Apres Les Efforts de Reforme de l'Immigration Americain, Ou Sommes-Nous? Presentation at EACC Paris France Janvier 2014
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Apres Les Efforts de Reforme de l'Immigration Americain, Ou Sommes-Nous? Presentation at EACC Paris France Janvier 2014



What are the realities of immigration enforcement in the United States and its impact on French companies transferring key personnel?

What are the realities of immigration enforcement in the United States and its impact on French companies transferring key personnel?



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Apres Les Efforts de Reforme de l'Immigration Americain, Ou Sommes-Nous? Presentation at EACC Paris France Janvier 2014 Apres Les Efforts de Reforme de l'Immigration Americain, Ou Sommes-Nous? Presentation at EACC Paris France Janvier 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • 1 APRES LES EFFORTS DE VOTER UNE REFORME DE L’IMMIGRATION AMERICAINE EN 2013 Eliot Norman Williams Mullen Washington, D.C. enorman@williamsmullen.com European American Chamber of Commerce 14Janvier 2014 OU SOMMES -NOUS?
  • • D'où venons-nous ? Que sommes-nous ? Où allons-nous ? 2
  • L’agenda • la politique, • Les principes et les choix de visas, • La pratique – Les pieges a eviter – Les avantages de certaines procedures • Vos cas pratiques et problematiques • quelques guides et exemples de ma pratique 3
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  • Employer Compliance : Worksite Inspections 6
  • Obama: The troubles I have seen (as of June 2013) 7
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  • Et le NSA….. 9
  • Border Security: became the key issue • The bill’s largest, and perhaps most critical, change came in a package that promised to substantially bolster security along the nation’s southern border. The proposal, by Senators Bob Corker of Tennessee and John Hoeven of North Dakota, both Republicans, would devote about $40 billion over the next decade to border enforcement measures, including adding 20,000 Border Patrol agents and 700 miles of fencing along the southern border. • The amendment, which passed with broad bipartisan support, helped bring along more than a dozen reluctant Republicans on S. 744
  • So where were we at the end of June 2013? • Gang of Eight Working away From April to June • Absent from Scene: President Obama • Judiciary Committee vote 15-5 • Vote against Filibuster 82-17 • 300 Amendments: nearly all defeated • CBO report: Deficit reduction $300 billion • Final Vote June 27 . Comprehensive Legislation was becoming a reality?
  • Victory? 68-32 in the Senate • WASHINGTON — Here’s how the Press Reported it: “The Senate on Thursday (June 27) approved the most significant overhaul of the nation’s immigration laws in a generation with broad support generated by a sense among leading Republicans that the party needed to join with Democrats to remove a wedge between Republicans and Hispanic voters.” THE FINAL VOTE: 68% du Senat!!
  • What did the Senate Actually Approve? • Like ObamaCare, got to ask: what’s in this Blue Box?
  • 2 Bargains Le Grand •Path to citizenship for 11 million illegal immigrants •Seal the Border: •Worksite Enforcement inside the USA Le Petit (qui n’entre pas trop dans le grand débat) •acceleration and expansion of all sorts of business visas: goal of helping U.S. businesses recruit & retain global talent. Une sorte de “visa express” like Federal Express Both if adopted could have profound impacts on use of human capital for French companies in North American market. 15
  • Un cas pratique—secteur aerospatial 16
  • South Carolina 17
  • • Mobile, AL (Airbus) • Savannah, GA (Gulfstream-General Dynamics) • Charleston, SC (Boeing) • Greensboro, NC (Hondajet) • Durham, NC (GE Aviation) • Richmond/Petersburg, VA (Rolls-Royce) • Melbourne, Fla (Embraer 18 The New Southeast U.S. Aerospace Cluster Eliot Norman enorman@williamsmullen.com Bill Benos bbenos@williamsmullen.com
  • The Big 3 • Rolls Royce • Boeing • Airbus 19
  • Efforts To Complete the Reform • 2 gros problèmes: qui ont complique la situation enter juin 2013 et janvier 2014 20
  • Obama: The troubles I have seen ------got worse 21
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  • Mais en janvier 2014, la reforme a toujours un futur. • A Republican initiative now • Think smaller, think progressive • Business lobby will lead • Is immigration going to change, stay the same? 26
  • Ca change, Ca changera pas? 27
  • 28 II Les procedures et le regime actuel L’Impact sur les compagnies francaises?
