Curiosity wk 6


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  • Imhotep ’s Papyrus: “…translated in 1930, the papyrus (17 th C. BC) is now thought to contain the collected teachings of Imhotep, a great Egyptian physician who lives around 2625 BC. Imhotep among the few nonroyal Egyptians known to us from the Old Kingdom, was a Renaissance man at the center of a sweeping Egyptian renaissance….As a vizier in the court of King Djozer, he dabbled in neurosurgery, tried his hand at architecture, and made early forays into astrology and astronomy. Even the Greeks, encountering the fierce, hot blast of his intellect as they marched through Egypt centuries later, cast him as an ancient magician and fused him to their own medical God, Asclepius.” – p. 41
  • Curiosity wk 6

    1. 1. C u r io s it y CLDM Summer 2012 “I have no special talents, I am only passionately curious…” – Einstein (1952) Source: Jaworski & Peter 1
    2. 2. Agenda1. What causes curiosity or interest?2. How is curiosity different than interest or openness to experience?3. What are the positive (negative) consequences?4. Is curiosity “field specific” (e.g., humanities scholar vs. high tech exec)?5. Is it possible to be both curious and “execution focused”?6. Does society have “thinkers” and “doers” – or can they coexist? Source: Jaworski & Peter 2
    3. 3. Question:So, what is curiosity? Source: Jaworski & Peter 3
    4. 4. Definitions for Curiosity:• “William James differentiated between two types of curiosity. The firstentailed an emotional blend of excitement and anxiety with respect toexploring and enjoying novelty.” The second was scientific curiosity ormetaphysical wonder, evoked by “an inconsistency or a gap in…knowledge” - (Seligman and Peterson, p. 127)• “…Individuals with a strong endowment of curiosity proffer a specificadvantage in life because attention is more fluid and novel ideas, objectsand relationships can be found, enjoyed, explored and integrated into anexpanding self. In principle, these aspects of curiosity aid survival – forexample, finding plants with medicinal properties, increasing socialresources, discovering new habitats…” – (see Seligman and Peterson, 127).•The cognitive process theory posits that curiosity is a function ofassimilating and accommodating novel stimuli into one’s schematicframework of the self and the world. (Beswick, 1971) Source: Jaworski & Peter 4
    5. 5. Hierarchy Of Curiosity:Comments:•A psychological predisposition Openness To Experience•Goal-directed behavior, with Specific Curiosity: positive emotional core… Curiosity increase one’s knowledge; evoked by•Diverse: novelty seeking, emotional blend gap in knowledge of excitement and novelty Diverse Curiosity Specific Curiosity•Drivers: + + + + + Openness to Future Enjoy problem- Courage Sociability new ideas Orientation solving Source: Jaworski & Peter 5
    6. 6. Curiosity & Creativity:Creativity strongly linked to “self-actualization” – Maslow’s Definition•Efficient perception of reality•Appreciation of the beautiful and sublime•Autonomy & independence•Acceptance of self, others and nature•Identification and sympathy with humanity•Focus on impersonal issues•Democratic character, freedom from prejudice•Mystic experiences . . . Source: Jaworski & Peter 6
    7. 7. Curiosity: Core Components1. Exploratory2. Awareness of the new3. Sensitivity to gaps in understanding and knowledge of the self and the world8. Greater allocation of attention and energy to recognizing and pursuing cues of novelty and challenge10. Cognitive evaluation and behavioral exploration of challenging activities12. Flow like states of absorption in these activities14. Integration of experiences to broaden personal or interpersonal capital Source: Jaworski & Peter 7
    8. 8. 3 Dimensional Perspective On Curiosity:2. Flow, Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, (Mind-state motivating many individualsPursuing a curious challenge)2. The Spirit of the Beehive, Victor Erice: 1973 (curious explorations of innocence)7. The Emperor of All Maladies: Siddhartha Mukherjee, (history of a malady;cancer a curiosity occupying the minds of scores of physicians, surgeons, healers, chemists, pharmacists … etc.) Source: Jaworski & Peter 8
    9. 9. Question:So, what is flow? How is it linked to curiosity? Is it? Source: Jaworski & Peter 9
    10. 10. Curiosity – The Psychology DimensionFlow, Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi,(Mind-state motivating many individuals pursuing a curious challenge) Source: Jaworski & Peter 10
