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Psychological Needs and Facebook Games
 

Psychological Needs and Facebook Games

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An exploration of psychological needs and Facebook games

An exploration of psychological needs and Facebook games

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    Psychological Needs and Facebook Games Psychological Needs and Facebook Games Presentation Transcript

    • • • • • An Introduction to Needs and Motives Theory How is this supposed to be used? Case Examples Notable Findings
    • NEED Water MOTIVE Thirst BEHAVIOR Buy a drink PRESS Hot day Personalities are a reflection of behaviors resulting from underlying needs/motives/press (Murray, 1938).
    • • Murray assumed that the human natural state is a state of disequilibrium, and that is why people have needs—to satisfy the lack of something. • Social casual games in the Facebook context are successful, because they satisfy these needs (Ines & Abdelkader, 2011).
    • NEED MOTIVE BEHAVIOR PRESS • Definition: A need is a physiological (primary) or psychological (secondary) feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal, giving purpose and direction to behavior Physiological needs • Required for survival • Based upon biological demands, such as the need for oxygen, food, and water Psychological Needs • Have no specific origin in the body • Concerned with emotional satisfaction • Psychological Needs are most relevant to Facebook games • They occur largely at an unconscious level • Hierarchical: An individual’s needs can have different levels of strength
    • NEED MOTIVE BEHAVIOR PRESS • State of tension within a person due to an unmet need (Example: thirst) • Motives propel people to perceive, think, and act in ways that serve to satisfy a need
    • NEED MOTIVE BEHAVIOR PRESS • External pressure plays a significant role in the transition from needs to motives (example: hot day) • Both objective (alpha) and subjective (beta) press exist Alpha Press Beta Press • Press governed by external factors in behavior. • A kind of press that is dependent to the individual.
    • NEED MOTIVE BEHAVIOR PRESS Example: A 30-year-old woman is not yet married. • Alpha press: Her relatives say that she should marry soon. • Beta press: “They’re mocking me for being single! I’m not born to be alone. They’ll see. I’ll marry a perfect man.” Example: My crops are withering in FarmVille. • Alpha press: Without water, the plants will die. • Beta press: “I want my friends to be jealous of my shiny plants, so I need to keep them healthy.”
    • Primarily psychological needs, combined with press (both alpha and beta), will influence the types of games we play and our behaviors while playing.
    • • People play in order to satisfy psychological needs. • By exploring the psychological needs and motives of the players, we can examine how people play.
    • • David C. McClelland, psychological theorist at Harvard University 1956-1986, identified a trio of basic needs. ACHIEVEMENT INTIMACY POWER
    • Achievement: Woo Hoo! Just finished a level!
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY • People who have a high need for achievement: – Prefer activities that offer some challenge, but not too much – Enjoy tasks where they are personally responsible for the outcome – Prefer tasks where feedback on their performance is available
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY Psychological Need Achievement Exhibition Recognition Description of Need Examples of Features To overcome obstacles • Levels within the games and succeed • Optimization: best output, always producing, no wasted actions, beat the system To attract attention • Public announcement of trophy/level up/etc • Show off your avatar/world • Notifications of gifts/requests To gain approval and • Display of recognition for having social status advanced to a higher level in the game
    • Aggression: Beastie to defeat Dominance: How am I compared to my friends?
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY • People with a high need for power are interested in controlling situations and impacting others. • Sex differences affect the way power needs are expressed. – Men with high power needs show high levels of aggression and participate in competitive sports. – Women channel their high needs for power by being more concerned and caring. • People with a high need for power show strong stress responses with frustration and conflict, including high blood pressure.
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY Psychological Need Autonomy Description of Need To resist others and stand strong Examples of Features • Can be played individually Aggression To injure others • Defeating another player Blame Avoidance To avoid blame and obey the rules • • Follow rules within the game Not cheat Deference To follow a superior, to • serve Following a leader within game (Note: there is no reference for this in Facebook games that I know of)
