Sustainable Transportation 2003


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Sustainable Transportation 2003

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION Introduction Implementation Study Case
  2. 2. Walking Cities were (and are) dense, mixed use areas no more than 5km across. These were the major urban form for 8000 years. Transit Cities from 1850-1950 were based on trams and trains which meant they could spread 20 to 30 kilometres with dense clusters of corridors following the rail lines and stations. Automobile Cities from the 1950’s on could spread 50 kilometres in all directions and at low density.
  3. 3. Cycle of Automobile Dependency
  4. 4. Huge variation in car use/capita, which bears no consistent relationship to income. Car ownership has a closer link to wealth, but not car use. Wealthy Asian cities (Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo) are similar in car use to developing Asian cities (Bangkok, Manila, Surabaya, Jakarta, Seoul, KualaLumpur) but are ten times wealthier. Public Transport variations are even greater in extent, with Asian cities significantly higher than all other cities. Walking and cycling is highest in Asian and European cities and almost negligible in others. Density variations are enormous with Asian cities highest; European transitcities are medium density and Australian and American cities are uniformly low in density. Significantly, as far as policy is concerned, there is a clear difference between the average speed of traffic and the average speed of transit. The automobile dependent cities (mostly with bus-based transit) have traffic speeds 10 kph or more faster than transit. European cities and the wealthier Asian cities have faster transit than traffic. However developing Asian cities have slower transit than traffic even though this is very slow (eg Bangkok has average traffic speeds of 14 kph but transit speeds average just 9 kph). TRANSPORT&LAND USE PATTERN
  5. 5. 10 Myths about the Inevitability of Automobile Dependence Wealth Automobile dependence is an inevitable consequence of wealth. People will always buy cars and larger amounts of private urban space, thus alternative urban forms, publictransport and non-motorized modes will inevitably die out as people get richer. Climate Automobile dependence is inevitably induced by warm climates where people can enjoy low density suburban lifestyles, whereas compact, transit-oriented cities are mostly in cold climates. Space Automobile dependence is inevitably part of countries that are very spacious, whilst those with little space have compact cities.
  6. 6. Age Automobile dependence is an inevitable feature of modern life and thus new cities developed predominantly after 1945 show it more than old cities. Health and Social Problems Automobile dependence is inevitably created by the reaction to density and its health and social problems. Rural Lifestyles Automobile dependence is inevitably created by the attraction of rural lifestyles in the suburbs with their associated promise of withdrawal from the evils of city lifestyles. Road Lobby Automobile dependence is inevitably created by the powerful combination of road interests.
  7. 7. Land Developers Automobile dependence is inevitably created by the powerful interests of land speculators and developers and there is little that planning can do to stop them. Traffic Engineering Automobile dependence is an inevitable outcome of the standard processes of transportation planning. Town Planning Automobile dependence is inevitably regulated into cities by local town planning.
  8. 9. Sustainable transportation <ul><li>Brundtland Commission (1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development “ meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs .” </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Canada (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that environment, social and economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation activity.” </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>A sustainable transportation system is “one in which fuel consumption, vehicle emissions, safety, congestion, and social and economic access are of such levels that they can be sustained into the indefinite future without causing great or irreparable harm to future generations of people throughout the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Research Board (TRB, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>“… sustainability is not about threat analysis; sustainability is about systems analysis. Specifically, it is about how environmental, economic, and social systems interact to their mutual advantage or disadvantage at various space-based scales of operation.” </li></ul>
  9. 10. GENDER: Travel behavior and pattern WOMEN Household/reproductive purpose traffic Trip chain (multiple purpose and multiple destination in single trip) Need Flexibility Low Cost Consumer Friendly Door to door service MEN Linear Origin/Destinations centered on employment Speed Reliability Road Safety Public Transport
  10. 11. Traffic in this perspective vehicle movement and speed are beneficial; congestion or inadequate roads are seen as the problem. The old roads-focussed approaches in rural transport could be seen as analogous to a traffic focus
  11. 12. Mobility the ability of a person or group of people to actually move if they wish. It depends on the transport system and on the characteristics of the person involved (Jones, 1981). mobility is not a measure of actual movement. high levels of travel imply that there must be a high ability to move and therefore indicators of actual travel (such as trips or person-kilometres) are often used in practice as measures of mobility.
