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מצגת אלה נווה עכברים ואנשים Pdf

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  • 1. 10.6.2009 The Coalition For Public Health: "Past, Present and Future; what awaits the kids in the Haifa–bay area?" Taken on summer 22.6.2006 Ella Nave Ella Nave, M.P.H - Coalition for Public Health James Krikun, PhD.- Coalition for Public Health Special Thanks to Dr. Moshe Shirav Schwartz and Dr. Ziona Haklai Dr. James Krikun and Neveen Matar Dahdal
  • 2. In the past…Pollution Massive Exposure of the Local Population to extremely high levels of pollutants, such as: Transition Metals, Volatile Organic Compounds, etc. Factories working with no emission control means. Considering the unique topography, low stack height, and meterology of Haifa, pollutants are “stuck” On the Other hand, Environmental Epidemiological Research is limited due to lack of Accurate Exposure Assessment (Only SO2 and NO2 monitored until 90's, no volatiles measured in the neighboring cities etc), diffucult pollutant modelling etc. © 2006
  • 3. In the past…Research Even though this, Associations are found in the 80's between high pollution areas and several respiratory diseases, compared with low pollution areas. For Instance, a local research found elevated risks for more than 3 colds per year, Bronchitis, and suptum without cold.) Goren A.I. et al. 1990 Prevalence of Respiratory Conditions among Schoolchildren Exposed to Different levels of Air Pollutants in the Haifa Bay Area, Israel. Another research: “The effects of exposure to air pollution (defined by levels of SO2) were also studied in a representative sample of over 3,500 households in the greater Haifa area.. The sample was drawn from 16 high and low pollution neighborhoods .... A very significant relationship was found between levels of pollution in residential and work areas and self-reported respiratory symptoms and diseases… Epstein et al. 1991 Air pollution and morbidity in the Haifa region Area, Israel. Harefuah 1991 Jun 16;120(12):709-14.
  • 4. In the past…Research Also found in the 80's – are high levels of blood lead in high pollution areas compared with low pollution areas. Richter ED, Berant M, et al. Blood zinc protoporphyrin levels in the children and wives of lead battery workers: a preliminary report. Isr. J. Med Sci. 1985 Sep;21(9):761-4. Richter ED, Berant M, et al. Zinc protoporphyrin levels in children in Haifa: a pilot study. Sci. Total Environ. 1986 Jan; 48(1-2):109-21. .
  • 5. Are kids more vulnerable? YES. The Embryo, child and teenager is more affected by environmental pollution, and specifically, by air pollution. Some reasons for that are: 1. Embryos have exposure windows, when exposure to environmental pollutants would be more harmful than at different timing, For instance: when bronchi or brain are developed. 2. Lungs - babies have less alveoli than 4 year old kids. Also, the ratio of Surface to body mass is greater in kids, enabling them to breath 50% more air per kg than adults ! If lung functions are decreased due to air pollution, the heart might be also affected. 3. The body tissues of a child are still developing, and therefore are more vulnerable to pollutants harming DNA etc. 4. A child's Immune system as not yet developed at birth, and so more affected by environmental toxins than in adulthood. 5. Liver Enzymes less effective than at adulthood, therefore- detoxifying toxins is more of a challenge to them.
  • 6. Epidemiology at Present… Exposure ? Morbidity ? Are kids in Haifa-bay area still exposed? Are kids in Haifa-bay area any sicker than in other places? Only hints will be given, your answer is needed !
  • 7. Are kids in Haifa-bay area still exposed? YES. These Pictures were taken April 2009… Fact is that this is NOT a dust storm. 01/04/09 14:30 PM2.5 level were 67micrograms/m3 in Neve Shannan, 55 in K. Tivon and 41 in Ahuza
  • 8. Are kids in Haifa-bay area still exposed after 2000? YES . How do we know? 1. Data from Monitoring Stations of Haifa District Municipal Association for the Environment– 80’s-2009 showing Long term exposure to high levels of particulate matter and other pollutants. According to these, Industry and Electricity production are the major polluters of Haifa Bay area with Particulates, and VOC’s, which we know today is the more problematic fraction of air pollution. 2. Data from Geological Surveys – 2007 (validating long term exposure to transition metals, as detected by high anthropogenic attributed ground levels) 3. Data from The Israeli Environmental Protection Agency – 4 samples in 20 spots were carried out in 2007-2008, some air samples showing exceeding levels of carcinogens in schools, residential neighbourhoods, etc.
