outline of content covered in class for students who struggle to take notes. Spell vocally and write out search words: allows student to simultaneously participate. Helps ESL students, and students with dyslexia. ( McGuire & Scott, 2006). Print words (avoid cursive): Use sans-serif font - serif fonts increase the difficulty of reading text. Video or screencast tutorials and handouts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “ The most common solution to overcome the language barrier is to provide plenty of handouts to students, amongst which there should be a glossary of library terms that need explanation. Of course, such a glossary would be beneficial to all students, not just the international ones.” (Trew, 2006, p 153). “… the video is a useful way of providing orientation, or as a supplement so that those with language difficulties can learn at their own pace.” (Trew, 2006, p 158). ALA Multilingual library terms glossary: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/about/sections/is/projpubs/pubs/multilingual.cfm “ The Principles are not viewed as a checklist to apply to elements of instruction but rather as a framework for faculty to think reflectively about their teaching and approaches to broaden learning experiences and facilitate an inclusive classroom climate ” (McGuire & Scott , 2006).
  • 2) Flexibility in use- Instruction should accommodate a wide range of individual abilities ( Shaw, Scott & McGuire, 2001 ). Preview & review lesson plan with a vocalized & written agenda that is checked off as each goal is achieved. Helps students with working memory issues keep track of content. Use of active learning methods that engage multiple senses Repeat back questions and ask many questions of the students is important for students with attentional difficulties: focuses attention internally and away from external stimuli, helping to self-monitor behavior. ( Zentall, 2005, p 831). Reference: modeling and parallel searching , explaining what you are doing as you go , going with the student to the reference area, opening books, searching at two computers at the same time, using inclusion to talk through the process, using both questioning techniques and modeling techniques. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “ Students from some cultures use questions and answers as a way to learn. In many other cultures, learning is done through modeling. A parent, teacher, or older sibling does the action and the learner observes and then imitates either in front of the leader or on their own. In some cultures, asking questions is seen as a sign of stupidity. This would have many implications, both at the reference desk and in the instruction classroom. Where using questions may not be effective, modeling may be.” ( Gilton, 2007, p 430). “ When the librarian takes the time to ask the student questions such as, ‘What kind of question is this? Is it asking you to compare or contrast? To categorize? To describe? To chronicle? Given this kind of question, what kinds of information do you need?’ the librarian models for the student the preliminary problem analysis that will benefit the novice problem solver in the long run. Taking out a piece of paper and sketching out one possible graphic representation of the problem, for instance in a concept map format, is another way to model analysis for the student.” (Fields, 2006, p 417). “ You can prevent many communication accidents from happening simply by telling the user what you are doing.” (Ross, Nilsen, and Dewdney, 2002, p 111). “ Inclusion is an attending skill: It maintains the communication process between two people when one person must perform a task that does not, in itself, require interpersonal communication…” (Ross, Nilsen, and Dewdney, 2002, p 111).
  • Principle 3: Instruction is straightforward and predictable regardless of the student’s background knowledge or previous library research experience. It’s important to remove the barrier of library lingo and to teach teaching only skills directly related to the assignment so that students can leave a library session both with a new skill and an article or book they can use for their assignment. Because library anxiety is situation specific, a library workshop that helps with a specific assignment can be very effective at reducing library anxiety. One-on-one assistance can also reduce library anxiety by helping students develop a more positive view of the library research. Scaffolding questions is a way to build up students library skills. Hard scaffolds are worksheets or handouts, perhaps a web-based course guide or a worksheet on how to do develop a search strategy; soft scaffolds are using questions about the assignment, the student’s topic, and their understanding of the subject matter to build their skill and knowledge in a reference interview or consultation. =========================================================================================================== “ An encouraging finding was that students who have taken library skills courses tend to report experiencing less affective barriers and feeling more comfortable with and knowledgeable about the library .” (Jiao & Onwuegbuzie, 1997). “ Another strategy is to break the ice and reduce library anxiety early on is to use humor to help illustrate library research concepts in class.” (Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 257). “ As far as library anxiety prevention is concerned, these traditional instructional approaches [one-on-one instructional assistance, one-shot lectures and workshops , freshman seminars, course-related sessions, printed guides, and web-based tutorials] work more effectively than do the long-range information literacy education because library anxiety is situation specific . It lasts as long as the situation is present… It is dealt with more effectively with immediate and specific intervention measures, such as one-on-one instruction at reference desks and one-shot lectures and workshops aimed at developing proficiency in using specific library tools and resources in demand, especially those traditional library resources and effective search strategies .” (Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 261). Individualized information sessions: “The user-oriented, individualized service may have a modest impact on library anxiety because it tends to guide the user in the making of certain kinds of deliberate, task-oriented choices. Generally speaking, students high in library anxiety would improve in their library research skills and attitudes with those services that can be characterized by either a high degree of structure and individuality or by opportunities for them to see the meaningful results in a relatively time-saving and friendly environment. The individualized assistance program is, perhaps, also a good way to foster a positive view of library resources and services among the “at risk” students and to mitigate negative experiences and perception ” (Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 273). “ Hard scaffolds are predetermined and set…” (Fields, 2006, p 416). Examples of hard scaffolds include worksheets on the research process, for developing a search strategy, or for locating relevant books, databases, and websites. “ Soft scaffolds are provided by human interaction, either with peers or with teachers who can constantly adjust their prompts to the student’s actions.” (Fields, 2006, p 416). Soft scaffolds are used during reference interviews and reference consultation to prompt the student to consider different aspects of the topic or different types of sources that might be appropriate. “ ...for many users entering the library is like going to a foreign country, where a foreign language is spoken. So rather than asking users to use the librarian’s language and fit their questions into our systems, we should ask them questions that allow them to describe their information need in their own words.” (Ross, 2003, p 40). “ To be effective these scaffolds need to fall within the learner’s “zone of proximal development”...That is, learners need to be encouraged and even pushed to move beyond their present level of knowledge, but the moves must be graduated so as not to fall completely outside the learner’s knowledge base and developmental stage.” (Fields, 2006, p 415).
