Chapter 25
The Consolidation of Latin America
WHAP!
1867- Mexico
• Austrian Archduke Maximilian
– Sent by Napoleon III
– Why? Mexico owed debts
• Common “Latin” culture

– Go...
1794 & 1848
Comparing Independence Movements
in Latin America, Europe and US
Similarities
• Progress
• Reform
• Political Representati...
Race
•
•
•
•
•

Creole: American-born Whites (European)
American Indian: Natives
Mestizo: European + American Indian
Mulat...
Causes of Political Change
1. Age of Enlightenment (18th Century)

Rousseau

– Beliefs:

Thomas
Hobbes

John Locke
Voltair...
Causes of Political Change
2. Other Successful Revolutions
(model)
• American Revolution (1775-1783)
– Breaking away from ...
Causes of Political Change
3. St. Domingue, French colony
• Political conflict
– Whites and free people of
color
– 1791: s...
Causes of Political Change
4. Problems in Europe (Napoleonic
Wars)
• After the French Revolution
France invaded the Iberia...
Spanish American Independence
Struggles
• Central America
• Northern South America
• Southern South America
Mexico
• Father Miguel de Hidalgo
– Had help from mestizos and American
Indians
– Lost support of the Creoles (who feared
...
Mexican Empire

• 1821-1824
• After the collapse, Central American countries
established independent nations and Mexico
be...
Northern South America (huh?)
• Independence movement
centered in Caracas
• 1810
• Simon Bolívar
– Wealthy Creole Officer
...
Southern South America
• José de San Martín
– Buenos Aires, Argentina
– Helped to liberate Argentina and Chile
Brazil
• Portuguese royal family fled
Napoleon and established the
Portuguese Empire in Rio de
Jeneiro
– Opened ports to w...
An Independent Latin America
• All countries are
republics
• Except Brazil
(Monarchy)
New Nations/New Problems
• Major issues
– Social inequalities
• 1854 slavery abolished everywhere
• Except Cuba, Puerto Ri...
US Involvement
• Monroe Doctrine
– 1823
– Statement by American President
Monroe telling Europeans to stay out
of Latin Am...
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Chapter 25: Latin America

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Powerpoint based on chapter 25 of the AP World History text, "World Civilaizations: The Global Experience".
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Chapter 25: Latin America

  1. 1. Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America WHAP!
  2. 2. 1867- Mexico • Austrian Archduke Maximilian – Sent by Napoleon III – Why? Mexico owed debts • Common “Latin” culture – Goal: establish monarchy Napoleon III President of the French Republic; Ruler of the Second French Empire Nephew and heir of Napoleon I • Profit • Appease French Catholics – Mexican War of Independence: 18101821 • Result: Firing Squad Emperor of Mexico r. 10 April 1864 - 19 June 1867
  3. 3. 1794 & 1848
  4. 4. Comparing Independence Movements in Latin America, Europe and US Similarities • Progress • Reform • Political Representation • Constitutional Government Differences • Latin America: no practice/experience in representative government; power held by central government • US: House of Burgesses (VA) • Europe: Parliaments with limited power
  5. 5. Race • • • • • Creole: American-born Whites (European) American Indian: Natives Mestizo: European + American Indian Mulatto: African + European Africans Could they all get along? Colonial elites (whites) think, “Can we control them (everyone else)?”
  6. 6. Causes of Political Change 1. Age of Enlightenment (18th Century) Rousseau – Beliefs: Thomas Hobbes John Locke Voltaire • Life, liberty, property, health • Separation of powers/ limited government • Consent of the governed (popular sovereignty)
  7. 7. Causes of Political Change 2. Other Successful Revolutions (model) • American Revolution (1775-1783) – Breaking away from the mother country is possible – If they can do it, so can we…. • French Revolution (1779) – “liberty, equality and fraternity” – Not supported by the Creole elites • Regicide, rejection of the Church’s authority, and social leveling
  8. 8. Causes of Political Change 3. St. Domingue, French colony • Political conflict – Whites and free people of color – 1791: slaves led rebellion • Leader: Toussaint L’Overture (TOO-san LOO-vuhr-tyuhr) – 1804: independent republic of Haiti • Other Latin American countries (basically, white elites with plantations) wanted to avoid Haitian model • Slaves, former slaves and free people of color saw Haiti as a symbol of hope
  9. 9. Causes of Political Change 4. Problems in Europe (Napoleonic Wars) • After the French Revolution France invaded the Iberian Peninsula • Spain: Two rulers – Napoleon’s Brother (King) – Junta Central (committee loyal to King Ferdinand) – Colonies: Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain • Caracas, Bogotá and Mexico created Juntas – Supposed to be loyal to the deposed King, but they ruled for themselves King Ferdinand VII King of Spain
  10. 10. Spanish American Independence Struggles • Central America • Northern South America • Southern South America
  11. 11. Mexico • Father Miguel de Hidalgo – Had help from mestizos and American Indians – Lost support of the Creoles (who feared social rebellion) – Captured and Executed – Insurgency continued • Augustín de Iturbide – Creole Army officer – Joined with the insurgency (instead of killing them) – Combined forces won Mexico City in September 1821 – Iturbide was declared Emperor of Mexico Bell of Delores Rung by Hidalgo before his speech to rally the people to fight for independence
  12. 12. Mexican Empire • 1821-1824 • After the collapse, Central American countries established independent nations and Mexico became a republic.
  13. 13. Northern South America (huh?) • Independence movement centered in Caracas • 1810 • Simon Bolívar – Wealthy Creole Officer – President of Grand Colombia (Venezuela, Columbia and Ecuador) – Rejected offers to be king
  14. 14. Southern South America • José de San Martín – Buenos Aires, Argentina – Helped to liberate Argentina and Chile
  15. 15. Brazil • Portuguese royal family fled Napoleon and established the Portuguese Empire in Rio de Jeneiro – Opened ports to world commerce (England) – Dom João VI, Portuguese King – Improved Rio de Janeiro • Library, gardens, printing presses, schools • João VI’s son eventually declared Brazil independent and became Dom Pedro I Constitutional Emperor of Brazil Dom Pedro I
  16. 16. An Independent Latin America • All countries are republics • Except Brazil (Monarchy)
  17. 17. New Nations/New Problems • Major issues – Social inequalities • 1854 slavery abolished everywhere • Except Cuba, Puerto Rico (Spanish colonies still) & Brazil – Political representation • Property and literacy restrictions on voters • Men only • American Indians and people of mixed origins were suspicious of political elite (old colonial aristocracy) • Centralist (conservatives) vs Federalists (liberals) – Role of the Church – Regionalism
  18. 18. US Involvement • Monroe Doctrine – 1823 – Statement by American President Monroe telling Europeans to stay out of Latin America or else! (empty words) – Britain had a capital interest to support Latin American independence • Manifest Destiny – Belief to unite the US coast to coast • Mexican-American War – Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – Mexican Cession ($15 Million) • Spanish- American War – Cuba – Puerto Rico – Philippines • US backed Panama independence from Colombia – Panama Canal (American rights)
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