  • 29 Attention! Homeland Security remains in charge of immigration to the USA
  • Why Does it matter : Procedural Impacts • what does it have with French companies chasing business in the USA? • Procedural Changes impact moving personnel generally, slowdown like with 9/11 • Reform means l’incertitude et les delais • Already seeing it happening with sequestration and Ports of entry • CBP attitudes. 30
  • ICE, CBP and Homeland Security • à la douane • WSJ article: les délais • attitude de CBP • ESTA roll out • New I-94 procedures 31
  • IMPACT OF HOMELAND SECURITY • Multiple Government Agencies • ICE • CBP • Dept. of Labor ($$ and wages) • New Visa Controls at the Embassies • New Airport and Border Controls • Montoring Exits and Entries electronically • USCIS (inadequate funding)
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  • WHAT’s NEW? 38
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  • 40 UNE BONNE UTILISATION ? • La “prosecution” d’INFOSYS et ses implications: abus de B-1=$32 million en amendes • Attention aux visiteurs d’affaires commerciales, • L’abus de la procédure: – Les complications et la perte des privilèges de “Visa Waiver” – La barrière de 3 ans et 10 ans
  • Impact sur les francais? • mes cas pratiques: D.P. M. L. • % fraud? • worksite enforcement & compliance • la capacite d’observer des tendances de faire des visites « trop habituelles » 41
  • USCIS: Service a la clientèle? • explain split of functions between U.S. Dept. of State and USCIS • Lack of resources? 42
  • Kafkaesque • le contenu des requetes de preuves supplementaires • ou le jeu des RFEs. 43
  • Ou est la queue? 44
  • Le contraste: Embassy of the United States of America Visa Branch 2, Avenue Gabriel 75008 Paris, France VIA E-MAIL TRANSMISSION Date: 12-Jun-13 Mr. Eliot Norman Attorney at Law William Mullen (Richmond) 200 South 10th Street, Suite 1600 Richmond VA 23219 Reference number: 2013163 843 1 Treaty Investor/Treaty Trader Treaty Investor/Treaty Trader Dear Mr. Norman: As you are aware, as part of the visa application process, an interview at the embassy is required for visa applicants from age 14 through 79. As a consequence, Mr. and his spouse have been scheduled to come for an interview on 15-Jul-2013 at 01:30 PM. They will meet our Treaty Visa Officer. n a few days, using the above-noted reference number you may view the status of this application on our website at http://france.usembassy.gov Pending visas “Treaty Trader Investor visas.” Should you have any questions about this application or need to reschedule the appointment, please do not hesitate to contact us by e-mail directly to parisev@state.gov to ensure rapid processing. Sincerely, E Visa Unit Non Immigrant Visa Branch American Embassy Paris 45
  • 46 Worksite Enforcement à l’Américaine
  • Worksite Enforcement • example of French company in NJ • photo of boxes • more of this, like in UK. • Audits, particularly H-1Bs • fines, criminal enforcement • Problèmes avec 1099s, sous-traitants, IRS et ICE 47
  • 48 III L’Impact sur les compagnies francaises? Le regime actuel ou le futur regime
  • 2/5/2014 49 This is where is all starts Quelle situation? Quel visa?
  • 50 GREEN CARDS LA PYRAMIDE DES VISAS AMÉRICAINS L-1A/L-1B, E1/E2 Investors/ Treaty Traders TN, H-1B/O-1 B-1/ F-1/J-1/H-3, H-2B 90 Day ESTA Visa Waivers B-1 Business Visitors (B/2) (tourists) EB-1 Multinational Managers/Executives & EB-1 Extraordinary Ability and Outstanding Researchers; EB2/3 PERM Labor Certifications for professionals, skilled workers leading to Green Cards; EB2 Green Cards for National Interest Waivers, FAMILY SPONSORSHIP (marriage to U.S. Citizen or, Green Card Holder; Diversity Lottery. EB-5: $500,000 Investors EXECUTIVES, MANAGERS, Specialists and Essential- Skills Employees for U.S. Offices of International Companies PROFESSIONALS; Extraordinary Ability Scholars & Scientists TRAINEES & FOREIGN STUDENTS Research Scholars & Specialists; Temporary workers , VIE , Interns. BUSINESS VISITORS: Negotiate Contracts, Consult; Trainees, Install Equipment if Purchased Overseas; Visa Waiver B-1 au lieu de H-1B: 6 month project requiring professional services. 6693462