  • 4) Perceptible information- Instruction should communicated effectively, regardless of the student’s sensory abilities Shorten task instructions by using few words in giving directions: Just as including too many databases and search strategies can be counterproductive to memory, so can giving detailed instructions that assume a shared knowledge base. Instead, succinct instructions using fewer words provided in sequential order are more effective (Zentall, 2005, p 826). Presenting information in multiple formats: online video clips, emphasizing availability of audio and video content in databases & by linking screencasts to course guides. Stress usability features in databases & websites, such as built in dictionaries Clear, easy to understand signage can put users who feel overwhelmed by being in the library at ease and enable them to easily navigate their way within the library “ Library signs and graphics can help users feel more oriented by funneling information to them in simple forms. They help those unfamiliar with architectural idiosyncrasies of a particular library and with the location of its resources and services…Direct visual information assures library users and encourages them to feel welcome…Signs can also spare people the discomfort in requesting assistance.” ( Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 239-240).
  • 5) Tolerance for error- Instruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace. Allocate 1/3 to 1/2 of each class for assisted individual work time: Often in information literacy work shops students don’t have the time, unlike semester long courses to recover from mistakes which is important to move information from working memory to long term memory. allows students time to practice, ask questions, etc Use Reference interactions as the beginning of a relationship. Using conversation to help a student move from a rigid, “ill-structured” view of their topic to one that is better suited both to their interests and to being researchable. Relationship building can be over the course of a semester or a students entire academic career. It seems particularly for students with LD’s and Library anxiety, building a relationship with one individual in the Library is an important factor in their use of the Library. We’ve found that if we make a connection with a student in a 1000 level class or the core English research class, that student will become a regular library user and frequently return to the same librarian who they worked with previously. Often the key component of relationship building is that the student knows that the librarian is almost always accessible either at the reference desk or in her/his office. “ A key first step is helping the student determine how well- or ill-structured the problem is, although the librarian probably will not use those terms per se . Does the student have a predetermined topic, or does she have a degree of latitude in choosing her topic? How specific is the goal, either as stated in the assignment itself or as articulated by the student? Does the student have wide berth as to the number and kinds of resources she is encouraged or allowed to use?” (Fields, 2006, p 416). “ With a grasp on the nature of the problem, the librarian and student can begin to solve the problem, with the librarian building into the reference question scaffolding questions designed to build information problem solving expertise within the given student’s domain. Librarian prompts can encourage the student’s reflective thinking thus leading to improved problem setting and problem solving.” (Fields, 2006, p 416).
