CCSS KickOff @ Santa Cruz COE


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  • Create the next generation of K-12 standards All students college and career ready in literacy and mathematics No later than end of high school Build upon the foundation laid by the states Create a vision of what it means to be a literate student in the twenty-first century Students who readily undertake the close, attentive reading that is the heart of understanding and enjoying complex works of literature. Habitually perform the critical reading necessary to pick carefully through the staggering amount of information They actively seek wide, deep and thoughtful engagement with high-quality literary and informational text that builds knowledge, enlarges experiences and broadens worldviews. They demonstrate cogent reasoning and use evidence that is essential for deliberations and responsible citizenship
  • Rigor high-level cognitive demands by asking students to demonstrate deep conceptual understanding through the application of content knowledge and skills to new situations. sufficient guidance and clarity so that they are teachable, learnable, and measurable. Teachable and learnable : Provide sufficient guidance for the design of curricula and instructional materials. The standards must be reasonable in scope, instructionally manageable, and promote depth of understanding. The standards will not prescribe how they are taught and learned but will allow teachers flexibility to teach and students to learn in various instructionally relevant contexts. Measureable: Student attainment of the standards should be observable and verifiable and the standards can be used to develop broader assessment frameworks Coherent: The standards should convey a unified vision of the big ideas and supporting concepts within a discipline and reflect a progression of learning that is meaningful and appropriate. Grade-by-grade standards : The standards will have limited repetition across the grades or grade spans to help educators align instruction to the standards. Internationally benchmarked: The standards will be informed by the content, rigor, and organization of standards of high-performing countries so that all students are prepared for succeeding in our global economy and society.
  • Key cognitive strategies: Intellectual openness; inquisitiveness; analysis; interpretation; precision and accuracy; problem solving; and reasoning, argumentation, and proof. Student facility with these strategies has been consistently and emphatically identified by those who teach entry-level college courses as being centrally important to college success. Key content knowledge: Understanding the structures and large organizing concepts of the academic disciplines, resting upon strong research and writing abilities. Academic behaviors: Self-management, time management, strategic study skills, accurate perceptions of one’s true performance, persistence, ability to utilize study groups, self-awareness, self-control, and intentionality. Contextual skills and knowledge: Facility with application and financial-aid processes and the ability to acculturate to college. [all points taken directly from David Conley—he’s a biggie in the field. In fact, he might BE the field for CCR research.] Conley, D.T. (2008). Rethinking college readiness. The New England Journal of Higher Education, 22 (5), 24 – 26.
  • Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful
  • Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful
  • Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful
  • Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful
  • Literature: students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks . Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
  • Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fiction Major focus in 6-12
  • Informational text
  • Best measured by an attentive reader Ability to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a text Knowledge of four factors in developing effective tools: Levels of Meaning or Purpose Reader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student: Cognitive abilities Motivation Topic knowledge Linguistic and discourse knowledge Comprehension strategies Experiences “ Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group” Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile) Sentence length Text cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix) Measurement tools ( Lexile example Structure Language Conventionality & Clarity Knowledge Demands
  • Page 6 sheet
  • Metametrics has realigned its Lexile ranges to match the Standards’ text complexity grade bands and has adjusted upward its trajectory of reading comprehension development through the grades
  • Grade 4 Informational text
  • Grade 7 Informational Text
  • Grade Seven
  • K- argument, The writer of this piece•tells the reader the name of the book (in the title of the paper). oMy fabit (favorite) Book is do you Want to be my FRIEND•states an opinion or preference about the book. o. . . my fait (favorite) pot (part) is the hos (horse)
  • Grade 2 Argument
  • Grade 2 Argument
  • Grade 4 argumant
  • Grade 8 Informative/Explanatory introduces the topic clearly, previewing what is to follow.The writer provides a brief summary of the plot i
  • Two key elements of the quotation (destroyed but not defeated) help establish theoverall structure of the piece.oThe second, third, and fourth paragraphs each recount extended examples of Santiago’s struggle and determination (e.g., . . . Santiago has gone eighty-four days straight without catching a fish. young Manolin’s parents will no longer allow the two to fish together, for they do not want their son being exposed any more to this type of failure . . . but Santiago does not let the loss of his friend or the defeat that others see him suffering keep him off the sea. Rather, with bright and shining eyes he thinks “maybe today. Every day is a new day”.
  • This is the first slide in the section on background information. The slides that follow will provide more information on the NCTM process standards and the National Research Council’s strands of proficiency.
  • The NCTM Standards were released in 2000.
  • Published in 2001, Adding It Up shows proficiency in mathematics as the result of five strands: Adaptive Reasoning, Strategic Competence, Conceptual Understanding, Productive Disposition, Procedural Fluency.
  • 1.Analyze givens, constraints, relationships and goals
  • Explain that each grade level has an overview page. On it are the domains and cluster headings for each grade level. Additionally, the Standards for Mathematical Practice are given on the overview page of each grade level. Notice, the standards for mathematical practice are the same for each grade level. Students will be required to use the practices (the standards for mathematical practice) when working with the standards for mathematical content.
  • The purpose of this slide is to highlight the importance of understanding as the connection between the content and the practice standards.
  • All K-8 have critical areas – areas that should be emphasized and require more time at the given grade level. This aligns exactly with CFP
  • The letters 1.0A separate domains
  •   Operations and Algebraic Thinking leads to explicit work with Expressions and Equations beginning in Grade 6. Grade 6 is also when Base Ten and Fractions are merging to become The Number System. By the end of middle school, Expressions and Equations and The Number System have merged to become high school Algebra.
  • multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is finding an unknown factor in these situations.
  • The second part of the pathways shows the clusters and standards as they appear in the courses. Each course contains the following components:• • •An introduction to the course and a list of the units in the course Unit titles and unit overviews (see below) Units that show the cluster titles, associated standards, and instructional notes (below)
  • CCSS KickOff @ Santa Cruz COE

    1. 1. So, What’s New in the Common Core English Language Arts State Standards? Susan A Gendron Senior Fellow International Center for Leadership in Education August 10, 2011
    2. 2. What will our Students need to:  Know  Do
    3. 3. EXTERNAL DRIVERS• Education Trends• Changing Society/Workplace• Technology• Global Competition
    4. 4. 1 Shanghai-China 556PISA 2 3 Korea Finland 539 5362009 4 5 Hong Kong-China Singapore 533 526 6 Canada 524 7 New Zealand 521Overall 8 Japan 520Reading 9 Australia 515 Scale 10 Netherlands 508 17 United States 500 20 Germany 497Significantly Above 21 Ireland 496 OECD Average 22 France 496 Not Significantly Different 25 United Kingdom 494(OECD Average 493) 33 Spain 481Significantly below 43 Russian Federation 459 OECD Average 48 Mexico 425 53 Brazil 412 57 Indonesia 402
    5. 5. 1 Shanghai-China 600 PISA 2 3 Singapore Hong Kong-China 562 555 2009 4 6 Korea Finland 546 541 9 Japan 529 Overall 10 Canada 527 Math 11 Netherlands 526 13 New Zealand 519 Scale 15 Australia 514 16 Germany 513Significantly Above 22 France 497 OECD Average 28 United Kingdom 492 Not Significantly 31 United States 487 Different(OECD Average 496) 32 Ireland 487Significantly below 34 Spain 483 OECD Average 38 Russian Federation 468 51 Mexico 419 57 Brazil 386 61 Indonesia 371
    6. 6. 1 Shanghai-China 575PISA 2 Finland 554 3 Hong Kong-China 5492009 4 Singapore 542 5 Japan 539 6 Korea 538 7 New Zealand 532 Overall 8 Canada 529 Science 10 Australia 527 Scale 11 Netherlands 522 13 Germany 520Significantly Above 16 United Kingdom 514 OECD Average 20 Ireland 508 Not Significantly 23 United States 502 Different(OECD Average 501) 27 France 498Significantly below 36 Spain 488 OECD Average 39 Russian Federation 478 50 Mexico 416 53 Brazil 405 60 Indonesia 383
    7. 7. EXTERNAL DRIVERS• Education Trends• Changing Society/Workplace• Technology• Global Competition
    8. 8. Work to Worker
    9. 9. • Between 2008 and 2018, new jobs inCalifornia requiring postsecondary educationand training will grow by 1.3 million whilejobs for high school graduates and dropoutswill grow by 614,000.• Between 2008 and 2018, California willcreate 5.5 million job vacancies both from newjobs and from job openings due to retirement.• 3.3 million of these job vacancies will be forthose with postsecondary credentials, 1.2million for high school graduates and 1million for high school dropouts.
    10. 10. EXTERNAL DRIVERS• Education Trends• Changing Society/Workplace• Technology• Global Competition
    11. 11. U.S. now ranks 22 worldwide in nd the density of broadband Internet penetration and 72nd . . . density of mobile telephone subscriptions Source: National Academy of Science
    12. 12. Information Technology• Availability of Information
    13. 13. Moore’s Law – Doubles Every 2 Years Computing Capacity 1991 2011 2021
    14. 14. what is the gdp+ofsin^3 x dx what is springfieldeurope internet users in france? Integrate 2gdp france / italy weather france gdp springfield thex^22 of
    15. 15. Implications Homework Term Paper
    16. 16. SPOT• Integrated Projection• Projection Keyboard
    17. 17. Projection Keyboard
    18. 18. Projection Keyboard and Projector
    19. 19. Information Technology• Availability of Information• Ease of Communication
    20. 20. Facebook• over 600 million users• the average user has 130 friends• 700 billion minutes spent on Facebook each month
    21. 21. Twitter• Over 200 million users
    22. 22. LinkedIn• Used strictly for business networking• Over 100 million users• Averages 1 new user per second
    23. 23. Information Technology• Availability of Information• Ease of Communication• Systemic Infrastructure
    24. 24. Cloud Computing
    25. 25. Information Technology• Availability of Information• Ease of Communication• Systemic Infrastructure• Changing Skill Set
    26. 26. EXTERNAL DRIVERS• Education Trends• Changing Society/Workplace• Technology• Global Competition
    27. 27. GE has now located the majority of its R & D personnel outside the U.S.Source: National Academy of Science
    28. 28. In a survey of global firms planning to build new R & D facilities, 77% say they will build in China or IndiaSource: National Academy of Science
    29. 29. Schools are Improving ent School Improvem
    30. 30. Schools are Improving d W orl g gi n Chan ent School Improvem
    31. 31. Skills Gap
    32. 32. Why – What - How
    33. 33. Rigor/Relevance For All Students
    34. 34. KnowledgeTaxonomy1. Awareness2. Comprehension3. Application4. Analysis5. Synthesis6. Evaluation
    35. 35. Application Model1. Knowledge in one discipline2. Application within discipline3. Application across disciplines4. Application to real-world predictable situations5. Application to real-world unpredictable situations
    36. 36. LevelsBloom’s 6 5 C D 4 3 2 1 A B 1 2 3 4 5 Application
    37. 37. Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and areexpected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Application 3 A Comprehension 2 Acquisition Awareness 1 Low-level Knowledge 1 2 Knowledge Apply in one knowledge discipline in one discipline
    38. 38. A QuadrantVerbs Products• name • definition• label • worksheet• define • list• select • quiz• identify• • test list• memorize • workbook• recite • true-false• locate • reproduction• record • recitation
    39. 39. Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. Application 3 B Comprehension 2 Application Awareness 1 Low-level Application 3 4 5 Apply Apply to Apply to real- knowledge real-world world across predictable unpredictable disciplines situation situation
    40. 40. B Quadrant Verbs Products• apply • scrapbook• sequence • summary• demonstrate • interpretation• interview • collection• construct• • annotation solve• calculate • explanation• dramatize • solution• interpret • demonstration• illustrate • outline
    41. 41. Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use itautomatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and createsolutions. Evaluation 6 Synthesis 5 C Analysis 4 Assimilation Application 3 High-level Knowledge 1 2 Knowledge Apply in one knowledge discipline in one discipline