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY Psychological Need Dominance Description of Need To control and lead others Examples of Features • Recruit friends as helpers • Ask your friends to use the app • Comparison, ladder. Harm-avoidance To avoid pain • Avoidance of a penalty, loss of XP, damage to equipment Contrariance To be unique • • Customize avatar Customize town
    • Nurturance: Help your friends in just one click! Affiliation: These are your real-life friends.
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY • Need for warm, close, communicative interactions with others • Women, on average, have a higher need for intimacy than men • People with a high (compared to those with low) need for intimacy: – Spend more time during day thinking about relationships – Report more pleasant emotions when around other people – Smile, laugh, make more eye contact – Start up conversations more frequently and engage in more written communication
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY Psychological Need Description of Need Examples of Features Affiliation To make associations and friendships General Communications • IM or Chat • Mailbox • Online/offline state of your friends Social Collaborative Actions • Visiting Friends/help friends • Gift friends • Recruit friends as helpers • Fictive Collective quest • Actual Collective actions/quests • Exchange objects (i.e., for collections) Share requests/objects/ I'm looking for • Vote for friends (best of...) • Share your wealth (when winning a trophy, etc.)
    • ACHIEVEMENT POWER INTIMACY Psychological Need Description of Need Examples of Features Nurturance To protect the helpless To relieve tension, have fun, or relax Play • • • • Rejection To exclude another Succorance To seek • protection/sympath y from others Help another player advance in the game Peaceful, unthreatening, relaxing environment within the game Humor Exclusivity of tribe Calling upon a friend to help you within the game
    • Once the Trio of Basic Needs are met within a game, other types of needs work in conjunction to enhance gameplay. MATERIALISTIC ACHIEVEMENT INTIMACY POWER INFORMATION DEFENSE
    • Construction: Look what I’ve built! Order: Organized to how I see fit!
    • Construction: Look what I’ve built! Building something is most impressive when: • It’s built upon accomplishments (Achievement) • It’s seen and interacted with by others (Intimacy) • It’s compared with something built by someone else (Power) Order: Organized to how I see fit!
    • Psychological Need Acquisition Description of Need To obtain possessions Construction To build or create Order To arrange, organize, and be precise Keeping things Retention Examples of Features • Accumulation: always get more, time investment converts into game advancement • Need for Completion: need to fill-up, complete, be whole. • Player must feel emotionally connected to what they are collected or see value • Build something • Organize how you see fit for optimal use • Knowledge that when you leave the game, your items will still be there when you return
    • Sentience: I’ve mastered this game. Understanding: I advance in the story by advancing in the game.
    • Sentience: I’ve mastered this game. Understanding: I advance in the story by advancing in the game. Growing with the story and feeling mastery is most engaging when: • You’ve accomplished something and earned the right to progress in the story(Achievement) • Friends can contribute to the storyline(Intimacy) • The feeling of mastery can be compared to feeling more like a master than others(Power)
    • Psychological Need Description of Need Examples of Features Understanding (Cognizance) To analyze and experience, to seek knowledge To provide information, educate • Advancing in the story by advancing in the game. • To have subjective experiences • Recruitment of friends by being responsible for educating them about the game Feeling of “mastery” of a game Exposition Sentience
    • Psychological Need Description of Need Examples of Features Counteraction Defendance Infavoidance To defend honor To justify actions To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a weakness • • • • Protect status within game Optimization of choices Avoidance of challenges which are too difficult for skill level Avoidance of display of a failed level