  12. 13. Access people’s ability to reach opportunities, such as reaching a place or obtaining services or goods, etc. high levels of access by a person can come about via a combination of mobility and of proximity to whatever is to be reached. If the destination (or set of possible destinations to satisfy the need) is distant then access to it will require high mobility. If the destination or service is nearby (or if it can be delivered physically or electronically) then easy access may be possible with little or no actual personal movement. Barriers may also constrain mobility in certain directions (eg a river with no nearby bridge or steps for a wheelchair user) and hence reduce access even to nearby destinations.
  13. 14. Accessibility of a place the ease with which that place can be reached from elsewhere (Hansen, 1959). Note that ‘access’ above is something available to people (as a result of their spatial contexts) whereas ‘accessibility’ is an attribute of places (as a result of their spatial contexts). Accessibility is always relative to other places. Accessibility is sometimes used with respect to specific other places (as in ‘place A is highly accessible from place B but not from place C). It is a function of both the proximity between places and the quality of the transport connections (or barriers) between places. Thus A may be accessible from B because they are close together or because there is a good transport connection between them or both. More often, accessibility is relative to a set of places (a region) rather than just one place. That is, the word accessibility can be used to describe how easily a place can be reached from all other places
  14. 16. Sustainable Transportation Performance Indicators <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>·         Land Use Mix   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Land use accessibility   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Children’s accessibility   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Electronic accessibility   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Commute speed   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Transport diversity  </li></ul><ul><li>·         Mode split   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Transit service   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Motor Transport Options   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Congestion delay   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Consumer Transport costs   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Affordability  </li></ul><ul><li>·         Facility costs </li></ul><ul><li>·         Freight and commercial transport </li></ul><ul><li>efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>·         Delivery services   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Market principles   </li></ul><ul><li>·         Planning Practices   </li></ul>  ·         User rating   ·         Citizen involvement   ·         Crash costs   ·         Planning process   ·         Health and fitness   ·         Community Livability ·         Cultural Preservation   ·         Basic Access ·         Horizontal Equity (fairness)   ·         Progressivity   ·         Mobility for non-drivers   ·         Mobility for people with disabilities)   ·         Nonmotorized transport   ·         Climate change emissions   ·         Other air pollution   ·         Noise pollution   ·         Water pollution   ·         Land use impacts   ·         Habitat protection
  15. 17. Generated Traffic This table indicates whether a strategy is likely to induce additional vehicle travel. Significant Generated Traffic Depends on Circumstances Little or No Generated Traffic <ul><li>Flextime </li></ul><ul><li>Roadway Capacity Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Highway Grade Separation </li></ul><ul><li>Intersection Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Detection & Management </li></ul><ul><li>Motorist Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ramp Metering </li></ul><ul><li>One-Way Streets </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible Lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Access Management </li></ul><ul><li>ITS </li></ul><ul><li>Commute Trip Reduction Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Transit Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Rideshare Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Calming & Roundabouts </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Road Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>HOV Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Based Fees </li></ul><ul><li>Freight Transport Management </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Limit Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 18. Sustainability Issues T ransportation Impacts on Sustainability Economic Affordability Resource efficiency Cost internalization Trade and business activity Employment Productivity Tax burden Social Equity Human health Education Community Quality of life Public Participation Environmental Pollution prevention Climate protection Biodiversity Precautionary action Avoidance of irreversibility Habitat preservation Aesthetics Economic Traffic congestion Mobility barriers Crash damages Transportation facility costs Consumer transportation costs Depletion of non-renewable resources Social Inequity of impacts Mobility disadvantaged Human health impacts Community cohesion Community livability Aesthetics Environmental Air pollution Climate change Habitat loss Water pollution Hydrologic impacts Noise pollution