    42. 42. C Quadrant Verbs Products• sequence essay• annotate abstract• examine blueprint• inventory report report• criticize plan• paraphrase chart• calculate questionnaire• expand classification• summarize diagram• classify discussion• diagram collection annotation
    43. 43. Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge andskills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to findcreative solutions and take action that further develops their skillsand knowledge. Evaluation 6 D Synthesis 5 Adaptation Analysis 4 Application 3 High-level Application 3 4 5 Apply Apply to Apply to real- knowledge real-world world across predictable unpredictable disciplines situation situation
    44. 44. D Quadrant Verbs Products• evaluate • evaluation• validate • newspaper• justify • estimation• rate • trial• referee • editorial • radio program• infer • play• rank • collage• dramatize • machine• argue • adaptation• conclude • poem • debate • new game • invention
    45. 45. Current Next Generation Assessments AssessmentsBloom’s 6 5 C D 4 3 2 A B 1 1 2 3 4 5 Application
    46. 46. Standards Charge
    47. 47. Common Core Standards Criteria• Rigorous• Clear and specific• Teachable and learnable• Measurable• Coherent• Grade by grade standards• Internationally benchmarked
    48. 48. Common Core State Standards Fewer, Clearer, Higher
    49. 49. College and Career Readiness Defined• Cognitive strategies: Intellectual openness; inquisitiveness; analysis; interpretation; precision and accuracy; problem solving; and reasoning, argumentation, and proof.• Content knowledge: Understanding the structures and large organizing concepts of the academic disciplines, resting upon strong research and writing abilities.• Academic behaviors: Self-management, time management, strategic study skills, accurate perceptions of one’s true performance, persistence, ability to utilize study groups, self- awareness, self-control, and intentionality.• Contextual skills and knowledge: Facility with application and financial-aid processes and the ability to acculturate to college. David Conley
    50. 50. Lexile Framework® for Reading Study Summary of Text Shown (25% -Measures Lexile 75%) Interquartile Ranges 1600 1400Text Lexile Measure (L) 1200 1000 800 600 High College High College Military Personal Entry-Level SAT 1, School Literature School Textbooks Use Occupations ACT, Literature Textbooks AP* * Source of National Test Data: MetaMetrics
    51. 51. 44 States + DC Have Adopted the Common Core State Standards *Minnesota adopted the CCSS in ELA only
    53. 53.
    54. 54. Design and OrganizationThree main sectionsK-5 (cross-disciplinary)6-12 English Language Arts6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies,Science, and Technical Subjects
    55. 55. Design and OrganizationThree appendicesA: Research and evidence; glossary of key termsB: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasksC: Annotated student writing samples
    56. 56. Design and Organization Shared responsibilities forstudents’ literacy development
    57. 57. Design and OrganizationFocus on results rather than means
    58. 58. Design and OrganizationAn integrated model of literacy
    59. 59. Design and Organization Media skills blended throughout
    60. 60. Design and OrganizationK−12 standards•Grade-specific end-of-year expectations•Developmentally appropriate, cumulative progression of skills and understandings•One-to-one correspondence with College Career Anchor standards
    61. 61. Design and OrganizationFour strands: – Reading (including Reading Foundational Skills) – Writing – Speaking and Listening – Language
    62. 62. Reading Design and Organization Three sections: 1. Literature 2. Informational Text 3. Foundational Skills (K-5)
    63. 63. Literary/Informational Text Literature Literature Literature Informational TextStories Drama Poetry Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical TextsIncludes children’s Includes staged Includes nursery Includes biographiesadventure stories, dialogue and brief rhymes and the and autobiographies;folktales, legends, familiar scenes subgenres of the books about history,fables, fantasy, narrative poem, social studies, science,realistic fiction, and limerick, and free and the arts; technicalmyth verse poem texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics
    64. 64. Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%
    65. 65. College and Career Readiness Standards for ReadingKey Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
    66. 66. College and Career Readiness Standards for ReadingCraft and Structure4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
    67. 67. College and Career Readiness Standards for ReadingIntegration of Knowledge and Ideas7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
    68. 68. College and Career Readiness Standards for ReadingRange of Reading and Level of Text Complexity10 .Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
    69. 69. Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (storiesand literature, poetry, and informational texts) thatillustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: 1. Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Qu 2. Quantitative measures – readability and e tiv other scores of text complexity an lita ti tat a 3. Reader and Task – background knowledge of Qu ive reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned Reader and Task 73
    70. 70. Qualitative Measure• Levels of Meaning (literary texts) or Purpose (informational texts)• Structure• Language Conventionality and Clarity• Knowledge Demands: Life Experiences (literary texts)• Knowledge Demands: Cultural/Literary Knowledge (chiefly literary texts)• Knowledge Demands: Content/Discipline Knowledge (chiefly informational texts)
    71. 71. Quantitative Measures• Readability tools: (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level test, Lexile Framework for Reading, Dale-Chall)• Use multiple tools
    72. 72. Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile RangesText Complexity Grade Old Lexile Ranges Lexile Ranges Aligned toBand in the Standards CCR expectations K-1 N/A N/A 2-3 450-725 450-790 4-5 645-845 770-980 6-8 860-1010 955-1155 9-10 960-1115 1080-1305 11-CCR 1070-1220 1215-1355
    73. 73. Lexile Analyzer
    74. 74. Grade 4 Informational Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular pointsin a text.