    11. 11. Flow: Mihaly CsikzentmihalyiThe Psychology Of Optimal Experience:How does it feel to be in Flow?4. Goals are clear2. Feedback is immediate8. Balance Between Opportunity and Capacity: “flow occurs when both challenges and skills are high and equal to each other...”4. Concentration Deepens14. The Present Matters16. Control is no problem18. Sense of time is altered8. Loss of ego Source: Csikzentmihalyi 11
    12. 12. Flow States And Curiosity:“...the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; theexperience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for thesheer sake of doing it.” – Csikszentmihalyi, p. 4“Flow will examine the process of achieving happiness through control over one’s inner life...”– Csikzentmihalyi, p. 6“ control of experience, the ability to derive moment-by-moment enjoymentfrom everything we do, can overcome the obstacles to fulfillment...” – Csikszentmihalyi, p. 8“...the mark of a person who is in control of consciousness is the ability to focus attention at will,to be oblivious to distractions, to concentrate for as long as it takes to achieve a goal, and notlonger. And the person who can do this usually enjoys the normal course of everyday life.”– Csikszentmihalyi, p. 31 Source: Jaworski & Peter 12
    13. 13. Enjoyment – Ancillary Factor Powering Curiosity:Csikszentmihalyi On Factors That Qualify As Descriptive Of Enjoyment (Essential For“Flow”)3. the task must be one we have a chance of completing5. concentrate on what we are doing7. task has goals9. task gives us feedback11. absorption that removes awareness of the worries and frustrations of everyday life13. exercise a sense of control15.concern of self disappears, and the sense of self emerges stronger after flow experience is over8. duration of time is altered Source: Jaworski & Peter 13
    14. 14. Active Pursuit of Flow-States: Is It The Challenge?“…What drove me?...It’s about trying to express something in the only way that most of us know how –because we don’t write Bob Dylan songs or Tom Stoppard plays. We try to use the talents we do haveto express our deep feelings, to show our appreciation of all the contributions that came before us,and to add something to that flow. That’s what has driven me.” – Steve Jobs, p. 570“…personal growth facilitation model of curiosity posits that recognizing and pursuing novelty, uncertaintyand challenge is the foundation for enhancing personal and interpersonal capital…”-(Kashdan, Rose & Fincham: 2002)Flow States Could Be About Work That Maybe Perceived As BORING NOT NOVEL!Csikszentmihalyi’s story of person who made “Lox Sandwiches” at a Manhattan Deli:“... one might have expected him to have found his task boring, but he discussed it with theenthusiasm of a poet or a surgeon. He described how every fish he picked up was differentfrom its predecessor. He would hold the fish by its tail and slap it against the marble counter;looking at it and feeling it ripple until he developed a 3 dimensional mental X ray of itsanatomy. Then he would pick up one of his five knives – which he sharpened to perfectionseveral times a day – and go about the business of slicing the fish as finely as possible withthe fewest moves, discarding the least amount of good meat. “ – p. 102 Source: Jaworski & Peter 14
    15. 15. Question: How does curiosity relate to the Spirit of the Beehive?In particular is Ana “curious?” Can curiosity lead to positive and negative outcomes? Source: Jaworski & Peter 15
    16. 16. Curiosity – The Film DimensionThe Spirit of the Beehive, Victor Erice: (curious explorations of innocence) Source: Jaworski & Peter 16
    17. 17. The Spirit of the Beehive (1973), Dir. Victor EriceSynopsis: “Six-year-old Ana is a shy girl who lives in the manor house in an isolated Spanish village on the CastillePlateau with her parents Fernando and Teresa and her older sister, Isabel. The year is 1940, and the civil war has justended with the Franco’s victory over the Republic. Her aging father spends most of his time absorbed in tending to andwriting about his beehives; her much younger mother is caught up in daydreams about a distant lover, to whom shewrites letters. The entire family is never seen together in a single shot. Anas closest companion is Isabel, who lovesher but cannot resist playing on her little sisters gullibility…”Curiosity Sequence; Experiencing the eerie “Frankenstein” Film:At the beginning of the film, a mobile cinema brings Frankenstein to the village and the two sisters go to see it. Ana finds the film moreinteresting than frightening, particularly the scene where the monster plays benignly with a little girl, then accidentally kills her. She asks hersister, "Why did he kill the girl, and why did they kill him after that?" Isabel tells her that the monster didnt kill the girl and isnt really dead; shesays that everything in films is fake. Isabel says the monster is like a spirit, and Ana can talk to him if she closes