  • Un Sommaire • Le Régime Actuel • B-1 • ESTA Visa Waiver • E-2/E-1 • H-1B • L-1A ou L-1B • TN • Green Cards – EB1 – EB2 and EB3 – EB 5 • La Réforme ? • B-1 • ESTA Visa Waiver • E-2/E-1 • H-1B • L-1A ou L-1B • TN • Green Cards – EB1 – EB2 and EB3 – EB5 51
  • 52 Un cas pratique
  • 2/5/2014 53 Le regime actuel: Use of L-1Bs, L-1As, H-1Bs and E-2 for Intra-Company Transfers X&Z Aerosupply , Inc. Mobile, Alabama USA (Charleston, South Carolina X&Z Aerosupply SA Toulouse , France Managers, Executives Software Developers Electrical Engineers Project Managers and Specialists Composites Engineers X&Z Aerosupply, Ltd. Bucharest, Romania
  • Strategies • E-2 et Treaty NAFTA (L’ALENA), Free Trade Agreements • Supériorité des traités • Pensez à l’Amérique du Nord • Leçons a tirer: 54
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  • 2/5/2014 56 Case Illustration: Preferred Strategy NAFTA TN ou E-2, B-1? X&Z Aerosupply , Inc. Charleton, S.Carolina X&Z Aerosupply SA Toulouse , France Managers, Executives Software Developers Electrical Engineers Project Managers and Specialists Manufacturing Managers & Engineers X&Z Composites Manufacturing Monterey, Mexico X&Z Services d’Ingénierie, SA Montréal, Québec Engineers AVOID USCIS USE THE EMBASSIES, TREATIES + BLANKEt L-1s
  • 57 E-1/E-2 Treaty Trader/Trader Investor Visas E-2 Visas Acceleres: = le meilleur choix, $2000 moins en frais que les Blanket L-1s, Plus de flexibilite dans le choix de candidats, Mon article: « S’implanter aux Etats-Unis » critères, • procédures, • cas pratiques et exemples
  • 58 NAFTA (l’ALENA) TN le Canada, Le Mexique • avantages, •critères, • procédures, • cas pratiques et exemples
  • • TNs for Canadians: Works if Well Documented – Advantages: Visa Issuance at the Border – Use of self-employed consultants – Management consultants – Scientific/engineering technologists – Systems analysts with 2-year degrees • Mexican TNs: – requires visa and application at U.S. Consulate – Same or similar criteria Canada (Le Québec) Mexico
  • 60 Visas: Practical Solutions for Business Visitors: when to use the B-1 • Reforms in use of « Shengen » type visas – Can work under B-1 in support of international supply agreement – ****B-1 in lieu of H-1B (ex. design engineers)**** • professionnel • projet de 6 mois ou moins • compensation: de France ou d’outre-mer
  • Les Avantages d’un Multinational • l’emploi des traités • Chile, Australia and Singapore: Special H-1Bs or E-3s under Fast- Track FTAs (Free Trade Agreements) • Canada and Mexico (l’ALENA ou NAFTA) 61
  • 62 IV L’Impact sur les compagnies francaises? Problematique ou Amelioration? Les L-1Bs? L-1As? Les H-1Bs
  • L-1B et L-1As (Intra-Company Transfers) Le Régime Actuel (ask: ) •avantages, • critères, • procédures, • cas pratiques et exemples • Blanket Procedures • % of Requêtes (RFE ou Requests for Evidence) •Problèmes de définitions de « Specialized Knowledge » •Problèmes de travail au tiers • Managers : ?? • PROBLEMS FROM INDIA Sous La Réforme ?? ?? • Work at client sites to be prohibited? •Specialized knowledge standards will be impractical 63
  • 64 CAS SPECIAUX • New Office L-1, • L-1 Blanket Visas. • E-1/E-2 Visas Accelerés,
  • 65 H-1B Visas for Specialty Occupations: • avantages, • critères et le rðle du « DOL », • procédures, • cas pratiques et exemples. • Problemes de CAP ou Quota 85,000 – 2011 – 2012 – 2013 – 2014
  • 66 H-1B Visas for Specialty Occupations: La Réforme? • Avantages : Quotas or Caps de 65,000 a 115,000; 20,000 a 25,000. 180,000 en total ? • Mais le nouveau rðle du « DOL » sous la reforme: exigera une augmentation des salaires (20%-30%) – Audits et enquêtes – Délai de 30 jours – Preuve du recrutement sans succès des candidats américains • Les épouses auront le droit à travailler Leçons à tirer : résultats mixtes à cause des compromis politiques.
  • 67 V L’Impact sur les compagnies françaises? Temporary Business Visas: What’s New under La Grande Réforme?
