Linguistics is a science Lots of concepts onimples a serius, deep . linguistic have been study a languaye It is aims to give through time by demostrate how linguists according to people have their points used, deal PRELIMINARY NOTIONS Scientific study of a lenguage in . Linguistic is thegeneral and of languages in particular scientific study of as dealing with their history , nature- a system of human approaches, grammar-ruler, struture- communicationsyntax, saounds –phonology, meaningsistems-semantics, semiotics so on as a system of human communication .
• Jacab Grimm LINGUISTICS BACKGROUND . (1785-1863) • Franz Bopp (791-1867) The word linguistics was initially • August Schleicher used in the middle of 19th century (1821-1868) to emphasize the difference between a newer approach to the study on language that was then developing and the nre tradicional aproach of philologyPhilology Socio- Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics Computatioanl Anthopologica Apllied Psycholinguistic Psycholinguistic Ethnic linguistic l linguistic linguistics linguistics It deals with Characterize Had Studied how Relations It´s also The the d by the recibstructed dialects between know as theoretical relationship deep what appaed messages and natural and between differences to be the the language, descriptive ñanguage of class, Proto-Indo characteristic it´s a foundtions and culture ethnicity European branch of for the Lenguage artificial gerder and investigation intelligence generation and solution
The term cpnstrative analysis stand for applied constrative sudias, with deal the practical cosnsequences of differences between constrated language for teaching purpose, bilingual analysis or translation. . CONSTRATIVE OR CONTRATIVE CONSTRATIVE COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS Cer.taly studies analyses, and compares two more lenguage Originally known as comparative philology descriptively in order to find out is branch of historiical or diachronic similarities and differences amog linguistic that is conced with comparingthem during the lenguage learning language in order to establish theur process. historical relatedness
-Since interence for FUNDAMENTALS FOR more 30% of error to TEACHING understand leguage. - Serve as an aid to their own more Is a relevant recuarding study autonomous area for certain types of student learning and as a background to the self diagnosis and remediation of their error, spoken Constrative Metrhogology and written Constrative linguistic of constrative Pragmatics syllabus linguistic Theory isn´t It´s the study of tooProceeds Three level the ability of demandinglevel-by- of lexis natural language level speaker s to communicate The fundamental -Lenguage terminology more than that techique of -Sound (utterance) which is explicity constrative linguistic is -Syntax (gramas, sentece staded to mach of to Is specilly structure and rules languages by using a associated with techique know as the applied constrative Sounds systems constative method studies advocated involve phonological as a means of or phonetic, relevant predicting to indentifying types difficulties of of foreing accent learners with particular mother tongue in learning
MEW TRENDS Included a comparison af cultures, early contrastraive It´s important study studies focused on what has macrolinguistic an been describeb as microlinguistic micholinguistic contrastrive analysis The role of ConporaIs a body ot text, utterarces or therspecimens considered more or les s representative of a language
It´s arbitrary structures system of utterances- LANGUAGE sounds gestures, sings Most spoken and movements, written language symbols, morphemes. population of words and sentences udes the world to, human comunication Cladification Cladification *Madarin *Hindi *Engish *Arabic *Spanich Verbal lenguage Verbal lenguage Is ephemeral because it vanishes into the air as soon as it is uttered Lenguage Individual Jargon Dialect Dialect Slang Colloquialism Family language It´s a gruop oflanguage related Used by It´s an It´s informal Particular languageby descent from It´s language people who informal way of that isn´t a commom as a whole work in a used on the using a rude but ancestor called from the particular lenguage is language would not the proto- some family interest rude is non relagional be usedlanguage of that standard and social informal family situation
Non Verbal No sound is uttered this could be symbolic written pr mimic. It´s a system of permanentWritten or simbolic language written symbols It´s a writting system which uses Idiographic ideograms(symbols) to represent whole words or concepts Syllabic It´s based or syllables which are represented by separate symbols English. It´s lingua franca It´s based on sounds- Alphabetical and native langua in the pronunciation world spoken Writing sistems, It´s bases Spanish. Spoken a first Articulated Languge on alphabets phonectica language 352 millon second alphabets language speakers
It´s the incompatibility. It´s the quality or state of being inconsistent, lack of conrdance with a structural pattern LENGUAGE INCONSISTENCIES The same letter Different dialects The same sound or letter pronunce the can be writtencombination can same word whit diffetentrefer to different different letter sounds combination
CLUSTER A group of the same or similar element gathered or occuring closely tofetres Consonant Vowel cluster cluster Give to synthetic words Also know as a consonant containing orthografic vowel blend is a group or sequence cluster and analyzes the of consonant that appear observed pronunciation in together is a syllable whitout relation to comon in lenguge a vowel between them. Inicial clusters Medial clusters Final clusters French, English and Four hinal consonant Inicial two spanish might have cluster is by and largeconsonant cluster from two up to fpur the outcome of the medial consonant plural forms cluster INTRASILLABIC INTERSYLLABIC One consonant of the cluster IT belongs to the second of belongs to the first syllable the two syllable speaks and the other to the second between which they appear sillable diision occur beteen os medial the members
Phoneme is the smallest basic Phonemics and theorical unit of languaje PHONOLOGYIs the study of the system of It´s the study and description of phonemes of a language Phonetics the speech sounds made by the human voice It´s a mark placed over under or Diacritic though a letter
It´s a system of characteris orranged in a fixed convetional order to ALPHABET symbolize sounds or letter Latin Alphabeth used in a wriitting system to represent speech To achieve widespread acceptance, this Latin Alphabet international Also called Romanencapsulation was based on standards alphabet popular usage.
THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETICALPHABET (IPA) Was proposed and mainly accepted by linguistic, and created by the intenational phonetic association (whose original members were language teachers in france 1886. Plublished officially the first version in 1888. The latest version of the international phonetic alphabet was revised and undate by asociationin 2005
BROAD TRANSCRIPTION • Also identified as phonemic transcription, it´s the notation that reperesent utterances of a language by indicating only the dignigicant and underlying sounds that make up a word TRANSCRIPTION: It´S a system of notation that represents utterences or partial utterrances of a languagePedaofical Hints pronounced by people• Making stress in both ingeneral Stress: manosyllabic and • It´s feature multidyllabic words is whichis often some didactic advice re´resented om for students to be able phonetic and to use and pronounce phonemic properly the stressed transcription syllables on wprds