her eyes and calls him: "Its me,Ana".Anas fascination with the story increases when Isabel takes her to a desolate abandoned sheepfold, which she claims is the monsters house.Ana returns alone many times to look for him but finds only a large footprint. One day, Isabel screams from a distant part of the house, and whenAna comes to investigate, she lies perfectly still on the floor, pretending to be dead. That night, Ana sneaks out and while looking at the nightsky, closes her eyes. In the next scene, a fugitive republican soldier leaps from a passing train and limps to the sheepfold to hide.Ana finds the soldier hiding in the sheepfold. Instead of running away in terror, she feeds him and even brings him her fathers coat and watch.This odd, wordless friendship ends abruptly when Franco’s police come in the night, find the republican soldier and shoot him. The police soonconnect Anas father with the fugitive and assume he stole the items from him. The father discovers which of the daughters had helped thefugitive by noticing Anas reaction when he produces the pocket watch she had given to him. When Ana next goes to visit him, she finds himgone and fresh blood on the ground. Her father confronts her as she gazes at the blood, and she runs away. Source: Jaworski & Peter 17
    18. 18. The Spirit of the Beehive (1973), Dir. Victor EriceSequence:Ana is mesmerized watching Frankenstein with Maria (innocently arranging daisies)…sheasks Isabel to explain the meaning of the film, how “real” is Frankenstein and how may shespeak with him or approach him…Ana’s father in the meantime views the honeycomb and the frenetic activity of the workerbees and their queen, as metaphoric or allegory… to deepen his philosophicalcontemplation on “futility”, “work”, “death” and the beauty of the trap; the “honeycomb”…Note: Play sequence 16:00 to 24:15 (in film version) or 1:42 to 9:57 in youtube (Spirit ofthe Beehive, 2/7) Source: Jaworski & Peter 18
    19. 19. Question:How did curiosity play a role in the Accidental Empires? Source: Jaworski & Peter 19
    20. 20. Question:Was Farber curious? What other character traits would you use to describe him?Were the scientists imaginative, curious, hard-working, tenacious in the face of criticism – all of the above? Source: Jaworski & Peter 20
    21. 21. Curiosity – The History Dimension6. The Emperor of All Maladies: Siddhartha Mukherjee, (history of a malady;cancer a curiosity occupying the minds of scores of physicians, surgeons,healers, chemists, pharmacists … etc. for the lifetime of humanity…) Source: Jaworski & Peter 21
    22. 22. Siddhartha Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies Geographic and Historic Antecedents of Humanity’s Encounter with Cancer” (Egyptian) Imhotep: 17th C. BC Herodotus, Greece, 440 BC: “….it is under these clarifying headlamps of an Histories written around 440 BC, the Greek historian ancient surgeon that cancer first emerges as a Herodotus records the story of Atossa, the queen of distinct disease. Describing case forty-five Imhotep Persia, who was suddenly struck by an unusual advises…”This is a case of bulging masses I have to illness….In the middle of her reign, Atossa noticed a contend with… large, spreading and hard; touching bleeding lump in her breast… she descended into a fierce them is like touching a ball of wrappings, or they may and impenetrable loneliness. She wrapped herself in be compared to the unripe hemat fruit, which is hard sheets, in a self-imposed quarantine. …Darius doctors and cool to the touch.” – p. 40 may have tried to treat her, but to no avail. Ultimately a Greek slave named Democedes persuaded her to allow him to excise the tumor. Louis Leakey: Louis Leakey discovered a jawbone dating from 2million years ago from a nearby site that carried the Paleo-Pathologist, Aufderheide: signs of a peculiar form of lymphoma found endemically in southeastern Africa … If that finding 1000 year old gravesite in a remote, sand swept plain in the southern tipdoes represent an ancient mark of malignancy, then of Peru: At the Chiribiya site, Aufderheide a paleopathologist from thecancer, “…far from being a modern disease, is one of Univ. of Minnesota in Duluth…the oldest diseases ever seen in a human specimen – “the mummy was of a young woman in her midthirties, found sitting, with quite possibly the oldest…” – p. 43 her feet curled up, in a shallow clay grave. When Aufderheide examined her, his fingers found a hard “bulbous mass” in her left upper arm. The papery folds of skin, remarkable preserved, gave way to that mass, which was intact and studded with spicules of bone. This, without question, was a malignant bone tumor, an osteosarcoma.” – p. 43 Source: Jaworski & Peter 22