  17. 19. Transportation Demand Management Propose to create sustainable transportation Market Principles Efficient Land Use Efficient Transportation Comprehensive Market Reforms Road Pricing Parking Pricing Least Cost Planning Institutional Reforms Smart Growth Location Efficient Development New Urbanism Transit Oriented Development Access Management Walking and Cycling Improvements Transit Improvements Ridesharing HOV Priority Commute Trip Reduction
  18. 20. Congestion Reduction Strategies <ul><li>Road Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Commute Trip Reduction Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Flextime </li></ul><ul><li>Transit Improvements, Rideshare Programs and HOV Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Access Management </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Management and Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Based Fees </li></ul><ul><li>Freight Transport Management </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Calming and Roundabouts </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Car-Free Planning and Vehicle Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Telework </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Other Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Road Capacity Expansion – lead to rebound effect </li></ul><ul><li>Grade Separation </li></ul><ul><li>Intersection Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Detection and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Motorist Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ramp Metering </li></ul><ul><li>One-Way Streets </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible Lanes </li></ul>
  19. 21. Rebound effect <ul><li>A Rebound Effect - Takeback Effect - Offsetting Behavior : </li></ul><ul><li>increased consumption that results from actions that increase efficiency and reduce consumer costs (Musters, 1995; Alexander, 1997; Herring, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Include : </li></ul><ul><li>generated traffic that results from urban roadway capacity expansion, </li></ul><ul><li>induced vehicle mileage that results from increased fuel efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>increased risk taking that occurs when drivers feel safer. </li></ul><ul><li>As the result/benefit of: </li></ul><ul><li>congestion reduction </li></ul><ul><li>fuel efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>traffic safety programs </li></ul>Transportation reduction negative effect
  20. 22. <ul><li>If you have traffic-calm streets in commercial and shopping centers: </li></ul><ul><li>safer and friendlier for children, the elderly, the disable people </li></ul><ul><li>reduce fuel use </li></ul><ul><li>improve the local air </li></ul><ul><li>reduce the noise and traffic disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>improve local business </li></ul><ul><li>greater opportunities for walking and cycling </li></ul><ul><li>improve social contact among people </li></ul><ul><li>improve human health </li></ul>Newman, P. & & Kenworthy J. 1999, Sustainable and cities: overcoming automobile dependence , Island Press, Washington D.C.
  21. 23. Regional Travel Demand Daily distribution of journey to work trips with a destination and originating in the inner east sub region (1996)
  22. 24. Regional Travel Demand Modeled daily distribution of vehicle trips destination and originating in the inner east sub region (1998 & 2016)
  23. 25. Indicators of Issues of Travel Efficiency and Reliability
  24. 26. Travel Efficiency and Reliability <ul><li>Decreased the traffic volumes on east-west surface routes through Central Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased congestion at intersections </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased travel times for buses </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased vehicle and pedestrian accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Less emissions of air pollutants from vehicle </li></ul>Source: The Cross City Tunnel, supplementary environmental impact statement
  25. 28. SUMMARY OF FACTS <ul><li>Length : Approx 2.1kms from Harbour Street, Darling Harbour to the Kings Cross Tunnel (eastern entry). </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated cost: $680 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Lanes : Two lanes in each direction – single lane exit to Sir John Young Crescent for the Domain Tunnel to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and Sydney Harbour Tunnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearance : 4.6 metres height clearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth : Up to 50 metres below Hyde Park. </li></ul>Source: The Cross City Tunnel, supplementary environmental impact statement
  26. 29. SUMMARY OF FACTS <ul><li>Entrances : Westbound - Eastern end of Kings Cross Tunnel, Eastern Distributor (northbound). </li></ul><ul><li>Eastbound - Western Distributor, northbound on Harbour Street. </li></ul><ul><li>Exits : Westbound - Western Distributor, Harbour Street (northbound and southbound). </li></ul><ul><li>Eastbound - Eastern end of Kings Cross Tunnel, Eastern Distributor (southbound). </li></ul><ul><li>Northbound - Sir John Young Crescent (westbound to northbound traffic only). </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast traffic: More than 90,000 vehicles per day. </li></ul>Source: The Cross City Tunnel, supplementary environmental impact statement
