Sustainable Cities


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Sustainable Cities

  1. 1. T H E S E A R C H F O R THE SUSTAINABLE CITY Being a sustainable city means " improving the quality of life in a city, including ecological, cultural, political, institutional, social and economic components without leaving a burden on future generations”
  2. 2. SUSTAINABLE CITY SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY Minimum ecological disruption, practice conservation, maintain a constant population TRADITIONAL CITY Contemporary pattern of world urbanization = un sustainable
  3. 3. "Sustainable community development is the ability to make development choices which respect the relationship between the three "E's"-economy, ecology, and equity: Economy - Economic activity should serve the common good, be self-renewing, and build local assets and self-reliance. Ecology - Human are part of nature, nature has limits, and communities are responsible for protecting and building natural assets. Equity - The opportunity for full participation in all activities, benefits, and decision-making of a society." - Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED): Hart Environmental Data
  6. 6. GARDEN CITY <ul><li>Background: Industrial Revolution created slums </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Ebenezer Howard </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired from Garden City of To-morrow </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Letchworth (1903) and Welwyn (1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Garden City: Integration of Town and Country </li></ul><ul><li>Combine economic and social advantages of an energetic and active TOWN life with all the beauty and the delight of the COUNTRY </li></ul>
  7. 10. social CITY
  8. 11. NEOTECHNIC CITY <ul><li>Urban sustainability as completeness of relation of organism, function and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Dysfunctional city of early 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Patrick Geddes </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing City as a Whole </li></ul><ul><li>Planning city = sustainable water = sustainable resources </li></ul><ul><li>The sustainability of cities and the quality of human life are closely interlinked </li></ul>
  9. 12. BROADACRE CITY <ul><li>Urban sustainability as decentralized democratization in an urban form nearest organic as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Frank Llyod Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Newly born suburbia </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite Transit Oriented Development </li></ul>
  10. 14. BIOTECHNIC CITY <ul><li>Urban sustainability as decentralized in a life-centered order </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Lewis Mumford </li></ul><ul><li>Urban form, small, rural, genial & integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Regional but compact </li></ul><ul><li>Central biological needs for the family </li></ul>
  12. 17. DESIGN WITH NATURE <ul><li>Urban sustainability as environmentally sensitive planning </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Ugliness, disorder, modern economic </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Ian McHarg </li></ul><ul><li>There were many factors that went into the broad field of social values, including historic, water, forest, wildlife, scenic, recreation, residential, institutional, and land values. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Development </li></ul><ul><li>Linked natural and social value </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Information System </li></ul>
  14. 20. SYMBIOTIC COMMUNITY <ul><li>Urban sustainability as design based on natural carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Cerro Gordo, Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Chris Canfield </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis with the biosphere </li></ul>
  15. 21. VILLAGE HOMES DAVIS, CALIFORNIA – THE ECOLOGICAL CITY <ul><li>Urban sustainability as solar design, natural drainage and edible landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Michael Corbett (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by medieval village of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Solar design should cut daily family energy budget </li></ul><ul><li>When residential developments implement sustainable principles -> both economic and environment benefits follow </li></ul>
  16. 24. PERMACULTURE PERMANENT AGRICULTURE <ul><li>Urban sustainability as a perennial system of agrourbanism </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Bill Mollison </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture: is a urban design strategy over time that integrates community patterns with ecological imperatives, organizing indigenous knowledge and experience with resources available in a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize complex interlinked between landscape and the built environment through food, waste, water and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Nature’s own system </li></ul>
  17. 25. 3 questions on PERMACULTURE PERMANENT AGRICULTURE <ul><li>How do geology and geography interact with the sun, water, wind and nutrient cycling of the living landscape </li></ul><ul><li>How can water harvesting, food production, and other unique attributes influence and contribute to design of the housing space? </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done without disrupting the natural order of things? </li></ul>
  19. 28. NEO TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING <ul><li>Urban sustainability as the control of regional growth </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Peter Calthorpe (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>New Urbanism : creating new community space that is dense, diverse and convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Return to traditionalist America town planning (before 1940s): a close proximity between uses and an interlocking grid of streets. </li></ul><ul><li>Critique: community feature not a natural feature </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>NEW URBANISM </li></ul><ul><li>Walking Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Use Public Transit </li></ul><ul><li>Live closer to activity node </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>IN FILL AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>REDEVELOP </li></ul><ul><li>DENSITY </li></ul>