    75. 75. Performance TaskStudents explain how Melvin Berger usesreasons and evidence in his bookDiscovering Mars: The Amazing Story ofthe Red Planet to support particular pointsregarding the topology of the planet.[RI.4.8]
    76. 76. Grade 7 InformationalCraft and Structure4. Determine the meaning of words andphrases as they are used in a text,including figurative, connotative, andtechnical meanings; analyze the impact ofa specific word choice on meaning andtone.
    77. 77. Performance Task• Students determine the figurative and connotative meanings of words such as wayfaring, laconic, and taciturnity as well as of phrases such as hold his peace in John Steinbeck’s Travels with Charley: In Search of America. They analyze how Steinbeck’s specific word choices and diction impact the meaning and tone of his writing and the characterization of the individuals and places he describes. [RI.7.4]
    78. 78. College and Career Readiness Writing StandardsText Types and Purposes1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    79. 79. NAEP 2011 Writing FrameworkGrade To Persuade To Explain To Convey Experience 4 30% 35% 35% 8 35% 35% 30% 12 40% 40% 20%
    80. 80. College and Career Readiness Writing StandardsProduction and Distribution of Writing4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
    81. 81. College and Career Readiness Writing StandardsResearch to Build and Present Knowledge7. Conduct short, as well as more sustained research projects based on questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    82. 82. Example/ Science Technical• Sample Task A: Evaluating Evidence• Compare what the latest science tells us about Genetically Modified food against the arguments for and against Genetically Modified food. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, conclusions of each side, and including determining the extent to which each side in the debate relied on the available science, argues from an economical perspective, or appeals to the political and emotional concerns. Verify the data and either support or challenge the conclusions with other sources of information.• CCSS 11-12 RST.8• Source: Achieve
    83. 83. Example/ Science Technical• Sample B – Making a claim• Read and view different examples of case-making materials related to GM food. Take a position and cite specific textual evidence from your sources, attending to important distinctions each authors makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. Defend your conclusion from counter-claims Create a presentation of your analysis that highlights key evidence and your strongest claims.• CCSS 11-12 RST 1. and RST 9.• Source: Achieve
    84. 84. College and Career Readiness Writing StandardsRange of Writing10.Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
    85. 85. College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and ListeningComprehension and Collaboration 1. Range of conversations and collaborations, diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
    86. 86. College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and ListeningPresentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
    87. 87. College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageConventions of Standard English1. When writing or speaking.2. Use capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.Knowledge of Language3. To comprehend more fully when reading or listening.Vocabulary Acquisition and Use4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts,5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings6. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain- specific words
    88. 88. 911
    89. 89. Building Analytic Thinking Skills
    90. 90. Analytic Thinking Process• What is the purpose of this material?• What is a key question that is addressed or needs to be addressed?• What is the most important information?• What are the main inferences that can be made?• What are the key ideas or concepts?
    91. 91. Analytic Thinking Process
    92. 92. Literacy in Science and Technical SubjectsCommon Core Reading Reading Standards for Reading Standards for Standard for Literacy in Science and Literacy in Science and Informational Text Technical Subjects Technical Subjects Anchor Standard Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12Integration of Integration of Integration ofKnowledge & Ideas Knowledge & Ideas Knowledge & Ideas7.Integrate and evaluate 7.Translate quantitative 7.Integrate and evaluatecontent presented in or technical information multiple sources ofdiverse formats and expressed in words in a information presentedmedia, including text into visual form in diverse formats andvisually and (e.g., a table or chart) media (e.g., quantitativequantitatively, as well and translate data, video, multimedia)as in words.* information expressed in order to address a visually or question or solve a mathematically (e.g., in problem. an equation) into words.
