English 72 context clues


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English 72 context clues

  1. 1. VOCABULARY & CONTEXT CLUES – YOU BE THE DETECTIVE. This section will introduce you to ―context clues‖ which will help you figure out the meaning of certain words.
  2. 2. CONTEXT CLUES • Why do we have a section on vocabulary and context clues? • As we learned in the last PowerPoint lecture, there is a direct link between reading comprehension and a reader’s vocabulary. • To get meaning from what they read, successful readers need both a great many words in their vocabularies and the ability to use various strategies to establish the meanings of new words when they encounter them.
  3. 3. CONTEXT CLUES • What do you do when you come across a word that you do not know the meaning of? • Do you skip the word • Ask someone else what it means? • Look it up in the dictionary? • The dictionary would be the logical choice, but what if you are doing an in-class assignment and forgot your dictionary?
  4. 4. AUTHORS AND CONTEXT CLUES • Writers and authors often include words or phrases to help their readers understand the meaning of a new or difficult word. • As a reader you often need to act similar to a detective and put together clues from sentences surrounding an unknown word. • You make an intelligent ―guess‖ as to what the definition of a word is without having to look up the word in the dictionary. • Using context clues will help you by • saving you time when reading • adding to your vocabulary
  5. 5. CONTEXT CLUES • Do you know the meaning of the word consolidate? • Look at the cartoon on the next page and see if the context—the words surrounding the unfamiliar word—helps you figure out the meaning of the word.
  6. 6. WHAT DOES CONSOLIDATE MEAN? a. separate b. cancel c. combine into one
  7. 7. Frank and Ernest are seeking to combine all their small debts into ―one giant nightmare‖ of a loan. The context tells you that consolidate means ―combine into one.‖
  8. 8. LET’S LOOK AT THE WORD ―CONIFER‖ • Do you know what it means? • Let’s look at this word in different sentences. • Fifty conifers were delivered to the front door. • She opened the package and then planted the 50 conifers. • She planted the 50 conifers along the edge of her property, each about 15 feet apart, and hoped they would grow larger to eventually block the wind. • When the conifers were about 6 feet tall, she planned to cut one down in December, bring it into her house, and decorate it with lights and ornaments.
  9. 9. CONTEXT CLUES We will learn four types of context clues 1. Definition or Synonym 2. Contrast or Antonym 3. Examples 4. General Sense of the Sentence
  10. 10. DEFINITION OR SYNONYM • What is a synonym? • A synonym is a word that means the same—or almost the same—as another word. • Sometimes you can determine the meaning of a word by finding its synonym in the sentence.
  11. 11. WHICH WORDS IN THIS CARTOON HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT HUMILIATE MEANS? • The words ―I feel worthless enough already‖ help you understand that humiliate means ―to make feel ashamed.‖
  12. 12. SYNONYMS & DEFINITIONS • Watch for words that indicate that you are being given a definition, such as defined as, means, is known as, the term is called. • Watch for synonyms, words that mean the same thing, such as big and large.
  13. 13. CONTRAST & ANTONYM • What is an antonym? • A word that means the opposite of another word. • Which word in the cartoon is an antonym of ―overwhelmed?‖
  14. 14. CONTRAST • Words that signal contrast • On the other hand • In contrast • However • But • Yet • Instead • Even though • Unlike • Although
  15. 15. EXAMPLES • A sentence may contain an example or examples of an unfamiliar word. • Examples are probably the most direct type of context clue. • The author uses a word and then gives an example that describes or explains it.
  16. 16. EXAMPLE CONTEXT CLUES • Authors will often use signal words to let the reader know that an example is coming. • For example • For instance • Such as • To illustrate
  17. 17. • Look at the cartoon and see if the examples help you understand the meaning of the word commitment. • Commitment means A. a promise to do something B. an opinion about something C. an opportunity for something
  18. 18. The cartoon gives three examples of commitment: a 30-year mortgage, a 5-year car lease, and a lifetime gym membership. These examples help you understand that commitment means ―a promise to do something.‖
  19. 19. GENERAL SENSE OF THE SENTENCE • With context clues, the author usually provides the meaning of a word with other words that surround that particular word. • However, sometimes you need to look carefully at the entire sentence in which an unfamiliar word appears to figure out the meaning of the word. • There may be clues within the sentence that help you figure out the word.
  20. 20. HOW DOES THIS CARTOON ABOUT A JOB INTERVIEW HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT THE WORD IMPRESSIVE MEANS? • The glowing reference (from the job applicant’s mother!) helps you realize that impressive means ―very favorable.‖
  21. 21. LET’S REVIEW WHAT IS A CONTEXT CLUE? a. An interesting word that authors like to put in their stories. b. Word or words surrounding an unknown word that give a clue to the meaning of the word. c. A context clue is not a synonym or an antonym
  22. 22. WHAT DOES A CONTRAST OR ANTONYM CONTEXT CLUE DO? a. It gives a clue that is difficult to figure out. b. It gives a word that is the opposite mean of the word in question. c. It is the same thing as a synonym.
  23. 23. WHAT IS A DEFINITION/SYNONYM CONTEXT CLUE? a.A synonym context clue is a word that is similar or the same of the word in question. Or the definition is given. b.A synonym context clue is the same thing as an antonym context clue. c.Synonyms are not used as context clues.
  24. 24. GENERAL SENSE OF THE SENTENCE CONTEXT CLUES… a.give a general definition of the word. b.are more difficult to understand; therefore, you must read the passage very carefully. c.provide the topic of the sentence.
  25. 25. AN EXAMPLE CONTEXT CLUE a.Is when in which you have to figure out what the definition is. b.Is when the author provides examples of what the word means. c.Is the same thing as a definition context clue.
  26. 26. • Martin had acted in a juvenile manner. Yelling, screaming, and calling the bank teller names had been childish and immature. • Juvenile means: A. childish. B. serious. C. noticeable. Which words are the context clues? a. Acted b. Had been c. Immature
  27. 27. WHAT TYPE OF CONTEXT CLUE IS USED IN THIS SENTENCE? When I was sick with the flu, my favorite spicy foods looked awful to me; all I wanted was bland foods such as broth and toast. a. Definition/Synonym b. Antonym c. Example d. General sense of the passage
  28. 28. In the ―Coca Cola‖ case, Sarah Jones pled guilty Friday to the extreme crime of computer crime and identity theft while her mother, Carrie Jones, pled guilty to the lesser charge of computer crime. Extreme means: a. great in degree b. moderate c. ridiculous What type of context clue is used & which word(s) are the clues? a. Definition/Synonym-crime b. Contrast/Antonym-lesser c. Example-computer crime d. General sense of the sentence-the entire sentence.
  29. 29. When it comes to flying saucers, most scientists are skeptics—they question why no spaceships have ever landed in public places. Skeptics means: A. supporters B. doubters C. victims. What type of context clue is used? a. Synonym or definition b. Antonym/contrast c. Example d. General sense of the sentence
  30. 30. ENGLISH ESSENTIALS CH. 1-3 SUBJECTS AND VERBS Go to English Essentials PowerPoint Presentation