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Definitions of Photography The science of capturing light onto a piece of film. And … The art of recording an image. Oracle Education Foundation A photograph is created when light, or another form of radiant energy, falls on a light sensitive area such as photographic film or an electronic imager and an image is created. School Curriculum for Photography
Definitions of a Negative A reversed light/dark image formed on film that may be used to make prints. Milwaukee Museum of Art A negative is created when camera film is exposed to light. The negative is then used in the darkroom to print a photograph (positive) onto light-sensitive paper. Malane Newman
History of Photography Joseph Nicephore Niepce Created the first permanently captured image in 1827 “ View from the Window at Le Gras”
Louis Daguerre “ Boulevard du Temple” First photograph of a person
Daguerreotype Image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. Edgar Allan Poe 1848 Abraham Lincoln 1846
1839 French government bought rights and the photographic process became public In the same year, Sir John Herschel first coined the term “photography”when addressing The Royal Society of London Created “Daguerreomania”
William Henry Fox Talbot Created the “Calotype” circa. 1839 The calotype essentially infused paper with silver nitrate or silver chloride. This process produced a “negative” from which an unlimited number of positive prints could be made. “ The Footman” 1840
Frederick Scott Archer 1851 Wet-Collodion exposure process and Ambrotype The collodion process required that the coating, exposure And development of the image should be done while the plate was still wet. The Ambrotype process created a direct positive. Ambrotype Wet Collodion process
Dr. Richard Maddox 1871 Created dry plate process using gelatin as the basis for the photographic plate. This did away with the need for darkroom tents.
1889 George Eastman introduced the box camera with the slogan “ You push the button and we do the rest” thus opening the world of photography to the masses.
1924 Oskar Barnack invented the first 35 mm camera
Physical Structure Photos are composed of three layers:
Final Image Material
Support Layer Can be made up of: Paper Resin-coated paper Plastic film Glass
Binder Element Usually made of gelatin But… Could also be composed of: Albumen or collodion (This layer holds the image-forming substance or final image material to the support layer)
Final Image Material This layer is made of: Color dyes Silver Pigment particles (Typically suspended in the binder or emulsion layer)
Means of Identification In the past, optical microscopy has typically been The main tool used for identification of photos. However, there are some newer forms of photo identification: XRF- X Ray Fluorescence ATR-FTIR Spectrometer (Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared) ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry)
Badger, G. (2003). Collecting Photography . London: Mitchell Beazley.
DePew, J.N. (1991). A library, media, and archival preservation handbook . California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Eaton, G. (1970). Preservation, deterioration, restoration of photographic images. In H. W. Winger & R. D. Smith (Eds.), Deterioration and preservation of library materials (pp. 85-98). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Films for the Humanities and Sciences (1995). Preserving works of art . VHS, 23 minutes.