    94. 94. Commoncore.orgMathematics Appendix A
    95. 95. Characteristics• Fewer and more rigorous.• Aligned with college and career expectations – prepare all students for success upon graduating from high school.• Internationally benchmarked, so that all students are prepared for succeeding in our global economy and society.• Includes rigorous content and application of higher- order skills.• Builds upon strengths and lessons of current state standards.• Research based
    96. 96. Coherence• Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressions• Conceptual understanding and procedural skills emphasized equally• NCTM states coherence also means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned
    97. 97. Focus• Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified• Deep learning of concepts is stressed – That is, time is spent on a topic and on learning it well. This counters the “mile wide, inch deep” criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.
    98. 98. Clarity and Specificity• Skills and concepts are clearly defined• Being able to apply concepts and skills to new situations is expected
    99. 99. Background Information: Standards for Mathematical Practice“These practices rest on important ‘processes andproficiencies’ with longstanding importance inmathematics education.” (Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Mathematics, 2011, p. 15)•The NCTM process standards (2000)•The National Research Council’s report Adding ItUp (2001)
    100. 100. NCTM – Principles & Standards for School Mathematics Process Standards The five standards address the processes of •Problem solving •Reasoning and proof •Connections •Communication •Representation
    101. 101. Intertwined Strands of Proficiency Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics By Jeremy Kilpatrick, Jane Swafford, & Bob Findell (Editors). (2001). p. 117 Washington, DC: National Academy Press
    102. 102. Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others4. Model with mathematics5. Use appropriate tools strategically6. Attend to precision7. Look for and make use of structure8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning
    103. 103. Grade Level Overview Page
    104. 104. Standards for Mathematical Content• Content standards are a balanced combination of procedure and understanding.• Content standards that set an expectation of understanding are potential “points of intersection” between the content standards and the practice standards − A lack of understanding of mathematical content effectively prevents a student from engaging in the mathematical practices.
    105. 105. Grade Level Overview Critical Areas – similar to NCTM’s Curriculum Focal Points
    106. 106. Format of K-8 Standards Grade Level Domain
    107. 107. Format of K-8 Standards Domain Statement Standard Cluster Domain Statement Cluster Standard
    108. 108. Major flow leading to Algebra
    109. 109. The K-5 standards:Counting and Cardinality (K)Operations & Algebraic ThinkingNumber & Operations in Base TenNumber & Operations – Fractions (3-5)Measurement & DataGeometry
    110. 110. Content Domains K-5Counting and K • Know number names and the countCardinality (CC) sequence • Count to tell the number of objects • Compare numbersOperations and K-5 • Concrete uses and meanings of theAlgebraic Thinking basic operations (word problems)(OA) • Mathematical meaning and formal properties of the basic operations • Prepare for later work with expressions and equations in middle schoolNumber and Operations K-5 • Place value understandingin Base Ten (NBT) • Develop base-ten algorithms using place value and properties of operations • Computation competencies (fluency, estimation)
    111. 111. Content Domains K-5Number and 3-5 • Enlarge concept of numberOperations— beyond whole numbers, toFractions (NF) include fractions • Use understanding of the four operations to extend arithmetic to fractions • Solve word problems related to the equation ax = b (a and b fractions)
    112. 112. Cognitively-Guided Instruction Process
    113. 113. Kindergarten
    114. 114. Common Addition and Subtraction Situations Results Unknown Change Unknown Start UnknownAdd to Sally has 4 rocks. Sally had 4 rocks. Sally had some John gave her 6 How many rocks rocks. John gave more rocks. How does she need to her 6 more rocks. many rocks does S have 10 rocks Now she has 10 altogether? rocks. How many rocks did Sally have to start with?Take from Sally had 10 rocks. Sally had 10 rocks. Sally had some She gave 4 to She gave some to rocks. She gave 4 John. How many John. Now she has to John. Now she rocks does Sally 6 rocks left. How has 6 rocks left. have left? many rocks did How many rocks Sally give to John? did Sally have to start with?
    115. 115. Common addition and subtraction situations Total Unknown Added Unknown Both Addends UnknownPut Sally has 4 red Sally has 10 Sally has 10Together/Take rocks and 6 blue rocks. 4 are red rocks. How manyapart rocks. How many and the rest are can she put in the rocks does she blue. How many blue box and how have? blue rocks does many in her red 4+6=? Sally have? box? 4 + ? = 10 10 = 0 +10, 10=10 +0 10 = 5 + 5 10 = 6 + 4
    116. 116. Compare Addition and Subtraction situations Differences Bigger Smaller Unknown Unknown UnknownCompare Sally has 10 John has 6 Sally has 10 rocks. John has rocks. Sally has rocks. She has 6 6 rocks. How 4 more than more rocks than many more John. How John. How rocks does many rocks does many rocks Sally have than Sally have? does John have? John? ? + 6 = 10 10 – 6 = ? 6+4=? 10 – 6 = ? 6 + ? = 10 4+6=?
    117. 117. Common multiplication and division situations Problem Types Multiplication Partition Division Measurement DivisionEqual Group (Whole unknown) (Size of groups (Number of groups Mark has 4 bags of unknown) Mark has unknown) Mark has apples. There are 5 20 apples. He wants 20 apples. He puts apples in each bag. to share them them in bags with 5 How many apples equally among his 4 apples in each. How does Mark have friends. How many many bags did he altogether apples will each use? friend receive?Equal Group (Whole unknown) (Size of groups (Number of groupsProblems (rate If apples cost 4 unknown) Jill paid unknown) Jill cents each, how 20 cents for 5 bought apples for 4 much would 5 apples. What is the cents each. She apples cost? cost of 1 apple? spent 20 cents. How many apples did she buy?