  • 9. ‫‪1. Rate of Particulate Matter Emission (PM10) from‬‬ ‫‪Industries and Electricity Production in Comparison to‬‬ ‫‪Mobile Sources years 2002-2007 Ton/year – Haifa area‬‬ ‫,‬ ‫(‬ ‫7002-2002 )‬ ‫,‬ ‫5.2‬ ‫0081‬ ‫4951‬ ‫0061‬ ‫0141‬ ‫7341‬ ‫4.4‬ ‫0041‬ ‫5031‬ ‫8‬ ‫0021‬ ‫2101‬ ‫209‬ ‫469‬ ‫0001‬ ‫008‬ ‫666‬ ‫536‬ ‫165‬ ‫006‬ ‫/‬ ‫004‬ ‫822‬ ‫002‬ ‫97‬ ‫0‬ ‫2002‬ ‫3002‬ ‫4002‬ ‫5002‬ ‫6002‬ ‫7002‬ ‫ניתן לראות: יחסי הפליטות תחבורה לתעשיה הן לרעת התעשיה ויצור החשמל. התעשייה ויצור החשמל באזור‬ ‫מפרץ חיפה פולטים יותר חלקיקים מסוג 01‪ PM‬מאשר סה"כ כל סקטור התחבורה בשנים 7002-2002. בין‬ ‫השנים 2002 ל-7002 הייתי ירידה בקצב פליטות החומר החלקיקים בשני הסקטורים. )מקור: דוח"ות איגוד ערים‬ ‫חיפה לשנים 7002-8991(‬ ‫-8991‬ ‫‪Source: Annual reports, Haifa District Municipal Association for the Environment‬‬
  • 10. ‫‪1. Rate of Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from‬‬ ‫‪Industries and Electricity Production in Comparison to Mobile‬‬ ‫‪Sources years 2002-2007 Ton/year -Haifa area‬‬ ‫,‬ ‫)‪(VOC's‬‬ ‫¯ 2‬ ‫(‬ ‫7002-2002 )‬ ‫,‬ ‫1.3‬ ‫‪VOCs‬‬ ‫00041‬ ‫37431‬ ‫37431‬ ‫37431‬ ‫37431‬ ‫1.3‬ ‫,‪Industry‬‬ ‫‪Electriciy‬‬ ‫58.1‬ ‫‪production‬‬ ‫00021‬ ‫5.23901‬ ‫6989‬ ‫00001‬ ‫9388‬ ‫0008‬ ‫1727‬ ‫1147‬ ‫1366‬ ‫‪VOCs‬‬ ‫0006‬ ‫4435‬ ‫/‬ ‫‪Transportation‬‬ ‫0004‬ ‫5.1253‬ ‫0002‬ ‫2002‬ ‫3002‬ ‫4002‬ ‫5002‬ ‫6002‬ ‫7002‬ ‫ניתן לראות: יחסי הפליטות תחבורה לתעשיה הן לרעת התעשיה ויצור החשמל. התעשייה ויצור‬ ‫החשמל באזור מפרץ חיפה פולטים כמעט פי 2 יותר תרכובות אורגניות נדיפות מאשר סה"כ כל‬ ‫סקטור התחבורה בשנים 7002-4002. אפשר להתייחס לירידה בסקטור התעשיה ויצור החשמל‬ ‫בין השנים 4002 ל-7002 כאל ירידה ממצב גרוע מאוד, למצב גרוע. )מקור: דוח"ות איגוד‬ ‫-2002‬ ‫ערים חיפה לשנים 7002-2002(‬
  • 11. Just for general knowledge…. Does any of you know what weighs 13,000 tons? Answer: 1 bus without passengers is ~13 tons. Imagine 1000 buses – this is the weight of VOC’s spreading in yearly between 2002-2005 on your hometowns. Remember, that some Volatiles show no threshold limit for causation of cancer…
  • 12. 1. Annual averages of Particulate Matter Emission (PM10) concentrations - Comparison between different areas of the bay - years 2006-2007 2007 2006 (PM10) ¯ micrograms/m3 70 59 60 55 53 48 49 50 48 ¯ 50 42 42 39 2006 40 2007 30 P M 10 20 10 0 ' -
  • 13. 2. Validation of Environmental Exposure to Transition Metals From Soil Sampling Manganese/Iron Ratio Anthropogenic = = * ¯
  • 14. 2. Validation of Environmental Exposure to Metals From Soil Sampling Cadmium/P205 Anthropogenic = *
  • 15. 3. Data from The Israeli Environmental Protection Agency – Benzene Concentrations in several educational institutions and schools carried out in 2007-2008, K. Haim, K. Binyamin (Ata), Neve Shannan, Kfar Hasidim 20 18.373 19 18 16.495 16.24 17 16.006 16 15 13.67 ( " ) ¯ ¯ 14 13 " 12 10.485 11 10 9 8 6.519 7 " / 6 ( ) 5 4 3 0.44 2 0.404 0.523 0.559 1 0.382 0.499 0.356 0.318 0 0.162 0.097 0.083 0.153 0.153 0 07- 07- 08 08- = * some air samples showing exceeding levels of carcinogens in schools, residential neighborhoods, etc.