  • 6) Low Physical Effort We strive to tailor each class to the assignment and to teach different skills at different levels so that students are not experiencing repetitive, cookie-cutter classes. One of the greatest physical and psychological efforts students make is to overcome their fear of looking foolish or ignorant and approach a stranger, who often looks busy or otherwise preoccupied, at a reference desk. Roving throughout the library and making it clear that you are ready to help at the user’s point-of-need can greatly reduce that physical effort. Library Anxiety is situational so… Although it is instilled in us that the reference interview should be done in every interaction and that every encounter with a student is a teachable moment that we should make sure to use to its fullest potential, if we are confronted by students who are clearly exhibiting signs of anxiety and ask us to find certain information for them, it could absolutely be counterproductive to try to turn the situation into a teachable moment. Instead, distressed students may interpret librarians behavior as a barrier that reinforces their feelings of library anxiety and leads them to avoid coming to the library in the future. However, if in that situation the librarian merely provides the requested information, it may actually build trust and relax the student so that when they are less anxious they can come to the library and be receptive to learning how to effective find resources on their own. ======================================================================================= “ Roving can be an effective library anxiety prevention or reduction strategy. Proactive roving calls for librarians actively to seek out those users who may be experiencing difficulties of various kinds by extending a helping hand at their points of need.” (Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 270-271). “ If the user experiences library anxiety because he or she fails to retrieve the needed information due to a lack of information retrieval skills, the most efficient way to reduce the situational library anxiety is perhaps for the librarian simply to provide the information to the user either at a reference desk or through electronic reference services. Why does the librarian even bother to teach the user how to retrieve the information by him or herself in this case? Librarians have been considered as experts in in accessing and retrieving information available from resources both within and outside the library. Users normally expect to get help from the librarian to obtain the needed information so they can complete their task at hand. Indeed, users rarely expect to get a rushed lesson on how to find the information themselves from the librarian, who sometimes naively believes that the user with a specific information need actually absorbs the content of the minilesson. How self reliant doe the librarian hope to teach the librarian to be in most cases? Many users do not desire to learn about the process of searching for information in the library. ..They do not usually relate any difficulties they experience to the need of understanding the search process, but attribute their information retrieval difficulties to a lack of time, unreasonableness of the task assigned, or inadequate help.” (Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 252).
  • 7) Size and space for approach and use- the classroom is designed to maximize learning. Redesign library instruction space to maximize collaboration and minimize distractions: because students with attention difficulties are paying attention to irrelevant stimuli in their environment, a classroom design that minimizes extraneous stimuli is helpful. ( Zentall, 2005, p 826). Arrange the classroom in a way that allows students to interact with each other, and the faces of the speakers, rather than the back of the head of the person in front of them in a row. For example, U shape or chevron angled rows, Mel Silberman, has many layouts that could be adapted. (Silberman, 2006). Reference/circulation desks are low Easy places for parallel searching Efforts made to reduce the feeling of overwhelming amount of books and information. Something equivalent to white spaces on a computer screen. Open spaces, seating spaces. Stacks with face-outs. “ One facet of library anxiety results from the perceived threat in the library’s physical environment. In particular, the library building may intimidate potential users due to its size, complexity, and ambiguity. Users’ perceptions of both quantity and ignorance seem to be determinants of anxiety and uncertainty. Perceptions of quantity relate to the physical environment, where the size of the collection and the layout of the facility often are overwhelming and inhibiting.” ( Onwuegbuzie, Jiao & Bostick, 2004, p 238).
  • 8) A community of learners- The instructional environment promotes communication between students and between students with faculty. For the library instruction to go beyond the short period of time in which the students are in an information literacy class, librarians need to focus on building relationships with the students and faculty. Check in on research progress by e-mail and by roving in the library. I find that I don’t usually remember the students’ name, but I often remember the students topic and the challenges they have had researching it. Roving should allow time to follow-up in these ways and to show the other student working with the student that you are willing to listen to what they are working on. It is often the time when a student will ask a question or decide to make an appointment. Meet with faculty individually and in groups to collaborate on developing inclusive instruction and in the larger community, serve on committees, such as the curriculum committee, where the library can help shape the curriculum. Students who prefer collaborative learning have been shown to have lower levels of library anxiety (Cleveland, 2004, p 182) At the reference desk and in the information literacy class, we should follow Jane Keefer’s advice and “ let students know that everybody experiences anxiety and that asking for help is an important part of the search process.” (Keefer, 1993) This can help alleviate library anxiety.
  • 9) Instructional climate- Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive. There are high expectations for all students. Have a goal that provides motivation Work with faculty to have a specific goal, such as finding at least one research article or primary source on the topic Some students have had negative classroom experiences in which they were stigmatized or disrespected due to their learning differences. (Lann, 2006). A positive, welcoming instructional environment counteracts these negative experiences and facilitates participation and learning for all students. Reference: Emphasis on the welcoming. Body-language, and attitudinal qualities are key Empathy for different learning styles and for international students is very important for creating a positive instructional climate It is also important to realize that although the type of body language recommended in the RUSA Behavioral Guidelines and elsewhere in library literature: eye-contact, nodding, smiling, etc. are appropriate most of the time, but they do not work all the time. Some students will not reciprocate because eye contact may be a sign of disrespect in their culture; other students will nod approvingly and claim to have found what they are seeking because they do not want to contradict or shame the librarian. Students with poor social interaction skills and commonly students on the Autism Spectrum (high functioning Asperger’s and non-verbal learning Disability) will often not make eye contact or know how to express their ideas in a tactful or polite manner. This reinforces the importance of making the reference interview and reference consultation a conversation in which librarians are constantly receiving student feedback as to whether or not they are getting the assistance they need. ==================================================================== “ Librarians are also providing relational information in their verbal and nonverbal expressions. This relational information is communicated through linguistic cues and gestures that convey approachability, rapport building, and empathy. These acts influence the ability of the librarian to understand successfully the user’s need and to establish a positive relationship.” (Radford, 1996). It is also important to realize that although the type of body language recommended in the RUSA Behavioral Guidelines and elsewhere in library literature: eye-contact, nodding, smiling, etc. are appropriate most of the time, they do not work all the time. Some students will not reciprocate because eye contact may be a sign of disrespect in their culture; other students will nod approvingly and claim to have found what they are seeking because they do not want to contradict or shame the librarian. In addition, students with poor social interaction skills and commonly students on the Autism Spectrum (high functioning Asperger’s and non-verbal learning Disability) will often not make eye contact or know how to express their ideas in a tactful or polite manner. This reinforces the importance of making the reference interview and reference consultation a conversation in which librarians are constantly receiving student feedback as to whether or not they are getting the assistance they need. Trew stresses the importance of “developing a tolerance of other cultures, encouraging an understanding of cultural diversity in an academic setting, and becoming adept at cultural appraisal and empathy.” (Trew, 2006, p 164).