    23. 23. Multiple Pathways Necessary to Defeat or Restrain Such an Insidious “Enemy”: • Robert Weinberg’s epiphany in the midst of aLasker: fairy godmother of Openness To Experience blizzard: isolating the “oncogene” (p. 372)medical research… • Weinberg and Hanahan – “hallmarks of“…The Laskers were professional socialities, in cancer” – p. 391the same way that one can be a professional 4. Self-sufficiency – cancer cells acquire anscientist or a professional athlete; they were autonomous drive to proliferate…pathological mitosis… activation of oncogenes – ras or mycextraordinary networkers, lobbyists, minglers, 5. Insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals:conversers, persuaders, letter writers, cocktailparty-throwers, negotiators, name-droppers, Curiosity 6. 7. Evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis) Limitless replicative potentialdeal makers. Fund-raising – and, more 8. Sustained angiogenesis- drawing out their ownimportant, friend-raising – was instilled in their supply of blood and blood vessels 9. Tissue invasion and metastasis – colonizingblood, and the depth and breadth of their social other organs…connections allowed them to reach deeply intothe minds – and pockets – of private donors • Thad Dryja(ophthalmologist-turned-and of the government.” – p. 111 geneticist) finding a piece of DNA missing in tumor cells: (p. 379) Diverse Curiosity Specific Curiosity + + + + + Openness to Future Enjoy problem- Sociability new ideas Orientation solving Courage Source: Jaworski & Peter 23
    24. 24. Softer Roads Of Understanding & Orientation…for The Oncologist Openness To ExperienceSiddharth Mukherjee on coming back from “the strange land”:“…To me, these were miracles enough. It is an old complaint about the practice of medicine that it inures you to the idea ofdeath. But when medicine inures you to the idea of life, to survival, then it has failed utterly. The novelist Thomas Wolfe,recalling a lifelong struggle with illness, wrote in his last letter, “I’ve made a long voyage and been to a strange country, andI’ve seen the dark man very close.”…But surely, it was the most sublime moment of my clinical life to have watched thatvoyage in reverse, to encounter men and women returning from the strange country – to see them so very close,clambering back…” – p. 400Doctor’s Skill in assisting the patient to “reconcile with death” and hope for miraculous“remission”: Susan Sontag’s experience with the “unfeeling” doctor versus the “good” doctor…“…There was no hope, he told her flatly. And not just that; there was nothing to do but wait for cancer to explode out of thebone marrow. All options were closed, His word – the Word – was final, immutable, static. “Like so many doctors,” Riefrecalls, “ he spoke to us as if we were children but without the care that a sensible adult takes in choosing what words touse with a child.” – p. 306“…for a woman who wanted to live twice as energetically, to breathe the world in twice as fast as anyone else – for whomstillness was mortality. It took months before Sontag found another doctor whose attitude was vastly more measured andwho was willing to negotiate with her psyche. Dr. A. was right, of course, in the formal, statistical sense. A moody, saturnineleukemia eventually volcanoed out of Sontag’s marrow, and, yes, there were few medical options But Susan Sontag’s newphysician also told her precisely the same information, without ever choking off the possibility of a miraculous remission. Hemoved her in succession from standard drugs to experimental drugs to palliative drugs. It was all masterfully done, a gradedmovement toward reconciliation with death, but a movement nonetheless – statistics without stasis.” – p. 307 Source: Jaworski & Peter 24
    25. 25. Question:What causes curiosity or interest? Source: Jaworski & Peter 25
    26. 26. Question:How is curiosity different than interest or openness to experience? Source: Jaworski & Peter 26
    27. 27. Question:What are the positive (negative) consequences? Source: Jaworski & Peter 27
    28. 28. Question:Is curiosity “field specific” (e.g. humanities scholar vs. high tech exec)? Source: Jaworski & Peter 28
    29. 29. Question:Is it possible to be both curious and “execution focused”? Source: Jaworski & Peter 29
    30. 30. Question:Does society have “thinkers” and “doers” – can they co-exist? Source: Jaworski & Peter 30
    31. 31. Journal QuestionsWhat does curiosity mean for you? ….1. Is curiosity a necessary “core value” to be successful inorganizations or ministry?•How will you nurture your curiosity?•What is an example of curiosity in the Bible or the History ofChristianity? Explain how this was used by God.•How might God use your curiosity? Source: Jaworski & Peter 31