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Human reproductive system


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Biologi Umum semester 1 pendidikan Biologi …

Biologi Umum semester 1 pendidikan Biologi
Sistem Reproduksi

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  • 1. Male Reproductive System
  • 2. Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Male. • External: - penis - scrotum • Internal: - gonads - accessory sex glands and ducts. Human reproduction involves intricate anatomy and complex behavior
  • 3. Male Reproductive System
  • 4. Testis
  • 5. Male Reproductive System
  • 6. External structure of the penis: • glans penis • prepuce (foreskin)
  • 7. Testis are the male gonads. • seminiferous tubules- form sperm • Leydig cells (interstitial cells)- produce androgens (ex. Testosterone, ABP).
  • 8. Testes are located in the scrotum, outside the body cavity. • This keeps testicular temperature cooler than the body cavity. • The testes develop in the body cavity and descend into the scrotum just before birth.
  • 9. •Sperm Pathway Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra
  • 10. Semen • Seminal fluid is thick, yellowish, and alkaline. • It contains mucus, fructose, a coagulating enzyme, ascorbic acid, and prostaglandins. • Accessory glands: 1.seminal vesicle 2.prostate gland 3.bulbourethral gland
  • 11. Seminal Vesicle Seminal vesicle: • A pair of glands that secrete a liquid component of semen into the vas deferens. • Secretion is alkaline • Contains fructose, asorbic acid, coagulating enzyme, prostaglandin
  • 12. Prostate gland: • Location- surrounds and opens into the urethra where it leaves the bladder. • Secretion- slightly alkaline fluid that activates the sperm and prevents them from sticking together • Prostate problems are common in males over 40. • Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Prostate
  • 13. Bulbourethral gland (Cowper’s gland): • Location- paired glands that lie beneath the prostate • Secretion- a thick, clear alkaline mucous that drains into the membranous urethra. • Function- It acts to wash residual urine out of the urethra when ejaculating semen-- raises pH; neutralizes acidity of urine. Bulbourethral gland
  • 14. Spermatogenesis
  • 15. Mature Spermatozoa tail mitochondria nucleus acrosome head
  • 16. spermatogonium 1º spermatocyte 2º spermatocyte spermatids Sertoli cell spermatozoa Seminiferous Tubules Seminiferous Tubules
  • 17. Sperm Maturation & Development
  • 18. Hormones Involved in Spermatogenesis • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) • Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH=LH) • Testosterone • Inhibin • ABP
  • 19. Feedback Inhibition InhibinInhibin Acts on anterior pituitaryActs on anterior pituitary Inhibits FSH productionInhibits FSH production TestosteroneTestosterone Acts on hypothalamusActs on hypothalamus Inhibits GnRH productionInhibits GnRH production Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis
  • 20. Some Other Effects of Testosterone muscle and bone growthmuscle and bone growth facial and pubic hair growthfacial and pubic hair growth thickening of vocal cordsthickening of vocal cords growth of pharyngeal cartilagegrowth of pharyngeal cartilage hair follicle effectshair follicle effects stimulates sebaceous glandsstimulates sebaceous glands Increased BMRIncreased BMR
  • 21. Vasectomy
  • 22. FemaleFemale Reproductive SystemReproductive System
  • 23. cervix vagina fimbriae uterine tube ovary uterus bladder urethra clitoris l. minora l. majora Female Reproductive System
  • 24. Internal reproductive: • Vagina • Cervix • Fallopian tube (uterian tube/oviducts) • Fimbrae • Ovary • Uterus - Endometrium - Myometrium - Perimetrium cervix vagina fimbriae uterine tube ovary uterus endometrium myometrium perimetrium
  • 25. Fimbrae & Fallopian Tube
  • 26. Oogenesis in the Ovary
  • 27. Oogenesis Ovary- contains 400,000 oocytes; release about 500 in a lifetime • Ovary- under influence of FSH. The follicles mature every 28 days • Primary follicle produces estrogens • And primary oocyte completes its 1st division produces 2ndary oocyte and polar body
  • 28. Oogenesis • Aprox 1/2 way through the 28 day cycle the follicle reaches the mature Vesticular or Graffian follicle stage.
  • 29. Oogenesis • Estrogen levels rise and release LH and FSH and triggers ovulation.
  • 30. Oogenesis • The 2ndary oocyte travels down the uterine tube to the uterus. • If fertilized by sperm, it will produce a zygote Ovum in uterine tube
  • 31. Ectopic Pregnancy
  • 32. Oogenesis
  • 33. Hormones Involved in the Female Reproductive Cycle Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Luteinizing Hormone (LH) EstrogenEstrogen ProgesteroneProgesterone InhibinInhibin RelaxinRelaxin
  • 34. The Uterine Cycle
  • 35. Hormone Fluctuation
  • 36. Some Other Effects ofSome Other Effects of EstrogenEstrogen • breast development • external genitalia growth • bone growth • fat deposition • Increase protein anabolism • Decrease blood cholesterol • Facilitate calcium uptake • Promotes hydration of skin • Feminizes brain
  • 37. Menopause: cessation of ovarian and menstrual cycles. • Usually occurs between ages 46 and 54. • Due to ovaries decreased responsiveness to gonadotropins. Menopause affects: • changes in sexual desire • triggers mood swings • causes debilitating hot flashes • may lead to bone and heart problems • short-term memory loss • insomnia