  • This is a concept map, made using the software program, Inspiration. I took the principles and how we apply them and placed them into this concept map, for a visual way of sharing the information. Students with dyslexia tend to take to concept maps really well, but they are helpful for anyone who is a visual learner. Information on Inspiration software is included with other assistive technologies in the packet we gave you.
  • Bibliography: American Library Association (ALA). "Library Services for People with Disabilities Policy." Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA). http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/ascla/asclaissues/libraryservices.cfm (accessed May 11, 2009). American Psychiatric Association (Ed.). (2000). Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (4th ed., text revision, p. 85). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), “Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators,” Association of College and Research Libraries, http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/acrlstandards/profstandards.cfm (accessed September 29, 2008), proficiencies 6.6, 6.7, 9.2, 12.2. Bowe, Frank. Universal Design in Education: Teaching Nontraditional Students ., 49-51. Westport:Bergin & Garvey, 2000. Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). "Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines - Version 1.0." Center for Applied Technology. http://www.cast.org/publications/UDLguidelines/version1.html (accessed May 11, 2009). Cleveland, Alison. "Library Anxiety: A Decade of Empirical Research." Library Review 53, no. 3 (2004): 177-185. Connell, Bettye Rose, Mike Jones, Ron Mace, Jim Mueller, Abir Mullick, Elaine Ostroff, Jon Sanford, Ed Steinfeld, Molly Story, and Gregg Vanderheiden. "The Principles of Universal Design; Version 2.0." North Carolina State University Center for Universal Design. http:// www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/udprinciplestext.htm (accessed May 11, 2009). Conners, C Kieth. "What Are Typical Characteristics of Those with AD/HD?" In Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Latest Assessment and Treatment Strategies 3rd ed., 8-15. Kansas City: Compact Clinicals, 2006. Creamer, Debbie. "Universal Instructional Design for Libraries." Colorado Libraries 33, no. 3 (October 2007): 12-15. Fields, Anne M. "Ill-Structured Problems and the Reference Consultation: The Librarian's Role in Developing Student Expertise." Reference Services Review 34, no. 3 (2006): 405-420. Gander, M., and Shmulsky, S. Universal Design for Instruction: Current theory and practice . Unpublished manuscript, Landmark College, Putney, VT, 2008. Gilton, Donna Louise. "Culture Shock in the Library: Implications for Information Literacy Instruction." Research Strategies 20, no. 4 (2007): 424-432. Hitchcock, Chuck, Richard Jackson, Anne Meyer, and David Rose. "Providing New Access to the General Curriculum." Teaching Exceptional Children 35, no. 2 (November 2002): 8-17. Horn, Laura, and Katharin Peter, and Kathryn Rooney. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Profile of Undergraduates in U.S. Postsecondary Institutions: 1999-2000 , NCES 2002-168 (Washington, D.C., 2002), table 5 & fig. 7. Horn, Laura, and Stephanie Nevill. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Profile of Undergraduates in US Postsecondary Education Institutions: 2003-04, With a Special Analysis of Community College Students, NCES 2006-184. (Washington, D.C., 2006). Jiao, Qun G., and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie. "Antecedents of Library Anxiety." Library Quarterly 67, no. 4 (October 1997): 372-390. Jiao, Qun G, and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie. "Reading Ability as a Predictor of Library Anxiety." Library Review 52, no. 4 (2003): 159-169. Jiao, Qun G., Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, and Art A. Lichtenstein. "Library Anxiety: Characteristics of 'At Risk' College Students." Library and Information Science Research 18, no. 2 (Spring 1996):151-163. Keefer, Jane. "The Hungry Rats Syndrome: Library Anxiety, Information Literacy, and the Academic Reference Process." RQ 32, no. 3 (Spring 1993): 333-339. Kwon, Nahyun. "A Mixed-Methods Investigation of the Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Library Anxiety Among Undergraduate Students in their Information Seeking Process." College & Research Libraries 69, no. 2 (March 2008): 117-131. Lann, Jennifer. "Landmark College Library." In Improving the Quality of Library Services for Students with Disabilities . Edited by Peter Hernon and Philip Calvert., 72-80. Westport: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA), “Defining Learning Disabilities,” Learning Disabilities Association of America, http:// ldanatl.org/new_to_ld/defining.asp (accessed September 23, 2008). Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA), “Dyslexia,” Learning Disabilities Association of America, http:// www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/parents/ld_basics/dyslexia.asp (accessed September 23, 2008). Matthews, Dawn D., ed. Learning Disabilities Sourcebook . 2nd ed. Health Reference Series. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2003. Mellon, Constance A. "Attitudes: The Forgotten Dimension in Library Instruction." Library Journal 13, no. 14 (September 1988): 137-139. McGuire, Joan M., and Sally S. Scott. "Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction." Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability 19, no. 2 (Fall 2006): 124-134. McGuire, Joan M., Sally S. Scott, and Stan F. Shaw. "Universal Design and Its Applications in Educational Environments." Remedial and Special Education 27, no. 3 (May-June 2006): 166-175. McGuire, Joan M., and Sally S. Scott. "An Approach to Inclusive College Teaching: Universal Design for Instruction." Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal 14, no. 1 (2006): 21-32. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., and Qun G. Jiao. "Information Search Performance and Research Achievement: An Empirical Test of the Anxiety Expectation Mediation Model of Library Anxiety." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55, no. 1 (January 2004): 41-54. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., Qun G. Jiao, and Sharon L. Bostick. "Prevention, Reducation, and Intervention of Library Anxiety." In Library Anxiety: Theory Research and Applications , edited by Ronald R. Powell and Lynn Westbrook, 235-274. Research methods in Library and Information Studies 1. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2004. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., and Qun G Jiao. "I'll Go to the Library Later: The Relationship between Academic Procrastination and Library Anxiety." College & Research Libraries 61, no. 1 (January 2000): 45-55. Radford, Marie L. "Communication Theory Applied to Reference Encounter: An Analysis of Critical Incidents." Library Quarterly 66, no. 2 (April 1996): 123-138. Rose, David and Wendy S. Harbour, and Catherine Sam Johnston, and Samantha G. Daley, and Linda Abarbanell. “Universal Design for Learning in Postsecondary Education: Reflections on Principles and the Application,” Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability 19 , no. 2 (Fall 2006): 140-141, 145. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick. "The Reference Interview: Why It Needs to Be Used in Every (Well Almost Every) Reference Transaction." Reference & User Services Quarterly 43, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 38-43. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick, Kirsti Nilsen, and Patricia Dewdney. Conducting the Reference Interview . How-To-Do-It Manuals for Librarians 117. New York: Neal Schuman, 2002. RUSA RSS Management of Reference Committee Members. "Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers." RUSA Reference Guidelines. http:// www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section = Home&template =/ ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID =26937 (accessed May 11, 2009). Shaw, Stan F., and Sally S. Scott, and Joan McGuire, Teaching College Students with Learning Disabilities (Arlington, Va: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, ED 459 548, 2001), http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS31726 (Accessed May 23, 2008). Silberman, Mel. "Ten Layouts for Setting up a Classroom." In Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject , 9-16. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon, 1996. Snyder, Thomas D., and Sally A. Dillow, and Charlene M. Hoffman. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2008 , NCES 2009-020 (Washington, D.C., 2009), p 269. Snyder, Thomas D., and Sally A. Dillow, and Charlene M. Hoffman, U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2007 , NCES 2008-022 (Washington, D.C., 2008), table 221. Sterling, Christopher, Marion Farmer, and Barbara Riddick. "Frequency and Percentages of Staff Responding to Question on Problems of Students with Dyslexia." Table 7.1, In Dyslexia and Inclusion: Assessment and Support in Higher Education , 119. Philadelphia: Whurr Publishers, 2002. Trew, Frank. "Serving Different Constituencies: International Students." In Subject Librarians: Engaging with the Learning and Teaching Environment . Edited by Penny Dale, Matt Holland, and Marian Matthews., 149-172. Burlington: Ashgate, 2006. Turkington, Carol, and Joseph R. Harris, and American Bookworks (Eds.). (2006). Dyslexia. In The encyclopedia of learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 81-83). New York: Facts on File. Turkington, Carol, and Joseph R. Harris, and American Bookworks (Eds.). (2006). Executive Functions. In The encyclopedia of learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 95-96). New York: Facts on File. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2003-04 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04). Computation by DAS-T Online Version 5.0 on 4/16/2009. Wagner, Mary, Lynn Newman, Renee Cameto, Nicolle Garza, and Phyllis Levine. U.S. Office of Special Education Programs, National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 , SRI International Project P11182 (Menlo Park, Calif., 2005), 4-14. Zentall, Sydney S. “Theory and Evidence Based Strategies for Children with Attentional Problems,” Psychology in Schools 42, no. 8 (2005): 824.

