Introduction to theory and prxis of urban development concept part two power point presentationPresentation Transcript
Introduction to Theory and Praxis of Urban Development ConceptPart Two Dr.-Ing Jo Santoso Magister Teknik Perencanaan Universitas Tarumanagara Struktur & Morphology 18 Agustus 2010 1
Around 90 Mio. or 45% of total population of Indonesia are living in Urban area, Urban population is growing around 3,2% p.a., ore than twice of everage population growth The growth on the peripherie of big cities is between 3-5% around double from the inner city area. 2 Urbanization in Indonesia
The area is around 3000 sqkm, ca.5 times of the Municipality, with Population around 20 Mio. Population of Jakarta in the night around 9 Mio, with 3 Mio. Commuter becoming ca. 12 Mio. during the day. The population central area of Jakarta has already a negative growth of population. 3 The Greater Jakarta
A combination of conventional, new and hybrid types of land uses. In the center of the city we find large scale superblock, some of them with more than 1 mio. Sqmeters floor area, and with floor ratio between 7 to 10. And these building complex are located face to face with relatively low density of kampong areas with their 1 to 2 storey landed housing, The Central business district consist of dozens of kilometers long skylines with its hundreds of skyscrapers is located next to low rise housing neighborhoods inhabited from different social classes interrupted through many kinds of traditional street markets and food bazars which are intensifying their activities after the office hours. 4 General Characters of spatial pattern of Jakarta Metropolitan Area
In the semi rural area next to the international airport we will find modern factories and number of low income (mostly subsidized) housing projects and inbetween them rice fields and traditional “rural villages”, which are becoming main provider of affordable shelter for the industrial worker. On the otherside of the city we find large scale industrial estates behind high-end housing development with their 18holes golfcourses, with modern appartment and office towers and of course shopping mall sourrounded again by small scale low income housing projects, traditional rural villages, and so on. 5 General Characters of spatial pattern of Jakarta Metropolitan Area
Jakarta is typical examples of City, where local-eastern and western origin urban cultural system can exist side by side sometime in coexistence sometime in conflicting situation. 6
7 The characteristic form of large-scale superblock as “separated exclusive island” has created isolated buildings, which are spread throughout the city. They are not integrated with the surrounding area, socially and economically. Such large scale hyper blocks are designed as “archipelagos” for upper middle-income groups. Spatial-architectural they became isolated landmarks of the city and will create social-cultural discrepancy between social classes; by upper social classes it reduce their social responsibility and their empathy for the poor, and for lower income people they are representing the domination of the establishment.
The rapid and complex urbanization of Jakarta in the twentieth century brings strong interest of on the city. 8
The city of Jakarta is currently an example for a complex urbanization process where the city on one side is able to show a kind of openness to globalization process but on the other side is developing a kind of urbanity with strong local characters, which are deep related to the valuesystem and urban way of lifes from the previous historical periods. As one of the world’s largest and fastest growing megacities and, Jakarta poses a need for deeper understanding of the current process of world-wide urbanization in general and a challenge to define a new perspective of what Asian city might be in the future in particular. 9 Local Characters
Indegeneous-precolonial Period The Colonial Period devided in Early Dutch colonial The City as a “bridgehead” Late Dutch Colonial PeriodThe City as the capital of their new Vaterland III the Nation Building PeriodThe City as a modern capital of the new born nation the “new order” Period with its concept of growth- and consuming city Each of them was acting as new superior power and violating the previous existing urban structure of Jakarta in order to reshape the cityguided by their new superior agenda.
10 The 4 Historical Layers of Jakarta
Every new coming superior power, who stand behind the new development concept was always violating the previous existing urban structures. Each of the new superior power did not intentionally paying attention to the urban characters from the previous historical periods, but in fact they have to accept the existence of the older layers, culturally, economically, as well as spatially. Each political power will loose the control about what they have developed in the previous period. Result: Jakarta is a mixture of urban characters from different historical periods, sometimes promotes conflicting situation, sometime in good relation to each others, in many cases super positioned in the same location, in other cases side by side but separated from each other. 11 Temporary Findings
The city has heteregeneous, multi-ethnic and multi religeous population, from its founder was concepted as an cosmopolitan-open city. The city spatially consist of quarters and every headman of the quasi-autonomous quarter was responsible for the internal affairs inside his own territory. The value system applied in the quarters was culturally different from one to another. Consequently, the city was not a strong political entity. 12 The indegenous-precolonial City
13 The Map is showing the location of English lodge in the north side of the city and Dutch lodges on the other side of the Ciliwung river, The central Market on the North part of the city. The Mosque, The central field or Alun-Alun, the Ruler Palace (dalem) are located in the more sacred-Southern part of the city.