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL NEED *Achievement Needs Achievement Exhibition Recognition *Power Needs Autonomy Aggression Blame Avoidance Contrariance Deference DESCRIPTION OF NEED Dominance Harm-avoidance *Affection Needs To control and lead others To avoid pain Nurturance Play Rejection Succorance Affiliation Materialistic Needs Acquisition Construction Order Retention Information Needs Understanding (Cognizance) To protect the helpless To relieve tension, have fun, or relax To exclude another To seek protection/sympathy from others To make associations and friendships Exposition Sentience Defense of Status Needs Counteraction Defendance To provide information, educate To have subjective experiences Infavoidance EXAMPLES OF FEATURES To overcome obstacles and succeed To attract attention To gain approval and social status Level up Show off your kingdom Show off your achievements on your wall posts To resist others and stand strong To injure others To avoid blame and obey the rules To be unique To follow a superior, to serve Ability to play alone Beat up the beasties Follow rules, not cheat Customize avatar/kingdom To follow the orders given by who assigns the quest Recruit friends as helpers , Ask your friends to use the app, Comparison Perform actions to avoid beasties taking over kingdom To obtain possessions To build or create To arrange, organize, and be precise Keeping things To analyze and experience, to seek knowledge To defend honor To justify actions To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a weakness Protect the princess from the beasties, beat beasties in your friends’ kingdoms Pleasant, relaxing environment within the game Recruit some friends to help, but not all Send requests for help from friends Send requests for friends’ help, ask them to join your kingdom Acquire items for potions and further exploration Build your kingdom Put the animals, tree, and flowers where you want them Keep items in your inventory Advancing in the story by completion of quests Recruitment of friends by being responsible for educating them about the game Feeling of being immersed in the game Protect status within game Arrange buildings for optimal use, move crops towards ponds No failed levels A LOT
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL NEED *Achievement Needs Achievement Exhibition Recognition *Power Needs Autonomy Aggression Blame Avoidance Contrariance Deference DESCRIPTION OF NEED Dominance Harm-avoidance *Affection Needs Nurturance Play Rejection Succorance Affiliation Materialistic Needs Acquisition Construction Order Retention Information Needs Understanding (Cognizance) To control and lead others To avoid pain Exposition Sentience Defense of Status Needs Counteraction Defendance To provide information, educate To have subjective experiences Infavoidance EXAMPLES OF FEATURES To overcome obstacles and succeed To attract attention To gain approval and social status Level up Show off your achievements on wall posts Show off your achievements on wall posts To resist others and stand strong To injure others To avoid blame and obey the rules To be unique To follow a superior, to serve Ability to play alone Follow rules, not cheat Minimal room for customization To follow the orders given by who assigns the mission Recruit friends as helpers , Ask your friends to use the app, Comparison To protect the helpless To relieve tension, have fun, or relax To exclude another To seek protection/sympathy from others To make associations and friendships Clicking tiles is pleasant, focus challenge Recruit some friends to join, but not all Send requests for help from friends Ask friends to join game To obtain possessions To build or create To arrange, organize, and be precise Keeping things Acquire items for evidence – not all items have a clear value Can be done minimally in lab Keep items in your inventory To analyze and experience, to seek knowledge To defend honor To justify actions To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a weakness Advancing in the story by completion of quests Recruitment of friends by being responsible for educating them about the game Feeling of being immersed in the game No failed levels Total WAY LESS
    • • CastleVille did a good job of making sure they had all needs covered from several angles, and very clearly. • CSI: Crime City covered some, but not all of the needs. Of the needs defined, they were less clear. • Theory dictates that the more needs that are met, the more people will want to play (Ines & Abdelkader, 2011). • Please refer to attached checklist to quantify the needs met in your game.
    • • Social interaction motive was the strongest predictor of the time actually spent on gaming (Jansz & Tanis, 2007). http://vgresearcher.wordpress.com/2007/05/10/appeal-of-online-first-person-shooters-jansz-tanis-2007/ • People play games to change or structure their internal experience (Lazzaro, 2004). As a result, players feel a variety of emotions during game play. Three out of Four Keys are necessary in order to unlock emotion: – Hard Fun – Easy Fun – Altered States – The People Factor http://www.slideshare.net/NicoleLazzaro/gdc-4-emotions-social-games-lazzaro-slides-100311 • Murray’s categories of needs are used to underline several characteristics of social casual games in order to understand what motivates people to play in the Facebook context. Authors found that the more needs met, the more MAU. http://www.mirlabs.org/ijcisim/regular_papers_2011/Paper80.pdf
    • For me, personality is [a] jungle without boundaries. —HENRY MURRAY