Applying Universal Design to Improve Reference & Instruction Services Applying Universal Design to Improve Reference & Instruction Services Presentation Transcript

  • Applying Universal Design to Improve Reference & Instruction Services Ted Chodock & Elizabeth Dolinger Research Services Librarians Landmark College Putney, VT Presented at the Association of College & Research Libraries New England Chapter Spring 2009 Conference: Are You Being Served? Customer Satisfaction & Library Service College of the Holy Cross Worcester, MA May 15, 2009
  • Applying Universal Design to Improve Reference & Instruction Services
    • Our Customers?
    • Universal Design (UD)
    • Our experiences applying UD at Landmark
      • Reference Services
      • Information Literacy Instruction
    • How do you apply UD principles in your Library?
  • Who are our “customers”?
    • Non-traditional students
      • Between 1995 - 2006 enrollment of people age 25 or older rose by 13%
      • 2006 - 2017 National Center for Education Statistics projects a 19% rise in enrollments of people 25 and over
      • 1.06% of undergraduate students age 30 or older reported some type of disability
    *See Snyder, NCES,(2008) & (2009).
  • Who are our “customers”?
    • ESL students
      • 2003 – 2004 12.3% of undergraduates reported English was NOT the primary language spoken at home.
      • 57.9% of Asian undergraduates reported English was NOT the primary language spoken at home compared to 42.8% of Hispanic/Latino students.
      • Most popular majors for students who reported that English was NOT the primary language spoken at home:
        • 17.2% math
        • 17.1 % engineering
    *See U.S. Dept. of Education, 2003-04, DAS-T computation 4/16/2009.
  • Who are our “customers”? Students with Learning Disabilities
    • 1999-2000
      • 9.3% of undergraduates reported some type of disability
    • 2003-2004
      • 11.3% of undergraduates reported some type of disability
    *See Horn, (2002) Table 5 & Fig 7 & (2006) Table 6.1.
  • What is a Learning Disability?
    • The Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) defines a learning disability as
    • “ a neurological condition that interferes with a person’s ability to store, process, or produce information.”
    * See Learning Disabilities Association of America, “Defining Learning Disabilities”
  • What is a “Learning Disability” ? Students comments
    • “ ...a learning disibility is an opportunity for someone to be more creative, and someone that understands information in a different way, just goes in a different direction to get there but reaches the same destination.”
    *Landmark College student, 2009. Spelling or grammar errors maintained.
  • “ ...a learning disability is not having a disability but a difference. It is a difference in the way my brain takes in, processes, and spits out information. There is a stereotype that goes along with disabilities that some people assume that we are stupid or can’t do anything, but usually people with learning disabilities are smart they just don’t show it in the conventional ways.” *Landmark College student, 2009. Spelling or grammar errors maintained.
  • What is a Learning Disability?
    • A “disorder that affects people’s ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain.”
    *See Matthews (2003) p 5.
  • Dyslexia
    • “ is characterized by problems in coping with written symbols, despite normal intelligences.”
    • “ common characteristics are difficulty with phonological processing and/or rapid visual-verbal responding.”
    *See Turkington, Harris & American Bookworks (2006) “Dyslexia” p 81-83. *See Matthews (2003) p 151.
  • Students with Dyslexia
    • Difficulty in handwriting & spelling
    • Trouble with rapid visual-verbal responding
    • Find concept maps helpful
    • Note-taking is problematic
    • Slower than average reading and reading comprehension
    *See Sterling, Farmer, & Riddick (2002) table 7.1 p 119. *See Learning Disabilities Association of America, “Dyslexia.” *See Matthews (2003) p151.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)
    • Is a “persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyper-activity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.”
    *See American Psychiatric Association(2000) p 85.
  • Behaviors of students with AD/HD
            • Disinterested
            • Disorganized
            • Procrastination
            • Misjudging available time
            • Impulsivity
    *See Conners (2006) p 8-15.
  • Behaviors of students with AD/HD
    • Executive Function Dysfunction
            • Working memory & problem solving processes
            • Control of emotions & impulses
            • Internalized speech
            • Reconstitution
    *See Turkington & Harris (2006) “Executive Functions” p 95-96.
  • Library Anxiety
    • “ Library anxiety is an uncomfortable feeling or emotional disposition, experienced in a library setting, which has cognitive, affective, physiological, and behavioral ramifications.”
