Week 7, Day 2
October 10, 2013
English 83R Mrs. E. Buchanan
What kind of pattern –
Kennedy & Lincoln?
a. Compare and Contrast
b. Cause and Effect
Please place your homework on the counter after you have
clicked in: Author’s Purpose and Tone Assignment,
Literature Circle packet opened up to your “role” for this
Pick up Vocabulary #6 and Patterns Assignment.
• Vocabulary #6 – Same Activity we did on Tuesday.
• Count off to 10
• Put word/definition and sentence on the board
• Literature Circles
• More Transitions and Patterns of Organization #4-7
• Please get into your literature circles.
Review First 3 Patterns
• What does a Compare and Contrast Pattern do?
• Cause and Effect?
• Review the homework
• Authors use two common methods to show connections,
or relationships, between ideas.
• These two methods are transitions and patterns of
• We all use transition words all the time – everyday -
when you have a conversation with someone. You might
be talking at the dinner table with your family. You start
out talking about your day at school, perhaps your
midterm grades and other school related topics. The next
thing you realize is that you are now talking about your
upcoming spring break vacation. How did you jump
topics during your conversation? By using transition
words to get there.
• The conversation might go like this:
• Mom: How was your day at school, Johnny?
• Johnny: First of all, I went to my English 83R class, took
my vocab quiz, and got an A. After class, I went to the
library to start working on my midterm essay. Next, I
went to lunch with Joey, and finally I went to the travel
agency to pick up tickets for our trip to Cancun.
• During reading, it is important to pay special attention to
• These special words show the relationships between ideas
within sentences and within paragraphs
• Look at the sentences below. Which one is easier to read
• Naomi was happy to find out that she is having a baby
boy. She needs to paint the nursery because the walls are
pink. She will have new carpet installed. She will buy a
• Naomi was happy to find out that she is having a baby
boy. First of all , she needs to paint the nursery. Next she
will have new carpet installed. Finally, she will buy a new
• Sentence number one did not make sense
• The addition of the transition words First, next, finally in
the second paragraph makes the situation clear.
• Although Naomi is happy to be having a boy, she now
needs to paint, install new carpet, and buy a crib.
• Transitions are words or phrases (like first
of all) that show relationships between ideas. They are
like signs on the road that guide travelers.
• Writers often signal a change in topic with a transition
word or phrase that serves as a link or bridge from one
thought to the next one.
• Now let’s discuss patterns or organization – through this
you will see how transition words are used.
Patterns of Organization
• Writers organize their supporting sentences and ideas in
ways called Patterns of Organization.
• Just as transitions show relationships between ideas in
sentences, patterns of organization show the relationships
between supporting details in paragraphs, essays, and
• Patterns of organization are structures our minds use all
• All of our thinking and communicating depend on
patterns of organization.
We are going to learn about four
more Patterns of Organization
• Steps in a Process
• Chronological Order
Steps in a Process
• In the steps in a process pattern, something is explained
or described in a step-by-step manner.
• The sequences are clearly identified by specific transition
After Afterward At this point
At this stage Finally First, second, third
Next Now Then
Process Now Step
• Group 1: Baking a cake
• Group 2: Asking your parents for a loan to buy a car
• Group 3: Deciding what classes to take in Spring
• Group 4: Breaking up with your boyfriend/girlfriend
• Group 5: Planning a trip to Hawaii
• Group 6: Planning a baby shower for your best friend
• A paragraph of examples usually gives a general statement of
the main idea and then presents one or more concrete examples
to provide support for this idea.
• Many writers place the most important or convincing example
either first, as an attention-getter, or last, as a dramatic climax.
• While the terms example and illustration are used
interchangeably, an illustration is usually longer, and there may
only be one in the paragraph.
Example & Illustration
Illustration words signal that an author is providing one or more
examples to develop and clarify an idea.
In the cartoon below, the husband gives examples of what, to him, are
(for) example, including, one, once,
(for) instance, specifically, such as,
to illustrate, To be specific, (as an illustration)
• “Money” (by Richard Armour)
• Workers earn it
• Bankers lend it
• Women spend it
• Forgers fake it
• Taxes take it
• Dying leave it
• Heirs receive it
When an author simply lists information without regard to
order, the pattern of organization is referred to as simple
listing or enumeration.
Sometimes authors use
letters (a, b, c)
or asterisks (*)
to show the individual items on the list.
List of Items
Transition (addition) Words
One First (of all) Secondly
Thirdly To begin with For one thing
Other Another Also
In addition Next Moreover
Further Furthermore Last (of all)
List of Items Practice using
Transition (addition words)
• Group 1: Reasons for attending college
• Group 2: The importance of exercise
• Group 3: Tips for men on how to propose marriage
• Group 4: Why you should stop smoking
• Group 5: The importance of participating in class
• Group 6: The advantages of becoming a vegetarian
• See if you can arrange the following sentences in a logical
order, so that they form a short paragraph. Which sentence
should come first? Second? Third? Last? Use the time words
as a guide.
• A. Next, the two people declare themselves a couple, telling
friends and relatives about the new person in their lives.
• B. The two people then make a commitment to have an
exclusive relationship with each other.
• C. A relationship begins when two people show interest in each
other and choose to spend time together.
• D. Last, the two people formalize the relationship by
cohabitation or marriage.
• A relationship begins when two people show interest in each
other and choose to spend time together. The two people then
make a commitment to have an exclusive relationship with
each other. Next, the two people declare themselves a couple,
telling friends and relatives about the new person in their lives.
Last, the two people formalize the relationship by cohabitation
• Authors usually present events in the order in which they
happen, resulting in the time order pattern of organization.
• The time transitions then, Next, and Last introduce the points
being listed and indicate their order.
• Two kinds of time order are a series of events or stages
and steps in a process.
• As a student, you’ll see time order used frequently. For
example, textbooks in all fields describe events and
processes, such as …
• the events leading to the Boston Tea Party
• the important incidents in Abraham Lincoln’s life
• the steps involved for a bill to travel through Congress
• the process involved in writing a paper
• the stages in the development of a cell
Main idea: Children master language in predictable
1. At about six months, babies begin to repeat sounds
2. Three or four months later, babies can repeat sounds
and carry on little “conversations.”
3. Toddlers understand many words but cannot talk.
4. Finally, the child talks in single words and two-word
For Next Week
• Quiz on Author’s Purpose & Patterns of Organization &
• Vocab. 5-6 will the be last quizzes for this portion of the
• They will both be held on Thursday, 10/17/13
• Last Literature Circle: Tuesday – I will be reviewing all
• Homework For Tuesday: Patterns Activity using “Science