• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
The monitor model

The monitor model






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    The monitor model The monitor model Presentation Transcript

    • Krashen’s Monitor Model 1
    • The five central hypothesis 2 The acquisition learning hypothesisThe affective The natural filter order hypothesis hypothesis The input The monitor hypothesis hypothesis
    • 1. The acquisition learning hypothesis 3 The process of internalizing new L2 knowledge, to storing this knowledge, and to use it in actual performance.
    • The acquisition learning distinctions 4 “Acquisition” occurs subconsciously as a result of participating in natural communication focused on meaning. “Learning” occurs as a result of conscious study of the formal properties of the language. “Acquired” is for automatic processing, and for initiating comprehension and production of utterances. “Learnt” is only for controlled processing and only by the Monitor.
    • 2. The natural order hypothesis 5 Learners may follow a more or less invariant order in the acquisition of formal grammatical features; it means that grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order.
    • 3. The monitor hypothesis 6 Is the device that learners use to edit their language performance. Learnt knowledge by acting upon and modifying utterances generated from acquiring knowledge. Monitoring has limited function in language performance.
    • 3. The monitor hypothesis 7 Three conditions for its use:a. There must be sufficient time.b. The focus must be on form and not meaning.c. The user must know the rule.
    • 4. The input hypothesis 8 Acquisition take place as a result of the learner having understood input that is a little beyond the current level of his competence. Input is comprehensible to the learner will automatically be at the right level.
    • 5. The affective filter hypothesis 9 The filter controls how much input the learner comes into contact with, and how much input is converted into intake. Is affective because the factors which determine its strength have to do with the learner’s motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety state.
    • Causative variables taken into account in the monitor model 10 Aptitude Role of the Age L1 Factors Routines Individual and differences patterns
    • I. Aptitude 11 The learner’s aptitude predicts how well he will perform on grammar-type tests that provide the right conditions for the operation of the Monitor.
    • II. Role of the L1 12 The use of the L1 as a performance strategy. Learner falls back on his L1 when he lacks a rule in the L2. He initiates an utterance using his L1 and then substitutes L2 lexical items.
    • III. Routines and patterns 13 The formulas play a performance role only by helping the learner to outperform his competence. Acquisition catches up with the routines and patterns; that is, the structural knowledge contained in the formulas is developed separately.
    • IV. Individual differences 14 There is a variation in the rate and the extent of acquisition as a result of the amount of comprehensible input received, and the strength of the affective filter. Three types of monitor users:1. Over-users.2. Under-users.3. Optimal-users.
    • V. Age 15 It affects the amount of comprehensible input that is obtained; younger learners may get more than older learners.
    • Evaluation+ Critism 16Acquisition The learning Variability monitordistinction
    • Acquisition learning distinction 17 Methodological: The acquisition-learning hypothesis is not acceptable, because it cannot be tasted in empirical investigation. When learnt knowledge is automatized through practice it becomes acquired. The monitor model is still a black box theory.
    • The monitor 18 The only evidence for monitoring is trying to apply explicit rules. Critical faculty enables us to become critically aware of what we have created and hence allows us to control it. Monitoring is limited to syntax, but in fact learners and users have the ability to edit their pronunciation, lexis, and, perhaps most important all, their discourse.
    • Variability 19 It proposes that the learner’s knowledge of the L2, which is reflected in variable performance, is best characterized in terms of two separate competences acquisition and learning. The kinds of performance that results from focusing on form and meaning are best treated as aspects of a single but variable competence which contains alternative rules for realizing the same meaning, in much the same way as does the native speaker’s competence.
    • Krashen’s Monitor Model 20