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Deciphering Images

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Deciphering Images… … in the French Revolution
    • 2. What process can be used?
    • 3. What process can be used? COMA
    • 4. What process can be used? COMA Content Origin Motive Audience
    • 5. Content… Content is all about the literal material inside the image… what does you ‘see’? • Who or what is in the image? • What is it / are they doing? • Who do you think it might represent? • What symbols do you see? • What events are being represented?
    • 6. Origin… Origin involves thinking about where the image came from – both when and whom • When was the image made? Any clues? • Any events you can reference? • Any places shown or implied in the image? • Any words? What are they? Language? • Who might have created the image? What individual or group? Why might this be?
    • 7. Motive… Motive is about identifying an image’s ideas and trying to evaluate its function • What point-of-view is being expressed? • What’s the tone: Serious? Critical? Satire? • What does the creator want the viewer to think and/or to feel? • How valid is this perspective, based on what you know?
    • 8. Audience… Audience is about trying to evaluate who the image was aimed at • Who might have been the target audience? • What is a member of this audience presumed to know before seeing the image • How successful was the image in conveying its ideas or assessments?
    • 9. Let’s follow this process through an image from THE FRENCH REVOLUTION…
    • 10. Success hinges on an understanding of events as they occurred in chronological order – and where the key ideas, leaders and movements are placed against the backdrop of these events. Critical Skills: o Comprehension o Evaluation o Synthesis - an understanding and appreciation of the interconnectedness of ideas, leaders, movements and events. You need to appreciate the graphic on a number of levels: its - o Literal statements – ie. what is stated. o Inferred statements – ie. what is implied. o Applied statements – ie. what are the general principles the artist/writer would support…
    • 11. Useful questions or starting points: •o Date (when?) •o Author / Artist (who?) •o Audience (where?) •o Purpose (why?) •o Captions / labels (what?) •o Icons / symbols (what?) •o Characters / monuments (what?) •o Tone (Biased, reasonable, emotional, propagandist?) •o Support (Is the source supported by other sources / representations?) •o What is being said? (inclusions) •o What isn’t being said? (exclusions) •o Value (Reliability, usefulness, relevance?)
    • 12. Content: • A peasant riding on the back of a member of the aristocracy who is being led by a member of the clergy. • the peasant’s actions are celebratory… a new found sense of liberty and of freedom! • The peasant is carrying of freshly killed rabbit indicating the dismantling of feudalism – the removal of dues payed to nobles in the form of money, food & labour. •The subjugated noble is a noble of the sword (noblesse de’epee) and the member of the clergy is from the establish Catholic church. •This is an optimistic representation that displays, through the inclusion of the revolutionary cockade, a unity of spirit despite the altered hierarchy of the three Estates.
    • 13. Origin: • both the text and the content suggest it is French in origin • obviously pro-revolution and anti- aristocracy and anti-church •the fact the peasant sit on the back of an aristocrat suggests it is post-August 4th 1789 Motive: • to celebrate the achievements of June- July 1789 •to ‘educate’ the illiterate peasantry that make up 85% of the French population • to gain support for the newly established National Assembly • to idealise the role of the peasantry to secure their compliance.
    • 14. Audience: • most definitely the peasantry – the poor rural population of France. • some familiarity with the basic symbols is assumed – nb. Its contrast with earlier representations of peasant subjugation. • definitely not the aristocracy for it is a message of ridicule! Strengths of representation ? Weakness of representation?
    • 15. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA for SAC 1 (and November Examination) 1. Understanding and appropriate use of historical terms, concepts, commentaries and interpretations. 2. Application of evidence to support arguments and conclusions. 3. Knowledge of the commencement, ongoing development (and /or consolidation of the revolution). (NB 2 timeframes) 4. Knowledge of key events, factors, individuals and/or groups influencing the revolution (and its consolidation). 5. Analysis of the revolutionary struggle (and the creation of a new society). 6. Evaluation of change in the revolution.