    118. 118. Common multiplication and division situationsEqual Group (Whole (Size of groups (Number ofProblems (rate) unknown) Peter unknown) Peter groups unknown) walked for 5 walked 20 miles Peter walked 20 hours at 4 miles in 5 hours. How miles at a rate of 4 per hour. How far fast was he miles per hour. did he walk? walking (in miles How long did he per hour)? walk for?Compare (Product (Set size (MultiplierProblems unknown) Jill unknown) Mark Unknown) Mark picked 4 apples. picked 20 apples. Picked 20 apples Bill picked 5 He picked 4 times and Jill picked times as many. as many as Jill. only 4. How How many apples How many apples many times as did Bill pick? did Jill pick? many apples did Mark pick as Jill did?
    119. 119. Grade 6-8Ratios and Proportional Relationships (6-7)Number SystemsExpressions & EquationsGeometryStatistics & ProbabilityFunctions (8)
    120. 120. Content Domains K-8The Number System 6-8 • Build concepts of positive and(NS) negative numbers • Work with the rational numbers as a system governed by properties of operations • Begin work with irrational numbersExpressions and 6-8 • Treat expressions as objects toEquations (EE) reason about (not as instructions to compute an answer) • Transform expressions using properties of operations • Solve linear equations • Use variables and equations as techniques to solve word problems
    121. 121. Content Domains K-8Ratios and Proportional 6-7 • Extend work on multiplication andRelationships (RP) division; consolidate multiplicative reasoning • Lay groundwork for linear functions in Grade 8 by studying quantities that vary together • Solve a wide variety of problems with ratios, rates, percentsFunctions (F) 8 • Extend and formalize understanding of quantitative relationships from Grades 3- 7 • Lay groundwork for more extensive work with functions in High School
    122. 122. Content Domains K-8Measurement and Data K-5 • Emphasize the common nature of all(MD) measurement as iterating by a unit Build understanding of linear spacing of numbers and support learning of the number line • Develop geometric measures • Work with data to prepare for Statistics and Probability in middle schoolGeometry (G) K-8 • Ascend through progressively higher levels of logical reasoning about shapes • Reason spatially with shapes, leading to logical reasoning about transformations • Connect geometry to number, operations, and measurement via notion of partitioning
    123. 123. Content Domains K-8Statistics and 6-8 Introduce concepts of centralProbability (SP) tendency, variability, and distribution Connect randomness with statistical inference Lay foundations for High School Statistics and Probability
    124. 124. K-8 Learning Progressions http://commoncoretools.wordpr
    125. 125. HS Pathways1.) Traditional (US) – 2 Algebra, Geometry and Data, probability and statistics included in each course2.) International (integrated) three courses including number , algebra, geometry, probability and statistics each year3.) Compacted version of traditional – grade 7/8 and algebra completed by end of 8th grade4.) Compacted integrated model, allowing students to reach Calculus or other college level courses
    126. 126. Number and Quantity Overview • Real Number System • Quantities • Complex Number System • Vector and Matrix Quantities
    127. 127. Algebra Overview• Seeing Structure in Expressions• Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions• Creating Equations• Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities
    128. 128. Functions• Interpreting Functions• Building Functions• Linear, Quadratic and Exponential Models• Trigonometric Functions
    129. 129. Modeling• Identify the problem• Formulate a model• Analyze and perform operations• Interpret results• Validate the conclusion• Report on the conclusion
    130. 130. Geometry• Congruence• Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry• Circles• Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations• Geometric Measurement and Dimension• Modeling and Geometry
    131. 131. Statistics and Probability• Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data• Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions• Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability• Using Probability to Make Decisions
    132. 132. Key AdvancesFocus and coherence• Focus on key topics at each grade level.• Coherent progressions across grade levels.Balance of concepts and skills• Content standards require both conceptual understanding and procedural fluency.Mathematical practices• Foster reasoning and sense-making in mathematics.College and career readiness• Level is ambitious but achievable.
    133. 133. Recommended Professional Development• Grades K–2, Counting and Cardinality and Number and Operations in Base• Grades K–5 Operations and Algebraic Thinking• Grades 3–5 Number and Operations—Fractions• Grades 6–7 Ratios and Proportional Reasoning• Grade 8 Geometry
    134. 134. Standards: Important but insufficient• To be effective in improving education and getting all students ready for college, workforce training, and life, the Standards must be partnered with a content-rich curriculum and robust assessments, both aligned to the Standards.