  27. 30. SUMMARY OF FACTS <ul><li>Traffic signals avoided: 16 sets westbound, 18 sets eastbound. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel time: Two minutes in tunnel - saving up to 20 minutes and an average of 11 minutes in peak times on existing surface roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Toll: For cars, $2.50 each way in main tunnel or $1.10 for traffic exiting at Sir John Young Crescent. Trucks will be tolled at a higher rate. Fully electronically tolled with no toll booths. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated opening:  2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs created: 1,600 direct jobs and 3,600 indirect jobs created during construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed limit: 80km/h. </li></ul>Source: The Cross City Tunnel, supplementary environmental impact statement
  28. 31. <ul><li>William Street: Footpath widening, upgrading & tree planting by reduction to two through lanes in each direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Park Street at Hyde Park: Footpath widening, upgrading & landscaping by reduction to one Bus Lane and a single through lane in each direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Druitt Street: Bus Lanes provided in each direction. Closed to general traffic at Clarence & Kent Streets - Bus Lanes only. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport: Daytime T2 Transit Lanes on William Street & new Bus Lanes through Hyde Park. Bus Lanes on Druitt Street and Druitt Street viaduct. New Bus Lanes on other city streets. Increased priority for north/south bus routes at city traffic signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclists: New on-road bicycle lanes between Kings Cross and Town Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrians: Shorter time waiting for ‘Walk’ at traffic signals in the city. </li></ul>SUMMARY OF FACTS Source: The Cross City Tunnel, supplementary environmental impact statement
  29. 32. Primary Objectives <ul><li>to improve the environmental quality of public spaces within Central Sydney. </li></ul><ul><li>to improve ease of access and reliability of travel within Central Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>to improve the reliability and efficiency of travel between areas east and west of Central Sydney. </li></ul>Secondary Objectives Environmental sustainability: – conserving biological diversity and ecological integrity; – eliminating the threat of serious or irreversible environmental damage; – improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and – minimizing the use of energy and non-renewable resources. Economic and Financial outcomes: – ensuring that the economic benefits exceed the economic costs; and – minimizing the financial cost to government Source: The Cross City Tunnel, supplementary environmental impact statement
  30. 33. The Benefits <ul><li>Air Quality : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribution of Pollutant emission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in overall levels of vehicular pollutant emissions in CS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant noise level reductions on many east-west streets in CS </li></ul><ul><li>Safety : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in pedestrian safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicycle lanes on William and Park Streets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved public amenity </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Visual Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the size of public space </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a new area of open space over the Kings Cross Tunnel of approximately 800 square meters. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Major regional traffic movements via CCT Source:
  32. 35. The Cross City Tunnel Section Source:
  33. 36. Source:
  34. 37. Existing Darling Harbor Proposed for CCT entrance <ul><li>New pedestrian walkway to access Darling Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>60 meters ventilation stack </li></ul><ul><li>relocated pedestrian bridge </li></ul><ul><li>One lane eastbound entrance to CCT from Harbor Street </li></ul><ul><li>Two lanes eastbound entrance and exit to CCT from Western Distributor </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>one lane northbound exit from CCT </li></ul><ul><li>Sir John Young Crescent reduced into two lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Domain car park exit will be relocated </li></ul><ul><li>New Access for train maintenance yard </li></ul>
  36. 39. Source:
  37. 40. <ul><li>Improvement the visual quality of William St </li></ul><ul><li>To connect public spaces and places </li></ul><ul><li>Safety for pedestrians </li></ul><ul><li>Facility for cyclists and bus lanes </li></ul>
  38. 41. Source:
  39. 43. Cheonggyecheon, Seoul
  40. 44. Cheonggyecheon, Seoul Seoul Facts 1999: Pollution: 85.4% automobiles, 12.7% heating, 1.7%industry, 0.2%power How to control traffic ?? BEFORE
  41. 45. Traffic Chaos, Car Oriented City (168.000cars/day, 62.5% through traffic) ‘ Ugly’ Landscape Reject of original water stream Air pollution 6 km highway ! 5 medium bus lane 17 bridges, 5 pedestrian/cycling bridges Greenery, landscape, attractive Public Place Enhance surrounding building
  42. 46. Cheonggyecheon, Seoul Dismantling elevated highways Prioritizing buses and other public transport Restore original water stream Lower surface temperatures (3.6 ºC) AFTER
  43. 47. Cheonggyecheon, Seoul Creating a new public space AFTER
  44. 48. Improvement for neighborhood building (window display, tourist attraction)