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U1.Questionforms *Directquestions: a)yes/no questions 1.Use do/does/did 2.Verbs whitbe, can, have(got) dontneedtheauxiliary 3.Negatives yes/no questionsexpect a particular answer. e.g.didyoulikethemovie? b)wh-questions 1.Question words(who,where,when,why,whose,what,how,which) at thebeginning. 2.If who,what,whichisthesubject, wedont use theauxiliary 3.If thereis a prepositionit comes at theend of thequestion e.g.whogaveyouthe tickets? c)Alternativequestions There are 2 types of alternativequestions, yes/no type & wh-type e.g. =do youwanttogooutoryou are goingtostudy? = which color youlikethemostpinkorblue ? INDIRECT QUESTIONS Use statementwordorder, tobe more polite Commonways of startingindirect q.: I’dliketoknow,couldyoutell me, wouldyoumindtelling me, do youknow. e.g.: =i’dliketoknowifyoulike pizza, =couldyoutell me whenistheexam.
c)Alternativequestions There are 2 types of alternativequestions, yes/no type & wh-type e.g. =do youwanttogooutoryou are goingtostudy? = which color youlikethemostpinkorblue ? INDIRECT QUESTIONS Use statementwordorder, tobe more polite Commonways of startingindirect q.: I’dliketoknow,couldyoutell me, wouldyoumindtelling me, do youknow. e.g.: =i’dliketoknowifyoulike pizza, =couldyoutell me whenistheexam. QUESTION TAGS.. Short questions at theend of a statement 1.Positive statement + negativequestiontag e.g.youlikepizza,dontyou? 2.Negative statement + positive questiontag. e.g.youdidntunderstand me, didyou ?
Prepositions of place,time& movement *In time: At= use forclocktime,weekends,holidays e.g.Atmidnight,at christmas In=usedforthemainparts of theday,months, year,seasons,.. e.g.in april, in thesummer On=use forspecificdates & days e.g.onSaturday, on23rd april *place At=shows a point in spacewheresthis happening e.g.Atschool, at home In=shows thatsthtaking place isinside. e.G in bed, in the new york On= shows thatsthtaking place isoutside. e.g.on page, on tv. *movement.. At= to show thepersonorthingtheactionisaimed at. e.g.everybody look at me,hethrewtheball at me To= e.g.whosendthehwtoyou, i traveltohermosillolastweek. Into=i walkedinto my home, i gotintotheclassroom Towards= he walktowards me, thedogruntowardstheboy
*movement.. At= to show thepersonorthingtheactionisaimed at. e.g.everybody look at me,hethrewtheball at me To= e.g.whosendthehwtoyou, i traveltohermosillolastweek. Into=i walkedinto my home, i gotintotheclassroom Towards= he walktowards me, thedogruntowardstheboy *at theend/in theend e.g. at theend of theday i wastired, in theendwefound my home
U.2.Present simple& presentcontinuous **Present simple… We use p.s : 1.with routineactions 2.in time caluseswith a futuremeaningafterwhen,assoon as, if, until. 3.when we are talkingaboutpermanentsituations 4.when we are talkingaboutthefuture 5.with scientificfacts 6.with stateverbswhich are notnormallyused in cont.forms E.g. i gotoschooleveryday, do youlikethemovie? **presentcontinuous We use p.cwhen: 1.actions happening now 2.changing situations 3.temporary situations 4.plans in thefuture 5.annoying habitswithalways E.g.. I’mdoing my hw., he alwaysannoys me.
Modifiers.. **Fairly… Usuallymodifiesadjectives &adverbs, itdoesntsuggest a highdegree. e.g..i fairlylike pizza but i wanttoeat sushi. **quite.. Suggest a higherdegreethan fairly.it can beusedwith a/an + noun.it can modifyverbs&nouns as well as adjetives and adverbs. e.g..she’s quite smartforherage. **pretty.. Isstrongertha quite.it can suggest more thanwasexpected. e.g.its a prettybighouse.
**bit… Isoftenusedwiththesamemeaning as a little. e.g..He is a little bit tallthan me **really.. Isusedto show emphasis. e.g. i reallyenjoy my party **extremelly, incredebly,terribly… They are used in a similar waytovery, butthey are strongerthanvery. e.g.iwasterriblyscared at the film.