  21. 32. EC’S URBAN GREEN PAPER <ul><li>Urban sustainability as urban compactness and regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Principal approaches in contemporary urban sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Revitalizing cities by making them more compact </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerating existing urban land </li></ul><ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity, physical beauty, compactness of historic cities </li></ul>LIVABLE CITY
  22. 33. Nash’s Island Civilization <ul><li>Urban sustainability as a global civilization of 1.5 billion humans living in 500 compact cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Roderick Nash(1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban compactness as an essential element of sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Buckminster Fuller, MVRDV, Paolo Soleri </li></ul><ul><li>Human presence on earth to endure </li></ul><ul><li>Advance the rights of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve wilderness between cities </li></ul><ul><li>Global population to maximize their intellectual and technology </li></ul>
  23. 39. CIRCULAR METABOLISM <ul><li>Urban sustainability as a closed natural resource cycle </li></ul><ul><li>CIRCULAR METABOLISM OF SUSTAINABLE CITIES </li></ul><ul><li>VS </li></ul><ul><li>LINEAR METABOLISM OF MODERN CITIES </li></ul>CLEAN ENERGY, RECYCLED MATERIALS, AUGMENTED FOREST, ETC
  24. 40. SUSTAINABLY DESIGN CITIES <ul><li>Urban sustainability as the control of regional growth </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: William McDonough(1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving a sustainable civilization is a design problem </li></ul>NATURE’S 3 PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Nature produces no waste – only food – Cradle to Cradle </li></ul><ul><li>Nature promotes maximum diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Nature relies on its solar energy account </li></ul>
  25. 41. HANNOVER PRINCIPLES A GUIDE TO THE SEARCH OF SUSTAINABILITY: Insist on human rights and sustainability. Recognize the interaction of design with the environment. Consider the social and spiritual aspects of buildings and designed objects. Be responsible for the effect of design decisions. Ensure that objects have long-term value. Eliminate waste and consider the entire life-cycle of designed objects. Make use of &quot;natural energy flows&quot; such as solar power and its derivatives. encourage open communic Be humble, and use nature as a model for design. Share knowledge, strive for continuous improvement, and encourage open communication among stakeholders.
  26. 42. Tangye Masterplan, China
  27. 43. Sustainable city within a sustainability watershed <ul><li>Urban sustainability holistic, diverse, fractal and evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Margot McDonald(1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Project: Transformation of Los Osos, California </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic: composed of interdependent and interconnected subsystems at multiple scales </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse: decisions should enhance biological, social, cultural and economic diversity at all scales </li></ul><ul><li>Fractal: design with nature based on chaos pattern of geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary: seeks efficiency through iteration </li></ul>
  28. 44. HABITAT STUDIO Advanced Integrated Pond System
  29. 46. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE <ul><li>Urban sustainability as regenerative urban systems </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: John T. Lyle (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban sustainability will only be achieved: society incorporates regenerative energy and water flow systems of nature into its city. </li></ul>
  30. 48. CONCLUSION: SUSTAINABLE CITY … <ul><li>Is a garden city that integrates town and country (Howard, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses the vital form of medieval city (Geddes, 1915) </li></ul><ul><li>Has a form nearest as organic as possible (Wright, 1935) </li></ul><ul><li>Is designed with nature (McHarg, 1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not exceed nature’s carrying capacity (Canfield, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Features solar design, natural drainage, edible landscape (Corbett and Corbett, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Is a permaculture (Mollison, 1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses transit oriented development to control growth (Calthorpe, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Is compact and regenerative of damaged or derelict urban land (CEC, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Is made compact to allow surrounding wilderness to flourish (Nash, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Has a circular metabolism (Girardet, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Makes no waste, seeks biodiversity, relies on the sun (McDonough, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Is holistic, diverse, fractal and evolutionary (McDonald, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Is comprised of Green Infrastructures (Lyle, 1994) </li></ul>
  31. 49. CASE STUDY
  32. 50. DongTan, Shanghai
  33. 51. <ul><li>Wetland development </li></ul><ul><li>Zero green-house emission transit </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficient water </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficient energy systems </li></ul><ul><li>Village-style neightbourhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Energy centre: wind turbines, bio-fuels, recycled organic material </li></ul><ul><li>Waste reused </li></ul>
  34. 56. Sociopolis, Valencia, Spain
  35. 58. ECOLOGY + HOUSING Total Area : 35 ha Landscape Area : 16.5 ha Total Building Footprint Area : 12 ha Total Units : ±3000 units
  36. 62. The architects: Vicente Guallart, Abalos & Herreros, Manuel Gausa, Eduardo Arroyo, José María Torres Nadal, Sogo Arquitectos, Willy Muller, Antonio Lleyda / Eduardo de la Peña, Toyo Ito, MVRDV, Greg Lynn FORM, Duncan Lewis, José Luis Mateo, Kim Young-Joon, JM Lin, Jose Maria Lozano and Maria Colomer.
  37. 66. Residential Concepts the needs of the new types of family unit (young people, the elderly, single-parent families, etc.) both owner-occupied and rented in a quality urban setting in which the landscaped areas, social amenities and good architecture generate urban excellence.
  38. 68. Vicente Guallart Rent Apartment for Young
  39. 69. Willy Muller Pile Tower: Rent Apartment + Sport
  40. 72. Manuel Gausa Residential Topography + Kindergarten
  41. 74. MVRDV Huerta Tower – Stacked Housing Units + Fruit Trees
  42. 76. Toyo Ito Apartments for the Elderly