To read and write Short Monophthongs to
familiarise ourselves with vowel sounds.
You can easily read and spell when you are
familiar with letter sounds.
Do you have these challenges?
1) Slow down when you have bigger words
2) Say out a big word when you spell
3) Confused between letter sounds, such as 'en' or
'on' , 'ir' or 'er', 'tion' or 'sion', when you spell
This topic will help you avoid these problems.
To be effective in reading and spelling, letter
sounds must be mastered.
Letter sounds are called Phonemes.
A Phoneme is the smallest sound unit
produced when you read a word.
These words all have 3 sounds.
1)'cat' - /c/ /a/ /t/
2)'tad' - /t/ /a/ /d/
3)'con' - /c/ /o/ /n/
In English, there is a total of 44 phonemes from
26 alphabets – 5 vowels and 21 consonants.
1) 5 vowels – 20 phonemes
2) 21 consonants – 24 phonemes
They represent 95% of how words are spelt and
The rest of the words must be memorised.
These words are called Sight Words.
Sight Words are words that you recognise
immediately as it is commonly used.
They don't need you to know phonemes.
Phonemes and Graphemes
If phonemes are letter sounds, graphemes are
letters representing these sounds.
Example: 'cat' has /c/ , /a/ , /t/ phonemes shown by
the graphemes 'c' , 'a' , 't'.
Sounds of music are shown by the notes too.
Watch this video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?
Learning Activity 1
Read each phoneme one-by-one.
1) /c/ , /a/ , /t/
6) /t/ , /o/ , /n/
2) /s/ , /u/ , /n/
7) /c/ , /a/ , /n/
3) /p/ , /o/ , /t/
8) /d/ , /o/ , /g/
4) /l/ , /e/ , /t/
9) /g/ , /e/ , /t/
5) /h/ , /o/ , /t/
10) /h/ , /i/ , /m/
What are the words you can make from each
5 vowels can create 20 different phonemes or
For example, for the letter 'a', these are the usual 6
ban /a/ na
sw /a/ n
b /a/ by
b /a/ ll
Learning Activity 2
Read each phoneme /a/ produced by the
grapheme 'a' in each word one-by-one.
You must be able to read all the vowel
1) /a/ nt (short sound)
2) b /a/ by (high and low)
3) ban /a/ na (long)
4) zebr /a/ (short)
5) sw /a/ n (short)
6)b /a/ ll (long)
All vowel phonemes are voiced the similarly.
Air goes through our vocal cords without blocking.
Short Monophthong is the fastest and shortest
Learning Activity 3
Read and hear the sounds of these SMs :
Write the SMs from the Vowel Phoneme Chart in
your Learning Guide Primary 1A in Page 9.
What are phonemes?
What are graphemes?
Why is it important to learn phonemes and
How do we apply this knowledge?
Phonemes are letter sounds or sounds made by
Graphemes are the letters representing the
sounds. For example, for phoneme /f/, /ph/ is
another grapheme for the same phoneme.
Being familiar with phonemes will help us
greatly in spelling and reading.
With this knowledge, we know the right
grapheme when spelling and we know the right
phoneme when reading.