    • 16. COMA Content Origin Motive Audience
    • 17. NOW let’s work through an image and some typical SAC / exam questions…. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath 20th June 1789
    • 18. Questions (taken from 2005 Nov. VCAA Exam): a. Name two social groups depicted in this representation. (2 marks) b. What details in the representation show change from the traditional order? (2 marks) c. What revolutionary ideas are symbolised by the three figures embracing in the foreground and the figure seated at the table who is not joining in with the actions of the crowd? (2 marks) d. Using your own knowledge, explain the causes of the event of 20 June 1789. (6 marks) e. To what extent is this representation useful in understanding perceived inequalities that contributed to the revolution? (8 marks)
    • 19. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath, 20th June 1789 Question: a. Name two social groups depicted in the representation. (2 marks)
    • 20. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath, 20th June 1789 Question: a. Name two social groups depicted in the representation. (2 marks) Answer: a. I. The Third Estate – members of the bourgeoisie. Ii. The First Estate – members of the clergy.
    • 21. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath’, 20th June 1789 Question: b. What details in this representation show change from the traditional order ? (2 marks)
    • 22. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath’, 20th June 1789 Question: b. What details in this representation show change from the traditional order ? (2 marks) Answer: b. I. Bailly, rather than the King or nobility, is portrayed as the leading figure. ii. The beam of light - representative of the Enlightenment and progressive thought.
    • 23. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath’, 20 June 1789 Question: c. What revolutionary ideas are symbolised by the three figures embracing in the foreground and the figure seated at the table who is not joining in with the actions of the crowd? (2 marks)
    • 24. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath’, 20 June 1789 Question: c. What revolutionary ideas are symbolised by the three figures embracing in the foreground and the figure seated at the table who is not joining in with the actions of the crowd? (2 marks) Answer: c. I. The embrace of the three clergy of different orders symbolises freedom of religious expression. ii. The lone dissenter represents freedom of speech and opinion.
    • 25. French Revolution ‘the Tennis Court Oath’, June 1789 Question: d. Using your own knowledge, explain the causes of the event of 20 June 1789? (6 marks)
    • 26. French Revolution ‘the Tennis Court Oath’, June 1789 Question: d. Using your own knowledge, explain the causes of the event of 20 June 1789? (6 marks) Answer: d. The Tennis Court Oath came about because of the revolutionary idealism, in defiance of monarchical absolutism, of the time. The defiance of the Assembly of Notables forced King Louis XVI to call the Estates General on 5 May, 1789 and also inspired the Third Estate to take defiant action of their own. The Third Estate refused to concede voting by head, were locked our of their meeting hall, and thus met to take this Oath ‘never to disband’ until they had given France a Constitution. Revolutionary ideas such as those expressed by Abbe Sieyes in ‘What is the Third Estate?’ contributed to such revolutionary feeling.
    • 27. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath’, 20 June 1789 Question: e. To whatextent is this representation useful in understanding perceived inequalities that contributed to the revolution? (8 marks)
    • 28. French Revolution ‘The Tennis Court Oath’, 20 June 1789 Question: e. To what extent is this representation useful in understanding perceived inequalities that contributed to the revolution? (8 marks) Answer: e. Thisrepresentation depicts the Third Estate, and certain clergy, defying the inequalities that the Estate system imposed upon them thus sparking the bourgeois stage of the French Revolution. However, it does not define what these perceived inequalities actually were. The Estate system carried such inequalities as taxation exemptions for the privileged estates and inequality before the law. It was indeed Jacques Necker’s attempts to redress taxation inequality and thus resolve France’s fiscal crisis, that led to the defiance of first the Assembly of Notables and then the Third Estate. So although this representation depicts defiance of the injustice of the estate system – a key reason for revolution, it does not explain what the inequalities entailed.
    • 29. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA (for November Examination) 1. Understanding and appropriate use of historical terms, concepts, commentaries and interpretations. 2. Application of evidence to support arguments and conclusions. 3. Knowledge of the commencement, ongoing development and /or consolidation of the revolution. 4. Knowledge of key events, factors, individuals and/or groups influencing the revolution and its consolidation. 5. Analysis of the revolutionary struggle and the creation of a new society. 6. Evaluation of change in the revolution.