  • 16. 3. Data from The Israeli Environmental Protection Agency – Formaldehyde Concentrations in several educational institutions, and schools carried out in 2007-2008, K. Haim, K. Binyamin (Ata), Kfar Hasidim 6 4.94 ¯ 5 ( " ) ¯ 3.81 4 " 3.328 2.99 3 2.74 2.63 2.829 2.939 2.765 2.862 2.554 2.19 1.891 ( ) 2 1.722 1.516 1.64 1.549 " / 1 0 07- 08 08 = * = * all air samples shown exceed levels of carcinogens allowed. Don’t forget, these are schools, residential neighborhoods, etc.
  • 17. 3. Data from The Israeli Environmental Protection Agency – Dioxins Concentrations in several educational institutions, and schools carried out in 2007-2008, K. Haim (almost 60 phemtograms), K. Binyamin (Ata) – 60-70 phemtograms 0.08 0.07 0.06 ¯ ( " ) 0.05 ¯ 0.04 " 0.03 " / 0.02 0.01 ( ) 0 2007 2007 2008 2008 = * These are considered in the world literature high levels of Dioxins.
  • 18. What does the World Health Organization declare about air pollution and Causality? “Effects for which evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship with exposure to air pollution There is now substantial evidence on the adverse effects of air pollution on different pregnancy outcomes and infant health. The evidence shows that air pollution, with concentrations typical of many European cities, increases the risk of death from respiratory causes in the postneonatal period. The evidence also shows a relationship between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse effects on the development of lung function. Reversible lung function deficits, chronically reduced lung growth rates and lower lung function levels are associated with exposure to air pollution. Moreover, the evidence shows clearer relationships for particulate matter and traffic-related air pollution (indicated by nitrogen dioxide) than for other pollutants. Based on current knowledge, air pollutants seem to interact with other environmental factors, such as allergens, viruses and diet, that influence the overall impact of air pollutants on children's health. The report concludes that there is a causal relationship between exposure to air pollutants and aggravation of asthma. The evidence is also sufficient to assume a causal link between exposure to particulate matter and increased prevalence and incidence of cough and bronchitis. In particular, such environmental contaminants as certain heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants show significant adverse effects on the development of the nervous system and behaviour in children. Also, there is sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to lead and neurobehavioral deficits in children, in terms of cognitive impairment." http://www.euro.who.int/HEN/Syntheses/short/20060224_1?PrinterFriendly=1&who
  • 19. There are also good news: We also know that…. Reduction of particulate air pollution levels improves the health and lung functions of children and adults, and saves from mortality. (Laden et al., Pope et al., Avol et al.) This is a scientifically approved fact (see WHO report).
  • 20. Epidemiology at Present… Morbidity ? Are kids in Haifa-bay area any sicker than in other places? Only hints will be given, your answer is needed !
  • 21. General Hospitalizations of Children ages 0-4 presented at precentage above/under the country’s , average (o line) at several cities and districts in years 1998-2002. Source: Lamas
  • 22. ( ) Hospitalizations due to Aggravation of Asthma of Children 0-4 presented at rate/100,000 in several nafot in years 2004-2006. 1800 1600 1400 1200 2004 1000 2005 800 2006 600 400 100,000 200 0 ¯ ¯ - - Source: Ministry of Health, at request
  • 23. This is not the whole picture… Innovative Studies New Air Pollution Cohorts ► Effects on Children’s Cognition through the Olfactory nerve and circulation to brain. ► Effects on Obesity (PCB’s) ► Effects on the risk of developing Asthma in 1st year of life. ► Effects on DNA methylation (BAMSE) - •
  • 24. what awaits the kids in the Haifa–bay area? It’s in our hands to decide! Change Policy-altogether with ?‫שאלות‬ better Research !