Session 2.2 gender chengdu


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  • Refer to Access and inclusion.
    Is there 100% inclusion, who is out, what is realistic? 80% who is out? Why are they out? Women tends to be excluded – a global fact. Therefore gender is important.
    Gender roles are
    Socially construed roles
    Culture specific
    Change over time
    Can also be changed
    Main aspect of peoples identities (ethnicity, age, sexuality, religion, social status)
  • How does gender make a difference in education?
    Sanitary needs
    Different views on what it means to become an adult – different priorities
    Gender always considered to be about women. When I had a gender presentation earlier, colleagues said it was good that I had the presentation because I was a man. Gender is not just about women…
    Did you get a job / not get a job because you are a man / woman? – even in Norway this happens, in some private jobs, women in early 30s who has no children do sometimes not get jobs because it is believed that they will want to get children, which will be expensive for the employer.
    Are salaries the same?
    Since we all have experienced the realities of gender, we can all act to promote gender equality in and through education.
  • Gender equality in education is one of the six education for all goals endorsed by 164 governments at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000. As a first step to achieving equality, they set the target of 2005 to achieve gender parity (equal enrolment levels for boys and girls) in primary and secondary education.
    How would the participants describe full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. Some examples from the group, and stress that equality refers to equality of opportunities and equality of outcomes, e.g girls transition to higher levels of education at the same rate as boys.
    Equality – number and quality.
    In the learning process – boys and girls get same attention and treatment form teachers
    Outcomes – academic achievements, diplomas, duration of school career, access to higher education
    External results – job opportunities, same earnings for the same jobs
  • We have all experienced the impact on gender in our lives
    Gender focus is part of our work and is important when we provide education during
    Emergency preparedness
    Gender roles tend to be exacerbated during emergencies and conflicts
    Extra domestic roles for girls
    Boys and sometimes girls are recruited into fighting forces
    Young men in refugee camps with few opportunities for employment and education
    Poverty and prostitution
    Emergencies impact men, women, girls and boys differently
    Different risks – men and women
    Respond differently
    Different capacities to respond to effects of crises
     DISCUSSION: Men may see themselves as the protector of the families – in Pakistan many men stayed behind to protect their houses during the floods
    – GBV, in conflicts
    – Young men may be seen as possible collaborators with rebels and targeted by security forces.
    – Women (and boys) recruited for sexual purposes
    In crises and emergencies:
    Gender responsiveness – to ensure access to quality, relevant and protective education
    Can provide unexpected opportunities if we look for them
     DISCUSSION: Sri Lanka and Nepal, women / girls with the LTTE and Maoists (promised to remove gender inequality) were empowered, much more outspoken when they returned to their local communities – held speeches, talked about women rights, provoked discussions and anger sometimes.
  • Pocket guide based on 7 key principles (page 8 and onwards)
    1) gender roles often change during emergencies,
    1) gender analysis helps us understand how gender roles have changed
    3) Gender mainstreaming helps better target assistance
    5) Children and learners know better what excludes their peers from education (when working with children / gender issues in the communities to find out why e.g girls don’t show up for education)
    Gender equality in education – what does it mean:
    Addresses the different needs of boys and girls
    Ensures their enrolment, participation and achievement in learning
    Involves restructuring the culture, policies and practices in education to meet different needs
    Gender responsive education:
    Addresses gender based barriers – so both girls and boys can learn
    Respect differences based on gender – and age, language, disability, religion as part of learners identity
    Enables education structures, methodologies and systems to be sensitive
    Ensures gender parity in education – strategy to advance gender equality in society
    Continuously evolves – to eradicate gender based discrimination
  • Gender cannot be seen as a separate or additional piece of work in education programming. It has to be included in regular education work to ensure the right to quality and protective education.
    Use gender lens when planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating
    1 lens: Participation, needs and capacities of girls and women
    2 lens: Participation, needs and capacities of boys and men
    Look through both to get the full picture
  • The checklist, will help us to remember to look through both lenses
    "ADAPT and ACT Collectively" framework comes from the IASC Gender in Humanitarian Settings Guide
    Checklist: helps education professionals to take gender equality into account in education programming
    Help us put on a gender lens when we work
    The order in which to conduct each step varies according to context, though it is important to put into life all the points during the lifetime of a programme.
  • All domains of an education response should be analysed using the gender lens.
    MS can be used to examine which areas of our programming that can be improved to ensure that we include all learners
    Men's voices are stronger than women's (Foundational Standards)
    Girls work home and are prevented to go to school; no segregated toilets; cost is too high to send girls to school – boys prioritised
    Curriculum raising gender issues; gender awareness training; teacher asks boys more than girls in class
    Men / women get higher salaries; promotions
    More money allocated to specific men / women dominated education
  • Session 2.2 gender chengdu

    1. 1. Session 2.2: Planning for access and inclusion: Gender Educational Tools and Response in Emergencies/ Disasters and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Education Chengdu 25-28 November 2010
    2. 2. Session objectives After this session, you will be able to  Understand what gender is and why gender sensitivity is important in education  Understand how gender roles are affected in emergencies (conflicts and natural disasters)  Describe what is meant by access and inclusion with regard to gender  Assess the feasibility of various gender-based strategies for ensuring access
    3. 3. What is Gender…?  “Refers to the socially constructed roles, responsibilities and identities for women and men and how these are valued in society. They are culture-specific and they change over time. Gender identities define how women and men are expected to think and act. These behaviours are learned in the family, schools, religious teaching, and the media….Since gender roles, responsibilities and identities are socially learned, they can also be changed. Gender is a main aspect of an individual wider identity along with race, age, sexuality, religious and social status, etc.” (from Gender Equality in and through Education, INEE Pocket Guide to Gender, 2010)
    4. 4. Gender as a personal issue  Reflect on one positive or negative experience of how gender has had an impact on your life or learning
    5. 5. Education For All (EFA) Goals relating to Gender Goal 5  Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality
    6. 6. Current status of EFA gender goals  In 2001, 57% of the out-of-school primary age children worldwide were girls (60% in Arab and Asian countries).  In 2005, 59 out of 181 countries had achieved gender parity for both primary and secondary education. Of these, only:  7 in East Asia and the Pacific  2 in sub-Saharan Africa  2 in the Arab States  2 in South and West Asia  118 countries (2/3) had achieved gender parity for primary education Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008
    7. 7. Education in emergencies Strive for gender responsive education in emergency situations and crisis contexts Male and female learners of all ages have access to high-quality relevant and protective educational opportunities
    8. 8. Key Principles of Gender Equality  Gender dynamics impact on education  Gender is not just about girls  Gender-responsive education is protective  Disaggregated data is non-negotiable  Involve both male and female learners in working towards gender equality  Anyone can champion gender equality in education
    9. 9. Use a gender lens
    10. 10. ADAPT and ACT – C  ADAPT and ACT Collectively to ensure gender equality  Analyse gender differences  Design services to meet the needs of all  Access for women, girls, boys and men is provided equally  Participate equally ensure gender balance  Train women and men equally and  Address GBV in education and humanitarian emergency efforts  Collect, analyse and report sex- and age-disaggregated data  Target actions based on a gender analysis.  Collectively coordinate actions with all partners Source: IASC Gender in Humanitarian Settings Guide
    11. 11. Plotting exercise
    12. 12. Case study  Exercise and discussion questions – Zamborra