U.3comparison *to a higherdegree(comparativeform + than) e.g.im olderthan my brother. *Tothesamedegree(as..as) e.g.My camera is as expensive as my sister camera *to a lowerdegree(withless + than & theleast) e.g.sheisthelessinterestedongoingtothepartythanshewas. *(not)as..as We use not as..as to compare thingswhich are different. e.g.This short isnot as expensive as itusedtobe. We use as..as.. To compare thingswhich are thesame. e.g. he is as intellingent as hisbrother.
Reflexives&own *reflexives There are 3 waysto use reflexives: 1.When theobjectisthesame as thesubject. 2.When youwanttoemphasisethesubject 3.With byto mean alone. e.g.istudymyselffortheexam, they do theworkbythemselves. *own We use own: 1. To mean withoutthehelppfothers. 2.To mean alone 3.To mean belongingto no otherperson e.g. i organizethepartyon my own, i found my own bag.
U.4. *Past simple. (verb + ed) We use p.s.: 1.To talkaboutevents in thepastthat are nowfinished. 2.To talkabouthabits in thepast 3.To talkaboutsituations in thepast 4.In reportedspeech e.G . Theteachersaidthatthe final projectwasfortomorrow. *pastcontinuous..(was/were+ -ing) Totalkabountactions in progress in thepast totalkabouttemporarysituations in thepast totalkaboutanticipatedeventsthtadidnothappen totalkaboutaneventthatwas in progresswhenanothereventhappened. totalkaboutactions in progress at thesame time in thepast. e.g. i washavingdinnerwhen he called me.
** pastperfect simple(had + pastparticiple) 1.To referto a time earlierthananotherpast time 2.In reportedspeech e.g. he said he hadalreadyfinishtheproject. *pastperfectcontinuous.(hadbeen + -ing) 1.To talkaboutactionswhichhadcontinued up ti thepastmomentthatwe are thinkingabout e.g.ihadbeenworkingon my final project.
Time conjunctions *WHILE.. Describe towlongeractionsgoingon at thesame time.. e.G .. While i wasplaying, my momwascooking me sth. *AS.. Talkabouttwosituationswhichchangetogether e.g. As i getolder , my parentsgive me more freedom. *WHEN.. Torefertoperiods of life e.g.when i wasonvacations i slepttoo late. *EVENTUALLY, FINALLY.. Mean in theend. Tosaythatsthhappensafter a long time oreffort. e.g.iwastoonervousbecausetheexam,eventuallyitwasveryeasy.
*AT FIRST & TO BEING WITH Refertothebeginning of a situation, tomakecontrastwithsthdifferentthathappenslater. e.g. At firstwewereverystressedabouttheexam. Butafterdoingitwewererelaxed *AS SOON AS AND THEN Totalkabouttowactionsoreventsthathappenveryquicklyoneaftertheother. e.g. as soon as i lefttheparty, he arrived. *AFTER.. Isnotusuallyusedalone.insteadwe use otherexpressionslikeasterwardsorafterthat. e.g.we are goingtohavedinnerafterthatwe are goingto a party *BY THE TIME… Meansnotlaterthan. e.g. i willhavefinisheddoing my projectbythe time youstartdoingyours.
U.5modals *CAN.. Toaskfor & givepermission. e.g. Can i borrowyourpencil ? *COULD.. Toaskforpermissionwhenyou are notsurewhattheanswerwillbe e.g.couldyoucall my mom ? *MAY. Toaskfororgivepermission in formal situations. e.g.May i come in ? *SHOULD AND OUGHT TO.. Totalkaboutobligations and duties in thefuture, present, past. e.g.Youshouldgotothe doctor, yououghtbuy a birthdaypresenttoyourfather. *MUST.. 1.To talkaboutpresent & futurestrongobligationsthat come fromthe speaker. 2.Ask aboutwhatthelistenerwantsyouto do. 3.Tell peoplenotto do things. e.g.youmuststudyforyouexams. *NEEDNT,DONT NEED TO, DONT HAVE TO.. Totalkabout a lack of obligation in thepresentorfuture. e.g.youdontneedtostayaftertheexam.
Usedto & would *Usedto … Totalkaboutpasthabits and statesthat do notoccurnow. e.G.. When i wasyoung i usedtoplaywithdolls.,, when i was at primaryschool i usedtoplayvolleyball. *Would.. Isalsousedtotalkaboutpasthabits and repeatedactionsbutnotaboutpaststates. e.g. .. Afterthe semestral exams i wouldgotohavebreakfast..,, when i wasyoung i wouldgototheranchafterschoolonfridays.