    *See Jiao, Onwuegbuzie & Lichtenstein (1996) p 152.
  • Characteristics of Library Anxiety
    • Rumination
    • Tension
    • Fear
    • Feelings of uncertainty and helplessness
    • Negative self-defeating thoughts
    • Mental disorganization
    *See Jiao, Onwuegbuzie & Lichtenstein (1996) p 152.
  • Who experiences Library Anxiety?
    • “ 75-85% of students described their initial response to using the library in terms of fear or anxiety, a sense of feeling ‘lost’”
    • “ The majority of users may experience library anxiety at certain stages of their library use or potential use.”
    *See Mellon (1988) p 138. *See Onwuegbuzie & Jiao (2004) p 50.
  • At Higher Risk for Library Anxiety
    • Lowest reading comprehension and reading vocabulary
    • Procrastinators
    • Visual learners
    • Non-native English speakers
    • See Jiao & Onwuegbuzie (2003) p 165, 166.
    • See Onwuegbuzie & Jiao (2000) p 49.
    • See Jiao, Onwuegbuzie & Lichtenstein (1996) p 158.
    • “ In traditional postsecondary education… the capacity of enrolled students to master the content and achieve the outcomes is essentially assumed, often within the range defined by a bell curve . A certain amount of failure and sub-par performance is expected and even required to validate other successes.”
    How many students are we willing to accept that we won’t reach? *See Gander & Shmulsky (2008).
  • Universal Design (UD)
    • The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.
    *See Connell, et al. (1997, April 1). Doylesaylor. (2007, September 17). Afternoon sun raking curb cut. In Flickr [Photograph]. Retrieved June 4, 2008, from http://flickr.com/photos/doyle_saylor/1399859064/
  • Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
    • “ The burden of adaptation should be first placed on the curriculum, not the learner. Because most curricula are unable to adapt to individual differences, we have come to recognize that our curricula, rather than our students, are disabled.”
    *See Center for Applied Special Technology (2008). Universal design for learning guidelines version 1.0 (p. 4) .
  • UDL Principles
      • 1) Provide Multiple Means of Representation (the "what" of learning).
    • 2) Provide Multiple Means of Expression (the "how" of learning).
    • 3) Provide Multiple Means of Engagement (the "why" of learning).
    * See Center for Applied Special Technology (2008). Universal design for learning guidelines version 1.0 (pp.3-4) .
  • Universal Design for Instruction (UDI)
    • “ With an absence of legal mandates relating to planning individualized instruction for students with disabilities at the postsecondary level, change will be fueled by thoughtful approaches that are responsive to the culture of faculty and features of their work that are distinctly different from those of their colleagues in elementary and secondary settings.”
    *See McGuire & Scott (2007) p 126.
  • Universal Design & Libraries
    • ALA Library Services for People with
    • Disabilities Policy
    • “ Libraries should use strategies based upon the principles of universal design to ensure that library policy, resources and services meet the needs of all people.”
    *See American Library Association (ALA), Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA).
  • Universal Design & Libraries
    • Architecture
      • Entrance ramps rather than steps
      • Wide stacks to accommodate wheel chairs
      • Low service desks
      • Computer tables that allow for height changes
      • Elevator controls available from a seated position
      • Signage
  • Universal Design & Libraries
    • Websites, Computers & Technology
      • Screen reader friendly
      • Assistive technologies available
        • Library staff trained in using assistive technologies
      • Usability testing
  • UDI & the ACRL Standards
    • ACRL Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians & Coordinators
    • 6.6 Designs instruction to best meet the common learning characteristics of learners, including prior knowledge and experience, motivation to learn, cognitive abilities, and circumstances under which they will be learning.
    • 6.7 Integrates appropriate technology into instruction to support experiential and collaborative learning as well as to improve student receptiveness, comprehension, and retention of information.
    *See ACRL “Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators”
  • UDI & the ACRL Standards
    • 9.2 Presents instructional content in diverse ways (written, oral, visual, online, or using presentation software) and selects appropriate delivery methods according to class needs.
    • 12.2 Modifies teaching methods and delivery to address different learning styles, language abilities, developmental skills, age groups, and the diverse needs of student learners.
    *See ACRL “Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators”
  • UDI & RUSA Guidelines
    • RUSA Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers
    • 1.1 Library “patrons must be able to identify that a reference librarian is available to provide assistance and also must feel comfortable going to that person for help.”
    • 1.4 The librarian “establishes eye contact with patrons, and acknowledges the presence of patrons through smiling and attentive and welcoming body language.”
    • 1.7 The librarian “roves through the reference area offering assistance whenever possible. Librarians should make themselves available to patrons by offering assistance at their point-of-need rather than waiting for patrons to come to the reference desk.”