    135. 135. Next Generation Assessments
    136. 136. Assessment Consortia1. Measure common core standards2. Provide accurate information about what students know and can do: a. Student achievement standards b. Student growth from year to year c. On-track to college and career ready by the time of HS graduation
    137. 137. How do we get from here... here? Common Core Common Core All students All students State Standards State Standards leave high leave high specify K-12 specify K-12 school college school college expectations for expectations for and career and career college and college and ready ready career readiness career readiness ...and what can an assessment system do to help? 162
    138. 138. Background
    139. 139. • Computer Adaptive• Formative Capacity• Integrated System 164
    140. 140. • To develop a set of comprehensive and innovative assessments for grades 3–8 and high school in English language arts and mathematics aligned to the Common Core State Standards• Students leave high school prepared for postsecondary success in college or a career through increased student learning and improved teaching• The assessments shall be operational across Consortium states in the 2014-15 school year 165
    141. 141. 166
    142. 142. 168
    143. 143. Co-Chairs Judy Park (UT) Carissa Miller (ID)Executive Director Joe WillhoftChief Operating Officer Tony AlpertExecutive Committee Dan Hupp (ME); Joseph Martineau (MI); Lynette Russell (WI); Mike Middleton (WA); Charles Lenth (Higher Education Representative)Project Management Partner WestEdPolicy Coordinator Sue GendronSenior Research Advisor Linda Darling-Hammond Last Modified July 22, 2011 169
    144. 144. Consortium has established 10 work groupsWork group engagement of 80 state-level staff: • Each work group: 2 co-chairs and 6 members from states; 1 liaison from the Executive Committee; 1 WestEd partnerWork group responsibilities: • Define scope and timeline for work in its area • Develop a work plan and resource requirements • Determine and monitor the allocated budget • Oversee Consortium work in its area, including identification and direction of vendors 170
    145. 145. 1. Transition to Common Core State Standards2. Technology Approach3. Assessment Design: Item Development4. Assessment Design: Performance Tasks5. Assessment Design: Test Design6. Assessment Design: Test Administration7. Reporting8. Formative Processes and Tools/Professional Development9. Accessibility and Accommodations10. Research and Evaluation 171
    146. 146. Jamal Abedi University of California, Davis, CRESSTRandy Bennett Educational Testing ServiceDerek Briggs University of Colorado at BoulderGreg Cizek University of North CarolinaDavid Conley University of OregonLinda Darling-Hammond Stanford UniversityBrian Gong The Center for AssessmentEd Haertel Stanford UniversityJoan Herman University of California, Los Angeles and CRESSTJim Pellegrino University of Illinois at ChicagoW. James Popham University of California, Los Angeles, EmeritusJoseph M. Ryan Arizona State UniversityMartha Thurlow University of Minnesota and NCEO 172
    147. 147. • IHE partners • Include 163 public and 13 private institutions and systems of Higher Education • represent nearly 78% of the total number of direct matriculation students across all SMARTER Balanced States • IHE representatives and/or postsecondary faculty may serve on: • Executive Committee • Assessment scoring and item review committees • Standard-setting committees* Does not include California IHE partners 173
    148. 148. Assessment SystemOverview
    149. 149. • A model of verifiable accomplishments/milestones, leading to the desired outcome• Accomplishments/milestones are interdependent• The theory of action is closely linked to the validation argument for the assessment system 175
    150. 150. • An integrated system• Evidence of student performance• Teacher involvement• State-led with transparent governance• Continuously improve teaching and learning• Useful information on multiple measures• Adheres to established professional standards 176
    151. 151. Summative assessments Summative assessments benchmarked to college benchmarked to college and career readiness and career readiness Common Core Common Core State Standards State Standards Teachers can access Teachers can access All students leave All students leave specify K-12 specify K-12 formative processes formative processes high school college high school college expectations for expectations for and tools to improve and tools to improve and career ready and career readycollege and careercollege and career instruction instruction readiness readiness Interim assessments Interim assessments that are flexible, open, that are flexible, open, and provide actionable and provide actionable feedback feedback 177
    152. 152. 178
    153. 153. Assessment System
    154. 154. • Assess acquisition of and progress toward “college and career readiness”• Have common, comparable scores across member states• Provide achievement and growth information for teacher and principal evaluation and professional development• Assess all students, except those with “significant cognitive disabilities”• Administer online, with timely results• Use multiple measuresSource: Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 68 / Friday, April 9, 2010 pp. 18171-85 180
    155. 155. Assessment system that balances summative, interim, and formative componentsfor ELA and mathematics:•Summative Assessment (Computer Adaptive) • Mandatory comprehensive assessment in grades 3–8 and 11 (testing window within the last 12 weeks of the instructional year) that supports accountability and measures growth • Selected response, short constructed response, extended constructed response, technology enhanced, and performance tasks•Interim Assessment (Computer Adaptive) • Optional comprehensive and content-cluster assessment • Learning progressions • Available for administration throughout the year • Selected response, short constructed response, extended constructed response, technology enhanced, and performance tasks•Formative Processes and Tools • Optional resources for improving instructional learning • Assessment literacy 181
    156. 156. • Mandatory comprehensive accountability measures that include computer adaptive assessments and performance tasks• Computer adaptive testing offers efficient and precise measurement and quick results• Assesses the full range of CCSS in English language arts and mathematics 182
    157. 157. • Describes current achievement and growth across time, showing progress toward college and career readiness• Provides state-to-state comparability, with standards set against research-based benchmarks• Summative tests can be given twice a year 183
    158. 158. • Optional comprehensive and content-cluster measures that include computer adaptive assessment and performance tasks• Provides clear examples of expected performance on common standards• Helps identify specific needs of each student 184