  • What May Happen? • Multinational Managers/Executives: – Can come for up to 180 days to oversee U.S. operations – Salary: from France or from U.S. entity • Z visa to benefit airlines, other transportation companies, ex. MRO facilities, repair or warranty work on foreign equipment for up to 180 days. – Parallels U.S. State Department Initiative: B-1 in lieu of H-1B: up to 180 days for profesionals working on short-term projects 68
  • 69 VI L’Impact sur les compagnies francaises? Business Green Cards
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  • 71 EB-1 Multinational Manager/Executive Green Cards • avantages, enormes pour les compagnies francaises, • avoid PERM, 3 steps, competitive recruitment, advertising, • Be careful to show managerial duties expecially with functional managers • See CHECKLIST • Document carefully corporate relationship
  • 72 Timing: All 3 steps: 3-6 years + for EB3 from India
  • Reform of Green Cards ? • Elimination of per country quotas • Elimination of counting family members towards green card quotas: big problem • Result: acceleration of Green Card issuance: – For EB3 , from 4 years to 1year – For EB2, from 2 years to 1 year • Leçons à Tirer: Des Nouvelle Strategies (mettre les cartes vertes en avance) 73
  • What might happen? Green Card Quotas and Priority System • Per country quotas abolished • 40% for Graduate Degrees, EB-2 or higher • 40% for EB3 (B.S. or B.A. degree or skilled workers) • 10% Enterepreneurs and investors • 10% special immigrants • Family members not counted in quotas 74
  • What else May happen: Green Cards • W Visas: Green Card Sponsorship of low and middle-skilled positions – example: assemblers, welders for our aerospace company – 56,000 per year. 75
  • What’s New: Investment Green Cards • EB-5 already source of $1.5-$3.0 Billion in in-bound capital • Use for financing by industrial projects and hotels • EB-5 $500,000 Investment Green Card made permanent – can be source of financing for U.S. projects – Investors sold minority interest, limited partnership units 76
  • 77 VII L’Impact sur les compagnies francaises? Visas Divers
  • 78 J-1 Interns and Practical Trainees (incluant VIE) •Les accords de stages, échanges de jeunes professionnels, • differences between INTERNS and TRAINEES under the J-1, •avantages, •critères, •procédures, •cas pratiques et exemples. •Le programme (sous Le Département d’Etat) exigerait la conformité a ses règles
  • FOREIGN STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS F-1s and J-1s• 700,000 F-1s • 170,000 J-1s graduate students • Shared Responsibility between ICE (SEVIS) and USCIS (Applications and Extensions) • The OPT to H-1B “timing game”
  • VIII Les Prochaines Etapes et les Stratégies 80
  • 81 Guiding Principles • L’importance de faire un bon choix de visa en faisant une évaluation approfondie des avantages/inconvenients de chacun ; et en adoptant une approche individualisée-- salarié, fonction et structure de l’organisation. • Evitez la répétition de la formule de l’année dernière!
  • Dernières Considérations 1. Flexibility 2. Big suprise: make early and effective use of Green Cards to bypass H-1B and L-1 headaches and complications 3. E-2 accelerated visa program (if your company meets criteria) : extra benefit of French ownership 4. Stay with Treaty or State Dept. Visas over Congressional Visas: TN, E-2, B-1, J-1 5. When use H-1B or L-1, carefully review candidate qualifications 6. Portability: employment agreements will be of added importance (confidentiality, non-compete) 7. More use possible of short term visas for productive work without establishing U.S. Offices : B-1 in lieu of H-1B 8. Collaboration? 9. le problème de l’abus 82
  • 83 **Collaboration** • Dans la préparation de la demande, il faut de la collaboration parmi: l’avocat et son cabinet, l’entreprise et le salarié • Information sur les opérations en FRANCE et les ETATS-UNIS, • Problèmes à éviter avant le dépôt du dossier, • Ouverture d’un bureau : cas spécifique, • Le rôle de votre entreprise et votre avocat • Les « DEADLINES ». • Le salarié et son « travel schedule »
  • 84 Il est plus facile à un chameau de passer par le chas d'une aiguille que pour certaine visiteurs de passer par la douane américaine.
  • 85 Nos Services Sous le Régime Actuel
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  • Sous le regime actuel ou la reforme (grande ou petite) : « plutôt du planning stratégique » 87
  • 88 Questions et Coordonnées Eliot Norman enorman@williamsmullen.com Williams Mullen 1666 K Street NW Suite 1200 Washington DC 20006 Direct Dial: 804.420.6482 www.williamsmullen.com