    * See RUSA RSS Guidelines
  • UDI & RUSA Guidelines
    • 3.0 “The librarian must be effective in identifying the patron’s information needs and must do so in a manner that keeps patrons at ease.”
    • 3.7 The librarian “uses open-ended questioning techniques to encourage patrons to expand on the request or present additional information.”
    • 3.8 The librarian “uses closed and/or clarifying questions to refine the search query.”
    *See RUSA RSS Guidelines
  • UDI & Active Learning
    • Universal Design for Instruction does not replace Active Learning methods of teaching.
    • Active Learning methods of teaching become even more essential in the framework of UDI.
  • Applying Universal Design to Information Literacy (UDIL)
    • “ Barriers exist in the instruction, not in the user, and thus it is the instruction that must change. This change in mindset alone improves interactions between the non-disabled and people with disabilities, as they become potential partners in addressing the common problem of shortcomings in instructional design rather than exhibiting an inequitable power relationship where one person is the problem and the other the problem solver.”
    *See Creamer (2007) p 14.
  • UDI Principle 1: Equitable Use
    • Instruction is designed to be useful to and accessible by people with diverse abilities. Provide the same means of use for all students; identical whenever possible, equivalent when not.
          • Create online & print course guides & handouts
          • Spell vocally and write out search words
          • Print words (avoid cursive)
          • Use a sans-serif font
          • Video or screencast library tours, tutorials and handouts
  • UDI Principle 2: Flexibility in Use
    • Instruction is designed to accommodate a wide range of individual abilities. Provide Choice in methods of use.
          • Preview & review lesson plan with a vocalized & written agenda
          • Use of active learning methods that engage multiple senses
          • Repeat back questions
          • Focus attention internally by asking many questions of the students
          • Parallel searching / modeling a search
          • Explain as you go
  • UDI Principle 3: Simple and Intuitive Instruction
    • Instruction is designed in a straightforward and predictable manner, regardless of the student's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Eliminate unnecessary complexity.
          • Eliminate library lingo & library-centered concepts
          • Teach only skills directly related to completing the assignment
          • Provide one-on-one instructional assistance and workshops to reduce library anxiety
          • Use student-chosen topics
          • Scaffold questions (hard and soft scaffolding)
  • UDI Principle 4: Perceptible Information
    • Instruction is designed so that necessary information is communicated effectively, regardless of ambient conditions or the student's sensory abilities.
      • Shorten task instructions by using few words in giving directions
      • Present information in multiple formats
      • Stress usability features in databases & websites, built in dictionaries and ability to get HTML version rather than PDF versions
      • Inviting and clear signage with visuals
  • UDI Principle 5: Tolerance for Error
    • Instruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and requisite skills.
          • Allocate 1/3 to 1/2 of each class for assisted individual work time
          • Begin to build a relationship with the student over the course a semester
          • Use conversation to help move student from an ill-structured topic to one that is better suited both to their interests and research level.
  • UDI Principle 6: Low Physical Effort
    • Instruction is designed to minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow maximum attention to learning.
          • Use of citation making software, print icons, and other built-in time-saving shortcuts
          • Decrease repetitiveness of tasks
          • Roving
          • A reference interview is not always appropriate
  • UDI Principle 7: Size and Space for Approach and Use
    • Instruction is designed with consideration for appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use regardless of a student’s body size, posture, mobility, and communication needs.
          • Redesign library instruction space to maximize collaboration and minimize distractions (see Chevron style for larger groups).
          • Reference/circulation desks are low
          • Accessible places for parallel searching
          • Have open spaces, akin to white space on a web page to reduce feelings of being overwhelmed
  • UDI Principle 8: A Community of Learners
    • The instructional environment promotes interaction and communication among students and between students and faculty.
          • Bring a sign-up sheet to class to make follow up appointments
          • Check in on research progress by e-mail and by roving the library
          • Encourage collaboration among the students during class
          • Meet with faculty individually and in groups to collaborate on developing inclusive instruction
          • Stress that anxiety is a normal part of doing Library research
  • UDI Principle 9: Instructional Climate
    • Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive. High expectations are espoused for all students.
          • Have a goal that provides motivation
            • Work with faculty to have a specific goal, such as finding at least one research article on the topic
          • Be aware of your body language
          • Have empathy
  • How we apply UDIL Principles
  • Applying UDI principles in your Library
    • What are your experiences with learning differences in your Library?
    • What techniques can you recommend?
    • How will you/do you apply UDIL in your Library?
  • Notes
    • A list of more sources on Universal Design & Assistive Technology as well as the bibliography for this presentation are available in screen reader friendly format at:
    • http:// www.acrlnec.org /
    • http://www.landmark.edu/Library/about/Bythestaff.cfm
    The bibliography is also available in the notes field of this powerpoint.