14 The precolonial trading ships Left: Figured on Borobudur Reliefs from the 8th.Century Right:In modified half motorized version still in operating connecting thousend of islands of Indonesia
15 PasarKaranghantoe (End of 16th C.)An organized market, selling hundreds of items from all over the world.Traders selling similar products gathered in the same part of the market area
16 Spatial Structure of early colonial city: The City consist of a number of culturally independent Quarters
17 Early Colonial Period The City as a “bridgehead”
The dualistic City: Bebouwde and niet bebouwde kom In the beginning of 19th Century with the Java War ended, the Dutch colonial regime developed new residential areas to accommodate the increasing Dutch-European population. The city expanded along major roads to the South. The Dutch populations were looking for more cooler and healthy places to settle down. In the same time the local indigenous vernacular settlements were growing in at the periphery of the city (KebonSirih, etc.)These indigenous kampoengs were located in between the well-planned “bebouwdekom” (built area), and categorized as the “niet-bebouwdekom” (un-built area) of the city, and were not parts of the city’s colonial-administration. 18 The late colonial period
19 Map of Jakarta 1904kampongs today is identic with the niet bebouwde komThe system of indirect rule has divided the city area in twodifferent administrative zones:The inside bebouwde-kom the city recognized property rights (ownership) for private company and individuals. The outside the bebouwde-kom (niet bebouwde kom) the city continuously practiced the old javanese system of landpacht based on the right of using-Land (Nutzungsrecht).
20 20th Century the city underwent modernization to support the enlightened part of the Dutch colonialists, who wanted to stay in the colony permanently, since they had come to regard Netherlands-Indie as their new homeland.
21 The Masterpiece of Colonial City: The Tropical Garden City of Weltevreden
The Concept of Modern Colonial CityThe basic elements of the modern colonial city consists of following components:>development of high quality human settlements (Weltevreden)> providing the city with modern urban facilities schools, post office, hospitals, etc.> upgrading of the indigenous kampoeng (kampungverbeetering).> Integration of various parts of the old colonial cities, connecting ethnical-religious quarters and the indigenous kampungs to the new urban fabric.> The construction of the modern electric tramway as the integrating element. 1940
Map of Batavia showing tramway in 1940s
In the first 25 years of Indonesian independence, Jakarta became a project site of Soekarno’s Nation Building program. The central government took the lead in visioning the development of Jakarta as a national capital of the new born independent Nation: The development of landmarks dedicated to the New Emerging Nation, such as the National Monument, West-Irian Monument, The Peasant Monument, The Welcome Statue, A big water fountain in Thamrin-Sudirman axis, etc. 23 Jakarta as The modern Capital of the new born Nation (1949-1965)
Olympic-normed sport centers, Earthquake-secure high-rise building, International 5-stars hotels, and department stores. Jakarta as capital of Indonesia, a leading nation of the Non-Block Movement, deeply anticapitalism, deeply anti imperialism, but culturally western oriented. 24 Jakarta as The modern Capital of the new born Nation (1949-1965)
The Masterplan of 1965-1985 has provided Jakarta with the basic structure for the later development of modern Jakarta as a metropolis. New housing projects prior to 1968 (KebayoranBaru, Tebet, Tanjung Duren, Grogol, etc.) were developed following the framework of the Masterplan. At the end of Soekarno era, the City of Jakarta had successfully established its new identity as the national capital of Indonesia. 25 Jakarta as The modern Capital of the new born Nation (1949-1965)
26 Jakarta as modern capital of the new born nation of Indonesia The 1. Olympic-normed Sport center, the 1. earthquake-secure high-rise building, the 1. international 5stars hotel, and the 1. Department Store Jakarta as capital of Indonesia, a leading nation of the non-block movement, deeply anticapitalism, deeply anti imperialism, but culturally western oriented. Jakarta as The modern Capital of the new born Nation (1949-1965)
27 Jakarta as the modern Capital of the new born Nation
The Soekarno Nation Building Era The First Department Store Sarinah 28
The Masterplan of 1965-1985 has provided Jakarta with the basic structure for the later development of modern Jakarta as a metropolis. New housing projects prior to 1968 (KebayoranBaru, Tebet, Tanjung Duren, Grogol, etc.) were developed following the framework of the Masterplan. At the end of Soekarno era, the City of Jakarta had successfully established its new identity as the national capital of Indonesia. 29 Jakarta as The modern Capital of the new born Nation (1949-1965)
Fireball Statue Welcome Statue The City of Jakarta had successfully established its new identity as the national capital of Indonesia in 1965. 30
In Soeharto-era, Jakarta became a project site for “National Economic Development”. Following the new doctrine, the foreign capital in particular and the private sector in general should be the main driver of the economic growth. Accordingly, a new urban policy was established to encourage the foreign capital to invest in Jakarta and the private sector to be involved in developing of housing and industrial estates as well as in infrastructure sector 31 The Soeharto’s Era ofThe Growth and the Consuming City