    159. 159. • Grounded in cognitive development theory about how learning progresses• Aligned to and reported on the same scale as the summative assessments• Involves significant teacher participation in design and scoring• Fully accessible for instruction and professional development 185
    160. 160. • Instructionally sensitive, on-demand tools and strategies aimed at improving teaching, increasing student learning, and enabling differentiation of instruction• Processes and tools are research based• Clearinghouse of professional development materials available to educators includes model units of instruction, publicly released assessment items, formative strategies, and materials for professional development 186
    161. 161. • System Portal contains information about Common Core State Standards, Consortium activities, web-based learning communities, and assessment results• Dashboard gives parents, students, practitioners, and policymakers access to assessment information• Reporting capabilities include static and dynamic reports, secure and public views• Item development and scoring application support educator participation in assessment• Feedback and evaluation mechanism provides surveys, open feedback, and vetting of materials 187
    162. 162. • Comprehensively assesses the breadth of the Common Core State Standards while minimizing test length• Allows increased measurement precision relative to fixed form assessments; important for providing accurate growth estimates• Testing experience is tailored to student ability as measured during the test 188
    163. 163. • Supports access to information about student progress toward college and career readiness• Allows for exchange of student performance history across districts and states• Uses a Consortium-supported backbone, while individual states retain jurisdiction over access and appearance of online reports• Tied to digital clearinghouse of formative materials• Graphical display of learning progression status (interim assessment) 189
    164. 164. English Language Arts and Mathematics, Grades 3–8 and High School BEGINNING END OF YEAR OF YEAR Last 12 weeks of year* DIGITAL CLEARINGHOUSE of formative tools, processes and exemplars; released items and tasks; model curriculum units; educator training; professional development tools and resources; scorer training modules; and teacher collaboration tools. I NT ERI M AS SES SMEN T I NT ERI M A S SESS MEN T Computer Adaptive Computer Adaptive PERFORMANCE TASKS END OF YEAR Assessment and Assessment and • Reading ADAPTIVE Performance Tasks Performance Tasks ASSESSMENT • Writing • Math Scope, sequence, number, and timing of interim assessments locally determined Re-take option Optional Interim Summative assessment assessment system— for accountability * Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions.Source: 190
    165. 165. Summary
    166. 166. 192
    167. 167. • Allows students to enter college having met clear, common standards• Interim assessments provide students, teachers, and parents with detailed, actionable information about knowledge and skills needed for college entry and success• Students enrolled in IHEs and IHE systems will be able to be exempt from remedial courses if they have met the Consortium-adopted achievement standard for each assessment 193
    168. 168. 194
    169. 169. • Less cost and more capabilities through scope of work sharing and collaboration• More control through shared interoperable open- source software platforms: Item authoring system, item banking, and adaptive testing platform no longer exclusive property of vendors• Better service for students with disabilities and EL students through common, agreed-upon protocols for accommodations 195
    170. 170. ...the SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortiumcan be found online at 196
    171. 171. Sample Assessments
    172. 172. Students (with prompting andsupport from the teacher) read“Garden Helpers” in NationalGeographic Young Explorers anddemonstrate their understandingof the main idea of the text—notall bugs are bad—by retelling keydetails. [RI.K.2] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    173. 173. Students locate key facts orinformation in Claire Llewellyn’sEarthworms by using various textfeatures (headings, table ofcontents, glossary) found in thetext. [RI.1.5] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    174. 174. Students explain how the mainidea that Lincoln had “many faces”in Russell Freedman’s Lincoln: APhoto biography is supported bykey details in the text. [RI.3.2] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    175. 175. Students explain how MelvinBerger uses reasons andevidence in his book DiscoveringMars: The Amazing Story of theRed Planet to support particularpoints regarding the topology ofthe planet. [RI.4.8] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    176. 176. Students compare and contrast LaurenceYep’s fictional portrayal of Chineseimmigrants in turn-of-the-twentieth-centurySan Francisco in Dragonwings to historicalaccounts of the same period (usingmaterials detailing the 1906 San Franciscoearthquake) in order to glean a deeperunderstanding of how authors use or alterhistorical sources to create a sense of timeand place as well as make fictionalcharacters lifelike and real. [RL.7.9] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    177. 177. Students evaluate Jim Murphy’s TheGreat Fire to identify which aspects ofthe text (e.g., loaded language and theinclusion of particular facts) reveal hispurpose; presenting Chicago as a citythat was “ready to burn.” [RH.6–8.6] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    178. 178. Students analyze in detail the theme ofrelationships between mothers anddaughters and how that theme developsover the course of Amy Tan’s The JoyLuck Club. Students search the text forspecific details that show how the themeemerges and how it is shaped and refinedover the course of the novel. [RL.9–10.2] Source: CCSS ELA Appendix B
    179. 179. Assessments
    180. 180. Transition Plan
    181. 181. Next Steps• Start with awareness program
    182. 182. Next Steps• Start with awareness program• Needs Assessment
    183. 183. Next Steps• Start with awareness program• Needs Assessment• Transition Plan
    184. 184. Next Steps• Start with awareness program• Needs Assessment• Transition Plan• Provide support to teachers now — Focused and sustained professional development
    185. 185. Next Steps• Start with awareness program• Needs Assessment• Transition Plan• Provide support to teachers now — Next Navigator — Focused and sustained professional development• Monitor progress
    186. 186. Prepare for this important transitionThis informative and practicalnew resource kit providesinsight into:•How the new in-depthperformance events differ fromcurrent assessments•How the Rigor / RelevanceFramework® can help facilitatecollege and career readiness•What fewer, clearer, higherstandards mean for states and By Sue Gendron Policy Coordinator,schools SMARTER Balance Assessment Consortium•What must be done now toprepare for implementation in
    187. 187. 1587 Route 146 Rexford, NY 12148 Phone (518) 399-2776 Fax (518) 399-7607E-mail -
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