Large scale industrial and housing estates are developed in the periphery of Jakarta (the new town BSD in the west, Lippo Cikarang Industrial Estates in the east) 32 The New Central Business District In the center of the city
The Growth and Consuming City Office Stripe at Sudirman Boulevard 33
The urban tranformation is include also planned or unplanned changes studikasus : Pondok Indah sebagai new town yang menjadi generator perubahanwilayahselatan Jakarta 35
Kebutuhan life style yang berbeda (tropical luxury villas) menyebabkanhargatanahdiSeminyaknaikdengantajamdansekarangmerupakan yang termahaldi Bali 38
The rapid expansion of the commercial area has created a reduction of housing area in the inner city on one side, and a boom of large scale new towns in the sub-urban area on the other side. 39
In Indonesia, the emerging role of the private sector(included the Privatization) doesn’t automatically followed by demontage of social role of the state because the state never had that kind of role (the welfare state was never exist) Kampoengs has played an important role as provider of affordable shelter for the new coming migrants The growth city expanded following the masterplan 1965-1985, 40 The Growth and the Consuming City
Kampung Bali: Rental Room 41
2 to 3 storey Building for Rental Room and Shops at KampungKebonSirih Rental Dormitory in the kampong area is the only alternative for the majority of the migrants to find affordable shelter. 43
Semi-private and semi-public space within the kampong By creating social space manifested in various levels of semi-private and semi-public space, the multi-ethnic and multi-religious inhabitants of the kampongs demonstrate their ability to develop a living environment based on human co-existence. 44
The growth of urban economy had continuously caused increasing price of land in the city: kampongs which are strategically located become the prime object of land speculation. Land Speculation at Setiabudi 45
The Future of Urban Kampong Kampong as provider affordable Shelter should be protected Kampong as Carrier of the Tradition of integrated Working and Living Environment needs a legal status as a special form of spatial typology. Kampong should be promoted as laboratorium of a place of human-coexistence. Semi-private and semi-public space 46
Jakarta GDP went down to minus 14%Hundreds of thousand factory workers and white collar employees lost their jobs.Beside a number of national companies, a long list of valuable properties like officebuildings, hotels, commercial- or apartment buildings fell to the control of foreign investors. 47 The Asian Crisis 1998
The Era of Growth and Consuming City Despite the Asian Crisis, between 1998 to 2006, the floor area of shopping centers in Jakarta grew from around 1.5 million to 2006 4.5 million square meters. In the years after 2005, the boom of shopping center was followed by the rise of large scale apartment blocks and mixed-use superblocks. La Piazza Mall 48
49 The scale of the project becomes larger and takes a dimension of a mega project, with development area more than 10 hectares respectively to 1 million floor area and building intensity of 8:10. It is common if in these “cities within the city”, the total dwelling units are more than 5000 units and the density of the population is more than 3000 persons per hectare. The extreme living environment will gradually change the current urban life, with consequences we are still unpredictable.
The extremely high floor area ratio (between 7 to 8) in the mixed-use hyper-blocks requires a new organization of urban co-existence Hyper Development at Podomoro City 50
To anticipate the process of Urbanization and Globalzation we need: mobilizing all dynamic and innovative potentials existed in the local urban tradition (linkage to the hinterland, gender, traditional mixed spatial structure, cosmopolit-open caharacters, etc) Embedded the city back to the region (on different levels), local-economically to the hinterland and the direct attached region, culturally to much broader territory (Nusantara, South-east Asia). 51 Urban Development Strategies
52 The Special Market Today, normally in Javanese City, there are different kinds of markets. This tradition is still actual until the present day. Beside a central market, there are a number of ‘special markets’.
Traditional Market at Petak Sembilan The Wet Market Wet marketsselling fresh products such as vegetables, fruits, meat, spices, rice, etc., their existence are important for the local economy in particular for the linkage to the hinterland. In many cases the wet market are penetrate from cheap imported fruits and industrialized products so they are losing their role as the linkage to the hinterland 53
54 There are also various special markets such as flower market, bird market, decorative fish market, etc. The various kind of markets are essential not only for the small-scale urban economy, but also has an important function for the relation of the city to the hinterland. Various Special Market of Jakarta
55 The “night market”, a special form of “food bazaar” opens in the evening hours. It create jobs for unskill migrant, create urbanity, tourist attraction.
How to reconstruct Jakarta as a human settlement? Thamrin Boulevard during Car Free Day 56